Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0102-797220200001&lang=en vol. 33 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Relation between perceived emotional intelligence and social factors in the educational context of Brazilian adolescents]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100201&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background: The study of emotional intelligence (EI), demographics, and family factors of adolescent high school students allows us to appraise adolescents' skills for their academic and vocational training. The objectives of the study focus on whether there is any relationship between context variables such as gender, age of parents, or work activity, and self-perception of emotional intelligence. Methodology: This study sampled 11.370 participants, aged between 12 and 17 years, in the 7th and 9th years of fundamental education, and the 3rd year of upper secondary education. Data from this study comes from students enrolled in the SESI schools of the City of Sao Paulo. To examine the data, we applied the TMMS-24 test to statistical analysis where gender relates to the three dimensions of perceived emotional intelligence (PEI): attention, clarity, and emotional repair. Results: The results obtained allow us to show how teenagers are perceived with respect to three dimensions: attention, clarity and emotional repair, and thereby extrapolating the need to continue the promotion of emotional education in schools. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the application of the Brazilian version of the TMMS-24 in training programs in PEI must consider a whole series of sociocultural aspects. These aspects should start with a series of initial measures that allow for the perceptions of participants to be observed, and to extend onward to influence the willingness of the beneficiaries to participate in this type of intervention. Provided the intervention is anchored in a solid theoretical base, and executed under a rigorous study, its efficacy can be verified. <![CDATA[Development and validation of a scale for measuring cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients in southern Chile]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100202&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Purpose: Negative cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients represent one of the barriers in the psychological help-seeking and treatment adherence. In Chile today, there is little research about specific beliefs towards this group, and therefore measuring them represents a challenge. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an instrument to measure cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients. Methods: A mixed method design conducted in four stages was implemented. First, 32 semi-structured interviews were carried out to identify beliefs about psychotherapy patients in southern Chile. Then, a scale of beliefs about psychotherapy patients (SBPP) was developed and piloted in an adult sample (n = 109). Subsequently, the factorial structure of the new scale was explored in patients of primary health centres in La Araucanía Region of Chile (n = 201). Finally, the validity of the construct was assessed in adults who were not undergoing psychotherapy (n = 361). Results: The results showed the existence of negative cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients which were included in the construction of the SBPP. The scale had a bifactorial structure (αtransitory situations = 0.81 and αstable characteristics = 0.79), consisting of 15 items with a Likert-type response format, and showed good indicators of validity and reliability on the samples in which were applied. Conclusions: The present study shows the importance of using mixed methods for the examination of socially shared beliefs by the cultural group under study, in order to construct instruments that are psychometrically robust and culturally pertinent. <![CDATA[Applying intervention mapping approach to a program for early intervention in first-episode mental crisis of a psychotic type]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100203&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The holotropic mind perspective, an integral part of the framework of transpersonal psychology, has been considered a revolutionary approach to a certain spectrum of experiences in Non-ordinary states of consciousness (NOSC) which conventional approaches tend to treat indiscriminately as pathological processes, because PHM recognizes in these experiences their healing and evolutionary potential. This article describes the needs assessment, implementation, and evaluation of an experiential and educational program on the holotropic mind perspective and its praxis, Holotropic Breathwork® (HB), with students and professionals from the Group for Early Intervention in First-Episode Mental Crisis of a Psychotic Type of the University of Brasilia. The intervention aimed to establish change goals and objectives that would promote the adoption of the holotropic mind perspective's elements, such as a framework to broaden and strengthen mental health programs that assist people experiencing NOSC. The stages developed, inspired by the Intervention Mapping protocol, included a needs assessment; elaboration of change objective matrices; selection and description of methods based on theory and their applications; conception, planning, and implementation of the intervention; and results evaluation. Participants reported that the intervention allowed the expansion of their theoretical-conceptual and technical frameworks, giving them a less pathologizing understanding of and approach to NOSC and allowing them to perceive and manage such states, not as indiscriminately pathological expressions, but as phenomena inherent to the human condition that can be accepted and cared for without the exclusionary and exhaustive bias of mental disorders. Limitations and practical implications are discussed. <![CDATA[Early detection of learning difficulties using the BADyG-E2r Battery during primary education]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100204&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive capacity of several of the most relevant cognitive skills in the academic field that were evaluated using Differential and General Skills Battery(BADyG-E2r). Particular attention was focused on the variables that need to be overcome regarding the curricular objectives related to pass/fail grading as evaluated by the teachers in the instrumental disciplines of Mathematics and Language. The psychometric battery was applied to the 3rd year students in primary education (a total of 512 students) at 4 public schools that were randomly selected in the province of Alicante (Spain). A follow-up of their academic evolution was under taken until the end of primary education. The obtained results show that high scores in Verbal Reasoning, Numerical Reasoning, and Verbal Syllogisms positively and significantly predict academic success at the end of primary education in the subjects of Language and Mathematics. <![CDATA[Gender, planning, and academic expectations in first-year higher education students: testing two alternative mediation models]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100205&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract We examined the relationships among gender, planning, and academic expectations through the testing of two alternative models with latent variables tested with LISREL 8.80: one model considered planning as a mediator of the relationship between gender and academic expectations, and the other model considered academic expectations as mediators of the relationship between gender and planning. Participants were 662 first-year higher-education students from two academic years, predominantly female (60%) and mainly with majors in the juridical-social field (66.2%). The Inventario sobre Estrategias Metacognitivas (IEM; Inventory of Metacognitive Strategies) and the Academic Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) were applied at the beginning of the first semester to assess planning and academic expectations, respectively. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the IEM’s structure after examining its psychometric properties with the sample from the first academic year (N = 338). The test of the alternative mediation models with the full sample indicates that the best model was that with planning as a mediator. In this model, gender directly predicted only two APQ academic expectations, but with the mediation of planning, gender predicted all seven academic expectations. Women showed higher levels of academic expectations and planning than did men. The results are discussed at both the theoretical and practical levels. <![CDATA[Development of a computerized adaptive test to assess entrepreneurial personality]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100206&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background/objective Entrepreneurial behavior is of great importance nowadays owing to its significance in the generation of economic, social, personal, and cultural wellbeing. This behavior is influenced by cognitive and personality characteristics, as well as by socioeconomic and contextual factors. Entrepreneurial personality is made up of a set of psychological traits including self-efficacy, autonomy, innovation, internal locus of control, achievement motivation, optimism, stress tolerance, and risk-taking. The aim of this research is the development of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to evaluate entrepreneurial personality.Method: A bank of 120 items was created evaluating various aspects of the entrepreneurial personality. The items were calibrated with the Samejima Graded Response Model using a sample of 1170 participants (Mage = 42.34; SDage = 12.96). Results The bank of items had an essentially unidimensional fit to the model. The CAT exhibited high accuracy for evaluating a wide range of θ scores, using a mean of 16 items with a very low standard error (M = 0.157). Relative validity evidence for the CAT was obtained with two additional tests of entrepreneurial personality (the Battery for the Assessment of the Enterprising Personality and the Measure of Enterpreneurial Tendencies and Abilities), with correlations of .908 and .657, respectively. Conclusions The CAT developed has appropriate psychometric properties for the evaluation of entrepreneurial people. <![CDATA[Multi-ethnic validation of 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in Chile]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100207&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background There has been scant research published regarding the assessment of depression in ethnic groups, and few studies have addressed the validation of scales for standardized assessment of depressive symptoms among indigenous minorities. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) for a multi-ethnic sample of older Chilean adults.Methods: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 800 older people, 71% of whom were self-declared indigenous (Aymara/Mapuche). Results The non-indigenous group had a higher total GDS-15 score and lower quality of life and wellbeing scores than the indigenous groups (p &lt; 0.001). The GDS-15 had a KR-20 coefficient of 0.90 for the non-indigenous group, 0.80 for Aymara, and 0.85 for Mapuche. The homogeneity index was 0.38 for non-indigenous, 0.24 for Aymara, and 0.29 for Mapuche.Discussion: The GDS-15 showed satisfactory psychometric characteristics for the samples studied. However, the better results observed for the non-indigenous group suggest that some characteristics and content of the rating scale are not fully appropriate for the indigenous older population. Conclusions There is a need to develop the transcultural validation of scales such as GDS-15, which are applied in a standardized manner in geriatric evaluations as part of primary healthcare. <![CDATA[Predictors of problematic smartphone use among university students]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100208&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Predictors of problematic smartphone use have been found mainly in studies on elementary and high school students. Few studies have focused on predictors related to social network and messaging apps or smartphone model. Thus, the objective of our study was to identify predictors of problematic smartphone use related to demographic characteristics, loneliness, social app use, and smartphone model among university students. This cross-sectional study involved 257 Brazilian university students who answered a smartphone addiction scale, a questionnaire about smartphone usage patterns, and the Brazilian version of the UCLA-R loneliness scale. Women, iPhone owners, and users of Instagram and Snapchat had significantly higher smartphone addiction scores. We found correlations between scores for the Brazilian version of smartphone addiction scale and the importance attributed to WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat, and the Brazilian version of the UCLA-R loneliness scale. Our hierarchical regression model predicted 32.2% of the scores of the Brazilian version of the smartphone addiction scale, with the greatest increase in predictive capability by the step that added smartphone social app importance, followed by the step that added loneliness. Adding the smartphone model produced the smallest increase in predictive capability. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. <![CDATA[Measuring adult romantic attachment: psychometric properties of the brief Spanish version of the experiences in close relationships]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100209&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The Experiences in Close Relationships (Brennan et al, Attachment theory and close relationships, 1998) questionnaire is one of the most widely used measures of adult romantic attachment. Despite the advantages of the ECR, the length of this measure may discourage its use in clinical and research contexts. Consequently, the goal of this study was to develop a brief Spanish version of the ECR questionnaire and to examine its psychometric properties when administered to six different Spanish-speaking samples from Chile. Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the twodimensional structure of the ECR and its invariance across gender. Results also supported the reliability and concurrent validity of our brief Spanish version of the ECR (i.e., Spanish ECR-12), by its association with measures of emotion regulation, dyadic empathy, psychological distress and well-being, and relationship satisfaction. The Spanish ECR-12 can be used by researchers and clinical professionals as an abridged measure of adult attachment. <![CDATA[Influence of age and schooling in written discourse of healthy adults]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100210&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract Background: Discourse production is a very complex cognitive task that requires the integration of several linguistic cognitive skills. Socio-demographic factors such as schooling can impact on cognitive tasks. This study investigated the impact of age and schooling in some macrolinguistic and microlinguistic aspects in the written discourse of healthy adults. Methods: Individuals with no previous history of language, hearing, neurological, or psychiatric disorders were asked to write a story based on a figure that showed a “bank robbery.” A total of 463 graphic narrative were analyzed. The schooling was stratified into the following three bands: 5 to 8 years, 9 to 11 years and 12 or more, and the age ranged from 19 to 75 years. Results: Individuals with high schooling (12 years or more) produced discourses with more information units, more coherent, and cohesive. The oldest group (60 to 75 years) needed more time to finish the written production. Conclusion: The schooling influences some micro and macrolinguistic aspects in the written discourse production. A higher educational level provided a greater number of words as well as a higher number of information units, and the discourses produced are more coherent and cohesive. The age influenced only the time of discourse production. <![CDATA[Burnout syndrome in university professors and academic staff members: psychometric properties of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory-Brazilian version]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0102-79722020000100211&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The aims of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory-Brazilian version (CBI-Br) in a sample of university professors and academic staff members of Brazilian public universities, to estimate the level of burnout syndrome (BS) among these workers, and to assess the associations of BS with demographic and occupational determinants of the syndrome. A total of 676 workers participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported a three-factor model with 18 items and an acceptable overall fit. Adequate convergent and discriminant validity of the CBI-Br's factors were observed, as well as adequate reliability of the instrument for the sample. In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the CBI-Br for the measurement of BS in Brazilian university professors and academic staff members. In addition, the CBI-Br may be an important tool for the diagnosis of psychosocial risks related to BS in the academic environment.