Scielo RSS <![CDATA[CERNE]]> vol. 26 num. 1 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[EVALUATION OF POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) ADDITION EFFECT ON NANOFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE FILMS CHARACTERISTICS]]> ABSTRACT In this study, based on the mechanical shear treatment, the cellulosic pulp was fibrillated in nanofibrils dispersed in aqueous suspension. Nanofibrillated Cellulose (NFC) matrix - Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) nanocomposite films’ were prepared by casting from NFC/PVA suspension mixtures. The thermal and mechanical properties of the obtained films were evaluated. Low levels (2, 5 and 10 wt%) of PVA were used as an additive in a nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) matrix. The predominant use of NFC, with superior properties due to its purity, with an efficient and environmentally friendly method, has allowed the production of NFC-based biodegradable materials with enhanced properties for high-level applications. The addition of PVA to the NFC matrix produced positive results, as it causes little aesthetic interference, without changes in surface brightness. After the addition of PVA the films showed a great gain in mechanical strength, increasing by 24% in Young’s modulus with the addition of 10% PVA. Even after addition, the samples’ chemical composition remains unchanged and the mixture shows a decrease in the film surface hydrophilicity when compared to pure NFC. Composite material thermal analysis indicates that thermal degradation temperatures remain unchanged after the addition of PVA. Although PVA is not very temperature resistant, in the proportions used, NFC thermal resistance is preserved. <![CDATA[IS BIOTIC INTEGRITY OF URBAN FORESTS REMANTS RELATED WITH THEIR SIZE AND SHAPE?]]> ABSTRACT The Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF) is one of the biodiversity hotspots, but in the last decades, it has been fragmented due to agricultural and urban-industrial expansion, which has a strong impact on forest fragments. The goal of this study was to analyze the Biotic Integrity Index (BII) in fragments of BAF in two medium-sized cities in Southeastern Brazil and to analyze the relation between BII and landscape metrics (size and shape). The method (BII) has eleven indicators (litter, grass, dead trees, exotic species, vines, gaps, epiphytes, orchids, palms, later species in canopy and understory). The survey was carried out in nine forest fragments in Ribeirão Preto (SP) and 23 in Sorocaba (SP), with a size variation between 0.33 and 185 ha, all of them in urban influence. The relation between BII and landscape metrics were analyzed by the Pearson regression. BII value was registered from 28.7 to 40.0 to Ribeirão Preto and from 22.34 to 35.34 to Sorocaba. Pearson regression was strong between IBB and the size for both cities (p= 0.742 to Ribeirão Preto, and p= 0.679 to Sorocaba). Pearson regression between IBB and shape was medium to Ribeirão Preto (p= 0.47) and weak to Sorocaba (0.1838). The results showed that there is a strong relation between BII and size, and less correlation between BII and shape. However, only size is not able to explain all variation in integrity, suggesting that other factors such as disturbance history and conservation management should have greater influence than the fragment size. <![CDATA[ORGANIC RESIDUES IN THE COMPOSITION OF SUBSTRATES ENRICHED WITH BOKASHI BIOFERTILIZER FOR THE SUSTAINABLE PRODUCTION OF Copaifera langsdorffii SEEDLINGS]]> ABSTRACT One of the great challenges in the post-nursery phase is to plant seedlings in the field. It is, therefore, important to produce them to a high standard of quality aiming to achieve an economically feasible and environmentally sustainable process. For this purpose, the use of organic residues in the composition of substrates, associated with biotechnologies available on the market, is a feasible alternative, which, however, requires further research for process optimization. Thus, the objective was to evaluate the morphophysiological characteristics, nutrition and quality of Copaifera langsdorffii seedlings in substrates formulated with organic residues and Fertbokashi premium®. The treatments were distributed in a randomized block design, with four repetitions, in a 5 x 2 factorial scheme, with four substrates (carnauba residue, goat manure, unprocessed and carbonized rice husks) and one control (soil) with or without applying bokashi. A part of the results, the highest values observed in the morphophysiological and nutritional variables, were for plants grown in the substrate with carnauba residue, followed by goat manure, both in association with bokashi. Among the residues studied, carnauba residue had the highest N and P contents and the lowest C:N ratio, raising the quality variables. The use of bokashi associated with the residues promotes the best results for most of the morphophysiological and nutritional parameters of the Copaiba seedlings. The substrates formulated with carnauba residue and goat manure are the most appropriate for seedling production. The regional residues can be used as a substrate to produce Copaiba seedlings to a high standard of quality. <![CDATA[VITRO OF Melanoxylon brauna SCHOTT. MORPHOGENESIS: RESPONSIVENESS OF EXPLANTS TO PERMANENT AND TEMPORARY IMMERSION GROWTH REGULATORS]]> ABSTRACT Melanoxylon brauna is propagated by seeds, however, low yield, pest attack and short viability are problems in seedling production. In vitro cultivation is an alternative for large-scale seedling production, but studies with this species are scarce. The aim of the work was to analyze the in vitro morphogenesis of braúna. Explants after induction of growth regulators. Three experiments were performed: I. In vitro bud proliferation of juvenile explants at different BAP concentrations. Was analyzed the number and length of shoots (mm); bud explants-1 (%); calogenesis (%) and direct and indirect organogenesis budding-1 (%). II. In vitro rhizogenesis of shoots with different types and auxin concentrations. III. In vitro rhizogenesis of under temporary immersion of shoots at different IBA concentrations. It was analyzed in experiment I and II: calogenesis (%); rhizogenesis (%); number, length (mm) and root dry mass (mg) the shoots. The nodal segment with two axillary buds was the most responsive explant regardless of the use of BAP. The stem apex with the use of BAP (2.5-3.5 mg.L-1) was the most responsive in the proliferation of shoots. Tested concentrations of auxins IBA, NAA and 2,4-D were not sufficient for in vitro rhizogenesis. The average of the maximum technical efficiencies of the variables used to analyze rhizogenic process suggests the treatment of the shoots base by temporary immersion in the IBA at an approximate concentration of 2,500 mg.L-1 and planting on the vermiculite substrate. <![CDATA[DIAGNOSIS AND SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF SOIL FERTILITY AND CROP PRODUCTION IN A TEAK AREA IN EASTERN PARÁ STATE.]]> ABSTRACT This study aims to generate the diagnosis and spatial variability maps of soil fertility attributes, as well as teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) production through geostatistics. The study was conducted on a commercial farm in the municipality of Capitão Poço, state of Pará, Brazil. Soil and yield data were collected from 155 sampled georeferenced points and 143 were used in the study (after outlier removal). The collected soil samples were submitted to laboratory analysis to obtain the values of the following variables: pH, organic matter (OM), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K), available phosphorus (P), aluminum (Al), Base Sum (BS), cation exchange capacity at pH 7.0 (T), effective cation exchange capacity (t), base saturation (V%) and aluminum saturation (m %). Thereafter a diagnosis, linear correlation univariate and geostatistical analysis were applied in the resulting data. The univariate statistics showed that normal distribution is not required when evaluating spatial variability of chemical and production variables. Soil fertility diagnosis showed K, OM and P as the most limiting parameters in the commercial teak plot and the importance to fertilize forest areas. Positive correlation was found between P, OM, K with volume per tree. All soil fertility and teak volume variables showed spatial dependence, which enabled the production of spatial variability maps. The variability maps showed to be used complementary with univariate statistics to enable more precise interventions in a teak production area, as it showed the shortage of K in the area and the relation of P and volume per tree. <![CDATA[MULTILEVEL NONLINEAR MIXED-EFFECTS MODEL AND MACHINE LEARNING FOR PREDICTING THE VOLUME OF Eucalyptus SPP. TREES]]> ABSTRACT Volumetric equations is one of the main tools for quantifying forest stand production, and is the basis for sustainable management of forest plantations. This study aimed to assess the quality of the volumetric estimation of Eucalyptus spp. trees using a mixed-effects model, artificial neural network (ANN) and support-vector machine (SVM). The database was derived from a forest stand located in the municipalities of Bom Jardim de Minas, Lima Duarte and Arantina in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The volume of 818 trees was accurately estimated using Smalian’s Formula. The Schumacher and Hall model was fitted by fixed-effects regression and by including multilevel random effects. The mixed model was fitted by adopting 14 different structures for the variance and covariance matrix. The best structure was selected based on the Akaike Information Criterion, Maximum Likelihood Ratio Test and Vuong’s Closeness Test. The SVM and ANN training process considered diameter at breast height and total tree height to be the independent variables. The techniques performed satisfactorily in modeling, with homogeneous distributions and low dispersion of residuals. The quality analysis criteria indicated the superior performance of the mixed model with a Huynh-Feldt structure of the variance and covariance matrix, which showed a decrease in mean relative error from 13.52% to 2.80%, whereas machine learning techniques had error values of 6.77% (SVM) and 5.81% (ANN). This study confirms that although fixed-effects models are widely used in the Brazilian forest sector, there are more effective methods for modeling dendrometric variables. <![CDATA[A MULTIPLE CRITERIA ANALYSIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING SURFACE ROUGHNESS OF WOOD AND WOOD-BASED MATERIALS IN THE PLANING PROCESS]]> ABSTRACT This paper presents a study of the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP) for the prioritization of factors having important effects on the surface roughness of wood and wood-based materials in the planing process. Firstly, a three-level hierarchical model was devised. Secondly, the FAHP method was employed to determine the weights of the factors. Finally, the prioritization of the factors was carried out taking into account the weights. The results showed that the most significant factors are feed speed (0.300), tool geometry (0.222), and material defect (0.107). Consequently, this study provides a valuable guide to the wood industry to improve the surface quality of wood and wood-based products. <![CDATA[ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI ON THE INITIAL GROWTH AND NUTRITION OF Parkia Platycephala BENTH. UNDER WATER STRESS]]> ABSTRACT Parkia platycephala Benth. (Fava-de-bolota) found in areas of Cerrado-Caatinga transition, is a species with potential for feeding ruminants in arid regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) on the initial growth and nutrition of P. platycephala Benth. seedlings under water stress. The experimental design was a randomized block design in a 2 × 6 factorial scheme with five replications, consisting of two water regime conditions (with and without stress), four AMF strains (Gigaspora rosea, Gigaspora margarita, Acaulospora koskei, and Acaulospora morrowiae), one treatment with associated inoculum (Mix), and one control. At 120 days after sowing, the morphological variables height (H), stem diameter (SD), number of leaves (NL), root length (RL), total root volume (TRV), shoot dry mass (SDM), root dry mass (SDM) and total dry mass (TDM) were evaluated. Nutrient contents and mycorrhizal colonization rate were also evaluated. The variables NL, SDM and TDM presented significant interaction between inoculation with the fungi and the studied water conditions. For the contents of P, Mg and Mn there was also interaction, being the best results with the strains A. koskei, Mix, A. morrowiae and control, respectively, in the condition without water stress. Mycorrhizal fungi favored plant growth as well as the absorption of P, Mg, Mn and Zn. <![CDATA[THE LACK OF ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE VALUATION - A CRITICAL REVIEW OF FUNDÃO DISASTER]]> ABSTRACT Critical events such as the disruption of the Fundão tailings dam, considered the biggest technological disaster in Brazil and the biggest of its category in the world, test the responsiveness of organizations in charge of protecting the environment. In the process of assign liability for damage, lawsuits initially proposed were replaced by settlements negotiated between companies, state agencies and the Public Prosecution Service, which previously have stipulated amounts for mitigation actions and environmental compensation. The economic valuation of environmental damage, despite being a tool capable of assisting in the quantification of environmental compensation, has not yet been adequately used in the initiatives to hold the Fundão dam case accountable. Preliminary diagnoses of the disaster have not sufficiently detailed the estimated economic values for environmental and socioeconomic repair, nor have they distinguished between the repairable damage and the irreparable ones that must be compensated. Due to the lack of clear definition of who is responsible for the economic valuation of environmental damage, Brazilian environmental protection institutions have not developed standardized procedures for this purpose, except in an incipient, experimental or particular way for certain types of damage. The implementation of civil liability settlements based on inaccurate diagnoses and values can compromise their effectiveness and perpetuate, without compensation, the damage to Brazilian environmental heritage. <![CDATA[APPLICATIONS OF SAR DATA TO ESTIMATE FOREST BIOPHYSICAL VARIABLES IN BRAZIL]]> ABSTRACT The use of SAR images has been highlighted in scientific research focused on forest data collection worldwide. Thus, the present work aimed at gathering studies turned to the application of SAR images to obtain biophysical variables of forests in Brazil. Based on studies published in recognized databases, a growing amount of publications over time was observed with more focus on researches made mainly in Amazonian biome, followed by planted forests with eucalyptus destined to wood production. Most works were made based on airborne radar data, followed by ALOS/PALSAR and JERS-1 orbital data. It is remarkable the scientific knowledge produced using radar data from Brazilian forests, demonstrating that this technology is an other tool for studies and applications in Forestry Sciences that can assist in the country’s forestry management. Nevertheless, the need of studies on the several forest typologies across Brazil was evidenced, along with the lack of research related to radar use to estimate biophysical variables in caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes. <![CDATA[QUANTIFICATION OF CARBON IN FOREST NECROMASS: STATE OF THE ART]]> ABSTRACT Necromass play a significant ecological function, including the deposition of organic matter, which is essential for carbon cycling in forest ecosystems. Despite the devoted attention to the role of forest necromass into the global carbon cycle, international organizations such as IPCC and FAO have reported the lack of compatible data concerning the carbon stocks in forest necromass among different regions. This paper reviews the terminologies and sampling methods regarding the quantification of carbon stock in forest necromass. Volume, biomass and carbon content determination methods were examined into the literature and then notably in Brazil. We address the problems associated with sampling methods and spatial distribution in related studies. Conflict in nomenclatures, components and diameter threshold confound the comparison of regional results. Meanwhile, we present a standard terminology for similar studies. Coarse woody and non-woody (litter) necromass are frequently computed, although fine woody necromass stands ignored in most studies and reports. Finally, we provide recommendations on specific sampling and measurement methods, taking into account necromass size and spatial pattern for both necromass and litter. <![CDATA[PHYSICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF EUCALYPTUS WOOD CHARCOAL.]]> ABSTRACT The knowledge of the physical and thermal properties of eucalyptus charcoal is of fundamental importance in the design of equipment and development of cooling technologies. However, literature about physical properties for eucalyptus wood charcoal is largely unavailable, especially the thermal and aerodynamic properties, for the same material. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical properties of eucalyptus charcoal: apparent and bulk density, pressure drop, porosity, thermal conductivity and specific heat to support the design of production and cooling systems using heat exchangers. It was found that the pressure drop could be expressed according Forchheimer’s law and logarithmical empirical models, resulting in R2 above 0.95. The apparent and bulk densities were measured as 344.6 ± 17.6 and 155.3 ± 4.1 kg.m-3, respectively, and the charcoal porosity was 54.8 ± 2%. In the investigation of flow in porous charcoal media, the pressure gradient is proportional to the increase of the superficial airflow velocity and is dependent on the charcoal bed height for low airflows and lower bed heights. However, the gradient was independent of bed height on all tests with columns larger or equal to 0.80 m. The thermal conductivity and specific heat were 0.030 ± 0.0027 W m-1.K-1 and 1017 ± 74, respectively. <![CDATA[VARIATIONS OF ELEMENT CONCENTRATIONS IN ROOTS OF DIFFERENT TREE SPECIES]]> ABSTRACT Element concentrations of roots play an important role for plant growth and below ground biochemical cycles in forest ecosystems. It can show a change among species. This research aimed to determine changes in the nutrient content for different root diameters of trees in the Belgrad forest. Natural species of Sessile oak (Quercus petraea L.), Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), Austrian pine (Pinus nigra Arnold.), Turkish fir (Abies bornmuelleriana L.), and Oriental spruce (Picea orientalis L.) were studied. Root sampling was carried out by randomly collecting twenty soil samples within each species once every three months (from April 2007) over one year. Roots were classified by fine root (&lt; 2 mm), small root (2-5 mm) and coarse root (&gt;5mm) diameter classes. Total concentration of elements (K, Ca, P, Fe, Mg, Cu, Mn, Al, Ni, Zn, Na) in each root classes were determined. The macro elements Mg, K, and P and all microelements in the included species showed a tendency to decrease in concentration with increasing root diameters. Macro elements except K and P and microelements except Pb, Al, Zn, and Cu showed a significant temporal difference between species based on the root diameters. Al, Pb, Ni, Mn, and Fe showed different antagonistic relations with Ca, Mg, P, and K between species with regard to their concentration in fine roots. There was no significant negative correlation between small and coarse roots in species (except in oak species). The results have shown that nutrient storage characteristics differ between different species in the same site. <![CDATA[ASSESSMENT OF GIS-ASSISTED MOVEMENT PATCHES USING LCP FOR LOCAL SPECIES: NORTH CENTRAL ANATOLIA REGION, TURKEY]]> ABSTRACT As a result of the fragmentation and degradation of forests, the connectivity of natural habitats has been decreasing. Thus, problems in gene flow in wildlife have begun to arise. The connection of landscape patches with corridors is now an important subject of landscape planning. Central Anatolia has been affected by forest fragmentation due to its fragile ecologies. The purpose of this study was i) to identify the spatial location of landscape corridors in order to create ecological networks among the natural landscape reserves in the Northern Central Anatolia Region and ii) to develop a guideline that can be applied for landscape connectivity in fragmentation areas. Landscape resistances were determined according to the target species (Lynx lynx) and a resistance map was formed. Corridors were determined by using Least-cost path (LCP) approach with GIS. As a result, six corridors and major barriers were identified among the core areas and north forests. The methodology and results of this study has promising potential, which can be considered by experts, planners, and researchers in Turkey and others regions of the world as references for identifying and planning optimal patches for habitat sustainability. <![CDATA[STUDYING THE GRAMMAGE IN LVL PANELS GLUED WITH CASTOR OIL-BASED POLYURETHANE ADHESIVE: A POSSIBLE ALTERNATIVE TO FORMALDEHYDE RELEASING ADHESIVES.]]> ABSTRACT Efforts have been done in order to decrease the human dependence on petroleum materials. This idea can be applied for wood adhesives and wood products. This study proposes to evaluate laminated veneer lumber (LVL) panels of Hevea brasiliensis produced with castor oil-based polyurethane and resorcinol formaldehyde in different grammages. Six rubber tree (12 years old) with diameters at breast height (DBH) &gt; 25 cm were harvested to generate veneers (500 x 500 x 2 mm; length, width, and thickness, respectively) for the panels production. The veneers were pre classified by a non-destructive impulse excitation method (Sonelastic system). Seven veneers were arranged in the same grain direction to produce each LVL. The following grammages were used for each adhesive type: 240, 280 and 320 g.m-². The volumetric swelling of the panels, glue line strength under dry, wet and post-boiling conditions, and stiffness and strength in static bending tests in flatwise and edgewise positions were evaluated. The glue line was evaluated by optical microscopy. The panels with grammages of 240 g.m-² had the highest volumetric swelling for both adhesives. As the grammage increased from 240 to 280 g.m-², the panel volumetric swelling decreased 32.53% for the resorcinol formaldehyde adhesive and 21.42% for the castor oil-based polyurethane adhesive. The panels glued with the vegetal polyurethane adhesive presented the best results for shear strength in the glue line. No significant statistical differences were found between the compositions for static bending. The results indicate that rubber wood glued with vegetal polyurethane has the potential to be used for production of LVL panels and consequently replace the petroleum based adhesives. <![CDATA[NONLINEAR MIXED-EFFECT HEIGHT-DIAMETER MODEL FOR Pinus pinaster AIT. AND Pinus radiata D. DON]]> ABSTRACT Tree height-diameter (H-D) relationships are important for routine forest assessment. Several H-D relationships have been developed for different species and more are still evolving. This study introduces new H-D model developed for Pinus pinaster and Pinus radiata in Spain, based on data from 184 and 96 permanent sample plots, respectively, collected in the northwest region of the country. Nonlinear mixed-effect modelling technique was used to fit the generalized H-D model. The mixed-effect H-D model was calibrated using the random effects predicted from one to three randomly selected trees per sample plot. Different indices including root mean square error (RMSE) and adjusted coefficient of determination () were used to assess the predictive performance of the model. The results showed that the new model had and RMSE of 0.906 and 1.156 m and 0.814 and 1.703 m for P. pinaster and P. radiata, respectively. The calibration response involved the selection of one tree per sample plot and resulted in a reduction of RMSE by 6.5% and 13.5% for pinaster and P. radiata, respectively.