Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=0104-423020200013&lang=en vol. 66 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Novel treatment options for chronic kidney disease complications]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Chronic Kidney Disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY Chronic kidney disease is highly prevalent (10-13% of the population), irreversible, progressive, and associated with higher cardiovascular risk. Patients with this pathology remain asymptomatic most of the time, presenting the complications typical of renal dysfunction only in more advanced stages. Its treatment can be conservative (patients without indication for dialysis, usually those with glomerular filtration rate above 15 ml/minute) or replacement therapy (hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation). The objectives of the conservative treatment for chronic kidney disease are to slow down the progression of kidney dysfunction, treat complications (anemia, bone diseases, cardiovascular diseases), vaccination for hepatitis B, and preparation for kidney replacement therapy. <![CDATA[Fabry disease: genetics, pathology, and treatment]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY Fabry disease (FD) is a recessive monogenic inheritance disease linked to chromosome X, secondary to mutations in the GLA gene. Its prevalence is estimated between 1:8,454 and 1:117,000 among males and is probably underdiagnosed. Mutations in the GLA gene lead to the progressive accumulation of globotriaosylceramide (Gb3). Gb3 accumulates in lysosomes of different types of cells of the heart, kidneys, skin, eyes, central nervous system, and gastrointestinal system, and may lead to different clinical scenarios. The onset of symptoms occurs during childhood, with acroparesthesia, heat intolerance, and gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and neuropathic pain. Subsequently, symptoms related to progressive impairment appear, such as angiokeratomas, cornea verticillata, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial fibrosis, proteinuria, and renal insufficiency. The latter being the main cause of death in FD. The gold standard for diagnosis is the genetic analysis in search of mutation, in addition to family history. In homozygous patients, the enzyme activity can also be used. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient and their family should receive genetic counseling. The treatment, in turn, currently focuses mainly on replacing the enzyme that is absent or deficient by means of enzyme replacement therapy, with the purpose of avoiding or removing deposits of Gb3. Chaperones can also be used for the treatment of some cases. It is considered that the specific treatment should be initiated as soon as a diagnosis is obtained, which can change the prognosis of the disease. <![CDATA[SGLT-2 inhibitors in diabetes: a focus on renoprotection]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300017&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY Type 2 diabetes mellitus is an important public health problem, with a significant impact on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and an important risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Various hypoglycemic therapies have proved to be beneficial to clinical outcomes, while others have failed to provide an improvement in cardiovascular and renal failure, only reducing blood glucose levels. Recently, sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, represented by the empagliflozin, dapagliflozin, and canagliflozin, have been showing satisfactory and strong results in several clinical trials, especially regarding the reduction of cardiovascular mortality, reduction of hospitalization due to heart failure, reduction of albuminuria, and long-term maintenance of the glomerular filtration rate. The benefit from SGLT2 inhibitors stems from its main mechanism of action, which occurs in the proximal tubule of the nephron, causing glycosuria, and a consequent increase in natriuresis. This leads to increased sodium intake by the juxtaglomerular apparatus, activating the tubule glomerular-feedback and, finally, reducing intraglomerular hypertension, a frequent physiopathological condition in kidney disease caused by diabetes. In addition, this class of medication presents an appropriate safety profile, and its most frequently reported complication is an increase in the incidence of genital infections. Thus, these hypoglycemic agents gained space in practical recommendations for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and should be part of the initial therapeutic approach to provide, in addition to glycemic control, cardiovascular outcomes, and the renoprotection in the long term. <![CDATA[Acute kidney injury in cancer patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY The increasing prevalence of neoplasias is associated with new clinical challenges, one of which is acute kidney injury (AKI). In addition to possibly constituting a clinical emergency, kidney failure significantly interferes with the choice and continuation of antineoplastic therapy, with prognostic implications in cancer patients. Some types of neoplasia are more susceptible to AKI, such as multiple myeloma and renal carcinoma. In cancer patients, AKI can be divided into pre-renal, renal (intrinsic), and post-renal. Conventional platinum-based chemotherapy and new targeted therapy agents against cancer are examples of drugs that cause an intrinsic renal lesion in this group of patients. This topic is of great importance to the daily practice of nephrologists and even constitutes a subspecialty in the field, the onco-nephrology.<hr/>RESUMO A crescente prevalência de neoplasias se associa a novos desafios clínicos, sendo a lesão renal aguda (LRA) um deles. Além de ser possível emergência clínica, a insuficiência renal interfere significativamente na escolha e continuação da terapia antineoplásica, tendo implicações prognósticas no paciente com câncer. Alguns tipos de neoplasias são mais suscetíveis a LRA, como o mieloma múltiplo e o carcinoma renal. Nos pacientes oncológicos, a LRA pode ser dividida em pré-renal, renal (intrínseca) e pós-renal. A quimioterapia convencional com platinas e os novos agentes de terapia-alvo contra o câncer são exemplos de drogas que causam lesão renal intrínseca nesse grupo de pacientes. Este tema é de grande importância atual para a prática diária do nefrologista, tornando-se inclusive subespecialidade na área, a onconefrologia. <![CDATA[Hyperkalemia in chronic kidney disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300031&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY Hyperkalemia is a frequent finding in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This increase in serum potassium levels is associated with decreased renal ion excretion, as well as the use of medications to reduce the progression of CKD or to control associated diseases such as diabetes mellitus and heart failure. Hyperkalemia increases the risk of cardiac arrhythmia episodes and sudden death. Thus, the control of potassium elevation is essential for reducing the mortality rate in this population. Initially, the management of hyperkalemia includes orientation of low potassium diets and monitoring of patients' adherence to this procedure. It is also important to know the medications in use and the presence of comorbidities to guide dose reduction or even temporary withdrawal of any of the potassium retention-related drugs. And finally, the use of potassium binders is indicated in both acute episodes and chronic hyperkalemia.<hr/>RESUMO A hiperpotassemia é um achado frequente em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Esta elevação do nível sérico de potássio está associada à diminuição da excreção renal do íon, assim como ao uso de medicações para retardar a progressão da DRC ou para controlar doenças associadas, como diabetes mellitus e insuficiência cardíaca. A hiperpotassemia aumenta o risco de episódios de arritmia cardíaca e morte súbita. Assim, o controle da elevação de potássio é essencial para a diminuição da taxa de mortalidade nessa população. O manejo da hiperpotassemia inclui, inicialmente, orientação de dietas com baixo teor de potássio e acompanhamento da aderência dos pacientes a esse procedimento. Também é importante conhecer as medicações em uso e a presença de comorbidades, a fim de orientar a redução de doses ou até mesmo a suspensão temporária de alguma das drogas relacionadas à retenção de potássio. E, finalmente, o uso de quelantes de potássio é indicado tanto em episódios agudos como nos casos de hiperpotassemia crônica. <![CDATA[Peritoneal Dialysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300037&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a renal replacement therapy based on infusing a sterile solution into the peritoneal cavity through a catheter and provides for the removal of solutes and water using the peritoneal membrane as the exchange surface. This solution, which is in close contact with the capillaries in the peritoneum, allows diffusion solute transport and osmotic ultrafiltration water loss since it is hyperosmolar to plasma due to the addition of osmotic agents (most commonly glucose). Infusion and drainage of the solution into the peritoneal cavity can be performed in two ways: manually (continuous ambulatory PD), in which the patient usually goes through four solution changes throughout the day, or machine-assisted PD (automated PD), in which dialysis is performed with the aid of a cycling machine that allows changes to be made overnight while the patient is sleeping. Prescription and follow-up of PD involve characterizing the type of peritoneal transport and assessing the offered dialysis dose (solute clearance) as well as diagnosing and treating possible method-related complications (infectious and non-infectious).<hr/>RESUMO A diálise peritoneal (DP) é uma terapia renal substitutiva baseada na infusão de uma solução estéril na cavidade peritoneal através de um cateter, proporcionando a remoção de solutos e água usando a membrana peritoneal como superfície de troca. Essa solução, em contato com os capilares do peritônio, permite o transporte difuso de solutos e a perda de água por ultrafiltração osmótica, uma vez que é hiperosmolar ao plasma devido à adição de agentes osmóticos (normalmente, a glicose). A infusão e drenagem da solução dentro da cavidade peritoneal pode ser realizada de duas maneiras: manualmente (DP ambulatorial contínua), em que o paciente, geralmente, passa por quatro trocas de solução durante o dia, ou por DP mecânica (automatizada), em que a diálise é realizada com o auxílio de uma máquina de diálise que permite que as trocas sejam feitas durante a noite, enquanto o paciente está dormindo. A prescrição e o acompanhamento da DP envolvem a caracterização do tipo de transporte peritoneal e a avaliação da dose de diálise oferecida (depuração do soluto), bem como o diagnóstico e tratamento de possíveis complicações relacionadas ao método (infecciosas e não infecciosas). <![CDATA[Mesenchymal stem cell therapy in acute kidney injury (AKI): review and perspectives]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300045&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is highly prevalent today. It has a multifactorial aetiology and affects people of all ages, genders and ethnicities. Its treatment is essentially supportive of renal function substitution, so new treatment alternatives such as mesenchymal stem cell therapy (MSCs) should be investigated. METHODS: This review encompasses our understanding of the main mechanisms of action of MSCs in preclinical models of AKI by renal pedicle clamping ischemia-reperfusion, chemotherapy (cisplatin) and kidney transplantation in small and large animals, as well as outcomes in patients with AKI due to ischemia and kidney transplantation. RESULTS: Cellular therapy with MSCs has benefits in preclinical studies of AKI through various mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, oxidative anti-stress, antifibrotic, immunomodulatory and proangiogenic. In humans, MSC therapy is safe and effective. However, the challenges of MSC cell therapy include investigating protocols about the optimal dose of these cells, the route and frequency of appropriate administration, and the design of further biodistribution studies over a long follow-up period. In addition, a better understanding of molecular signalling and cellular interactions in the microenvironment of each organ and tissue is needed in order to define the best time to administer MSCs. Another challenge would be to mitigate the heterogeneity of the profile of cultured MSCs through preconditioning approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular therapy with MSCs is very promising and should be part of the treatment of AKI patients in combination with other approaches already available, helping to accelerate recovery and/or slow the progression to chronic kidney disease. Randomized, multicentre controlled studies are needed to develop robust protocols that validate population-based cell therapy with MSCs. <![CDATA[Anemia in chronic kidney disease]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300055&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY INTRODUCTION: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is highly prevalent today. It has a multifactorial aetiology and affects people of all ages, genders and ethnicities. Its treatment is essentially supportive of renal function substitution, so new treatment alternatives such as mesenchymal stem cell therapy (MSCs) should be investigated. METHODS: This review encompasses our understanding of the main mechanisms of action of MSCs in preclinical models of AKI by renal pedicle clamping ischemia-reperfusion, chemotherapy (cisplatin) and kidney transplantation in small and large animals, as well as outcomes in patients with AKI due to ischemia and kidney transplantation. RESULTS: Cellular therapy with MSCs has benefits in preclinical studies of AKI through various mechanisms, such as anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, oxidative anti-stress, antifibrotic, immunomodulatory and proangiogenic. In humans, MSC therapy is safe and effective. However, the challenges of MSC cell therapy include investigating protocols about the optimal dose of these cells, the route and frequency of appropriate administration, and the design of further biodistribution studies over a long follow-up period. In addition, a better understanding of molecular signalling and cellular interactions in the microenvironment of each organ and tissue is needed in order to define the best time to administer MSCs. Another challenge would be to mitigate the heterogeneity of the profile of cultured MSCs through preconditioning approaches. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular therapy with MSCs is very promising and should be part of the treatment of AKI patients in combination with other approaches already available, helping to accelerate recovery and/or slow the progression to chronic kidney disease. Randomized, multicentre controlled studies are needed to develop robust protocols that validate population-based cell therapy with MSCs. <![CDATA[Diet in Chronic Kidney Disease: an integrated approach to nutritional therapy]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300059&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY A healthy diet is an essential requirement to promote and preserve health, even in the presence of diseases, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this review, nutritional therapy for CKD will be addressed considering not only the main nutrients such as protein, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium, which require adjustments as a result of changes that accompany the reduction of renal functions, but also the benefits of adopting dietary patterns associated with better outcomes for both preventing and treating CKD. We will also emphasize that these aspects should also be combined with a process of giving new meaning to a healthy diet so that it can be promoted. Finally, we will present the perspective of an integrated approach to the individual with CKD, exploring the importance of considering biological, psychological, social, cultural, and economic aspects. This approach has the potential to contribute to better adherence to treatment, thus improving the patient's quality of life.<hr/>RESUMO Uma dieta saudável é essencial para promover e preservar a saúde, mesmo na presença de doenças como a Doença Renal Crônica (DRC). Nesta revisão, a terapia nutricional para pacientes de DRC será abordada levando em conta não só os principais nutrientes que precisam ser ajustados devido às alterações que acompanham a redução das funções renais, tais como proteínas, fósforo, potássio e sódio. Abordaremos também os benefícios da adoção de padrões alimentares associados a desfechos melhores tanto para a prevenção quanto para o tratamento da DRC. Também enfatizaremos que esses aspectos devem ser aliados a um processo de ressignificação do conceito de dieta saudável para que seja possível a sua promoção. Por último, apresentaremos a perspectiva de uma abordagem integrada para o indivíduo com DRC, explorando a importância de considerar aspectos biológicos, psicológicos, sociais, culturais e econômicos. Essa abordagem tem o potencial de contribuir para uma melhor adesão ao tratamento, melhorando assim a qualidade de vida do paciente. <![CDATA[Acute kidney injury]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300068&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY A healthy diet is an essential requirement to promote and preserve health, even in the presence of diseases, such as chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this review, nutritional therapy for CKD will be addressed considering not only the main nutrients such as protein, phosphorus, potassium, and sodium, which require adjustments as a result of changes that accompany the reduction of renal functions, but also the benefits of adopting dietary patterns associated with better outcomes for both preventing and treating CKD. We will also emphasize that these aspects should also be combined with a process of giving new meaning to a healthy diet so that it can be promoted. Finally, we will present the perspective of an integrated approach to the individual with CKD, exploring the importance of considering biological, psychological, social, cultural, and economic aspects. This approach has the potential to contribute to better adherence to treatment, thus improving the patient's quality of life.<hr/>RESUMO Uma dieta saudável é essencial para promover e preservar a saúde, mesmo na presença de doenças como a Doença Renal Crônica (DRC). Nesta revisão, a terapia nutricional para pacientes de DRC será abordada levando em conta não só os principais nutrientes que precisam ser ajustados devido às alterações que acompanham a redução das funções renais, tais como proteínas, fósforo, potássio e sódio. Abordaremos também os benefícios da adoção de padrões alimentares associados a desfechos melhores tanto para a prevenção quanto para o tratamento da DRC. Também enfatizaremos que esses aspectos devem ser aliados a um processo de ressignificação do conceito de dieta saudável para que seja possível a sua promoção. Por último, apresentaremos a perspectiva de uma abordagem integrada para o indivíduo com DRC, explorando a importância de considerar aspectos biológicos, psicológicos, sociais, culturais e econômicos. Essa abordagem tem o potencial de contribuir para uma melhor adesão ao tratamento, melhorando assim a qualidade de vida do paciente. <![CDATA[HIV-related nephropathy: new aspects of an old paradigm]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300075&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY The scenario of infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been undergoing changes in recent years, both in relation to the understanding of HIV infection and regarding the treatments available. As a result, the disease, which before was associated with high morbidity and mortality, is now seen as a chronic disease that can be controlled, regarding both transmission and symptoms. However, even when the virus replication is well controlled, the infected patient remains at high risk of developing renal involvement, either by acute kidney injury not associated with HIV, nephrotoxicity due to antiretroviral drugs, chronic diseases associated with increased survival, or glomerular disease associated to HIV. This review will cover the main aspects of kidney failure associated with HIV.<hr/>RESUMO O panorama da infecção pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) vem sofrendo alterações nos últimos anos, tanto em relação ao entendimento da infecção pelo HIV quanto aos tratamentos disponíveis. Como resultado, a doença, que antes estava associada a alta morbimortalidade, é agora considerada uma doença crônica que pode ser controlada, tanto em relação à transmissão quanto aos sintomas. No entanto, mesmo quando a replicação viral é bem controlada, o paciente infectado tem um alto risco de desenvolver complicações renais, seja através de lesão renal aguda não relacionada ao HIV, por nefrotoxicidade causada por drogas antirretrovirais, por doenças crônicas associadas com o aumento da sobrevida ou por doença glomerular associada ao HIV. Esta revisão abordará os principais aspectos da insuficiência renal associada ao HIV. <![CDATA[Drug-induced nephrotoxicity]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0104-42302020001300082&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en SUMMARY Acute kidney injury is a very common diagnosis, present in up to 60% of critical patients, and its third main cause is drug toxicity. Nephrotoxicity can be defined as any renal injury caused directly or indirectly by medications, with acute renal failure, tubulopathies, and glomerulopathies as common clinical presentations. Some examples of drugs commonly associated with the acute reduction of glomerular filtration rate are anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, such as vancomycin and aminoglycosides, and chemotherapeutic agents, such as cisplatin and methotrexate. Cases of tubulopathy are very common with amphotericin B, polymyxins, and tenofovir, and cases of glomerulopathies are common with VEGF inhibitors, bisphosphonates, and immunotherapy, and it is also common to have more than one clinical presentation related to a single agent. Early diagnosis is essential for the good evolution of the patient, with a reduction of renal exposure to the toxic agent, which requires knowing the risk factors and biomarkers. General measures such as correcting hydroelectrolytic disorders and hypovolemia, monitoring the serum level, avoiding combinations with the synergy of renal injury, and looking for similar options that are less toxic are the foundations for the treatment of complications that are still common and often preventable.<hr/>RESUMO A lesão renal aguda é um diagnóstico muito comum, presente em até 60% dos pacientes críticos, e sua terceira maior causa é a toxicidade de medicamentos. A nefrotoxicidade pode ser definida como qualquer lesão renal causada por medicamentos, direta ou indiretamente, tendo a insuficiência renal aguda, tubulopatias e glomerulopatias como apresentações clínicas comuns. Alguns exemplos de drogas comumente associadas à redução aguda da taxa de filtração glomerular são anti-inflamatórios, antibióticos, como a vancomicina e aminoglicosídeos, e agentes quimioterápicos, tais como cisplatina e metotrexato. Casos de tubulopatia são muito comuns com anfotericina B, polimixinas e tenofovir, já casos de glomerulopatias são comuns com inibidores de VEGF, bisfosfonatos e imunoterapia; também é comum ocorrer mais de uma apresentação clínica relacionada a um único agente. O diagnóstico precoce é essencial para a boa evolução do paciente, com a redução da exposição ao agente tóxico, o que requer conhecimento dos fatores de risco e biomarcadores. Medidas gerais, tais como a correção de distúrbios hidreletrolíticos e da hipovolemia, o monitoramento do nível sérico, evitar combinações com sinergia de lesão renal e procurar opções semelhantes e menos tóxicas são os alicerces do tratamento de complicações que são comuns e, muitas vezes, evitáveis.