Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia]]> vol. 46 num. 12 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Digestibility, growth, blood chemistry, and enzyme activity of juvenile <em>Oreochromis niloticus</em> fed isocaloric diets containing animal and plant byproducts]]> ABSTRACT In this work, we studied the digestibility, growth, blood chemistry, and enzyme activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) juveniles (0.95±0.18 g) using different animal (fish silage meal, whey meal, bovine blood meal, and red crab meal) and plant (extruded bean, extruded chickpea meal, coconut paste, Jatropha curcas meal, and chickpea meal) dietary byproducts. Nine isocaloric diets (321.92±9.10 kcal g−1) were evaluated for 60 days. The highest digestibility of crude protein values for animal and plant sources were obtained for the whey (93.6) and extruded bean meal (90.5) diets, respectively. The final body weight was higher for the red crab and extruded chickpea meal diets, meanwhile the fish silage and red crab byproducts obtained the highest protein efficiency ratio. Hematocrit was similar among the diets of each byproduct source and presented correlation with growth parameters. The highest glucose, cholesterol, and triglyceride values were obtained for fish silage (138.0, 260.5, and 389.0 mg dL−1, respectively) and whey meal (174.5, 242.3, and 284.0 mg dL−1, respectively) groups. A positive correlation was found between the digestibility of crude protein of ingredients and chymotrypsin activity. Oreochromis niloticus is able to better utilize fish silage, whey, extruded bean, and extruded chickpea byproducts, adjusting its digestive physiology. Such ingredients can be used for formulating cheaper and efficient tilapia diets. <![CDATA[Effects of coffee husk as floor covering on the behavior of boars]]> ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the influence of coffee husks as floor covering on the aspects of animal welfare such as behavioral characteristics, body surface temperature, and salivary cortisol levels of stabled boars. Sixteen boars were housed in individual stalls; eight were maintained in a conventional system with a concrete floor and eight were maintained on a concrete floor lined with coffee husks. The experimental period was 60 days. All animals were filmed two days prior to the start of the experiment, on both the 7th and 60th days after exposure to coffee husks, and finally two days after the removal of the material. During this period, the number of times that the animals ate, drank, stood, sat, lay down, and dug was recorded. Furthermore, both body surface temperature and salivary cortisol levels were measured at the beginning and end of the experiment. The use of coffee husks did not influence body surface temperature. Salivary cortisol levels increased during the experimental period only in the animals maintained on coffee husks. In the morning, the coffee husks decreased the number of times that the animals sat and increased the number of times that they lay down. In the afternoon, the use of coffee husks decreased the number of times that the animals stood, sat, or dug and increased the number of times that the animals lay down. Although coffee husks do not change the behavior of the animals in an expressive way, they should not be used as floor covering for boars. <![CDATA[Productivity of orchard grass (<em>Dactylis glomerata L.</em>) alone and associated with perennial ryegrass (<em>Lolium perenne L.</em>) and white clover (<em>Trifolium repens L.</em>)]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the productive capacity of orchard grass alone and associated with perennial ryegrass and white clover sown at different proportions. Treatments consisted of the following associations and monoculture: 100-00-00, 70-20-10, 50-00-50, 40-40-20, 40-20-40, 20-70-10, 20-40-40, and 00-50-50% of orchard grass, perennial ryegrass, and white clover, respectively. The eight treatments were randomly distributed into 24 experimental plots of 9 × 8 m according to a completely randomized block design with three replicates. On average, the associations that had the highest herbage yield in two years were 40-20-40, 20-70-10, and 20-40-40 with 21038, 20709, and 20073 kg DM ha−1, respectively, and the lowest herbage yield was registered by monoculture with 12793 kg DM ha−1. The associations with higher herbage yield exceeded that of monoculture by about 61%. Independently of the association, in summer, the highest percentage was found to be orchard grass and in winter, it was white clover, while perennial ryegrass had the lowest percentage throughout the study. The associations of grasses and legumes have higher herbage yield when compared with the monoculture of orchard grass. The legume has a better behaviour when it is associated with perennial ryegrass and worse with orchard grass. <![CDATA[Water vapor conductance: a technique using eggshell fragments and relations with other parameters of eggshell]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate a technique for quantifying eggshell conductance using shell fragments from hatched eggs. Additional objectives were to calculate the correlation between eggshell conductance, porosity, and thickness and correlate these parameters with incubation data. The study design was fully randomized in a 3 × 3 factorial scheme (three egg regions - large end, equator, and narrow end - and three ages of broiler breeders – 29, 35, and 59 weeks). A total of 216 eggs were used, with 24 repetitions for each treatment. Neither conductance nor shell thickness showed any interaction with egg region. Breeder age influenced eggshell conductance, such that it was greatest in eggshells from 59-week breeders (0.323 mg day−1 torr−1), while for 29-week and 35-week breeders, the conductance values found were 0.285 and 0.270 mg day−1 torr−1, respectively. The eggshell thickness was similar in eggs from 29 and 35-week breeders and these were greater than the thickness of eggshells from 59-week breeders. Correlations between mean eggshell conductance and chick body weight and yolk free chick body weight were found significant. There were no correlations between mean eggshell thickness and any of the data evaluated. There were positive correlations between mean eggshell porosity and egg weight loss up to the time of transfer, chick weight, and yolk free body weight. The technique of using eggshell fragments can be used for measuring eggshell conductance. Eggshell porosity is the characteristic that best correlates with incubation parameters. <![CDATA[Estimation methods and correction factors for body weight in Mangalarga Marchador horses]]> ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate the accuracy of six body weight (BW) estimating methods in Mangalarga Marchador horses (MM) (n = 318): method A - tape placements at three different positions around the thoracic girth; B - Crevat and Quetelec's formula; C - Hall's formula; D - Hintz and Griffiths’ table; E - Santos’ table; and F - Cintra's formula. For additional analyses, gender, age, and gestational stage were considered. Estimated average BW was compared to the actual scale weight by the paired T test, mean predicted error, and determination coefficient. In the general population, methods A (position 3), B, and C estimated BW that were different from that of the scale. Method A, at positions 1 and 2, was more accurate in predicting the scale weight results compared with all other methods. For pregnant mares, the tape in positions 1 and 2 in method A did not differ from those of the scale. Method A in positions 1 and 2 and the table (method E) may be used to estimate the BW of males and females of different ages and/or gestational stages. To use Methods B and C, correction factors are necessary to precisely estimate the body weights in this breed. <![CDATA[Influence of lipid supplementation on milk components and fatty acid profile]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different lipid sources in diets for lactating cows on milk yield and composition, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content, and fatty acid profile in the milk fat. Five primiparous Holstein cows were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. Treatments were: control (no lipid addition) and four other diets containing different lipids sources - ground raw soybean, cottonseed, soybean oil, and calcium salts of soybean fatty acids (CSSFA). The greater milk yield (kg/day) and milk lactose (g/kg) and solids non-fat (g/kg) contents were obtained with the animals fed diets with CSSFA. Regarding the fatty acid profile in the milk fat, the diets with CSSFA and ground raw soybeans produced the greatest concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and C182. Supplementation with CSSFA provided a greater production (g/day) of CLA, resulting in almost twice the values shown by the other treatments. The use of different lipid sources does not affect the milk total solids (protein, fat, and lactose) and CSSFA has a positive influence on the fatty acid profile of the milk fat and amount of CLA produced. Additionally, milk yield is not affected by this supplement. <![CDATA[Demand for inputs in silkworm production: the case of Turkey]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to calculate the price, cross, and Morishima Technical Substitution elasticities for the costs of manpower, supply of mulberry leaves, transportation, heating, and material, all of which play pivotal roles for producers in sericulture. A survey was conducted by face-to-face interviews with 207 farmers within the scope of the study. At the analysis phase of the study, the share equity translog cost model was used. The response of the producers to the production input prices were calculated as inelastic. The strictest demand for an input belongs to mulberry leaves (-0.051) and the highest elasticity for transportation costs (-0.314). Sericulture dependents on workforce and mulberry leaves and this activity in Turkey is a labor-dense type of production. <![CDATA[Sugarcane yeast inclusion for broilers at post-hatch]]> ABSTRACT A total of 450 one-day-old male broiler chicks were used to evaluate the effect of the sugarcane yeast on performance, body composition, and development of the intestinal mucosa. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with five treatments and six replicates of 15 birds. Sugarcane yeast was included in the experimental diets at the levels of 0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5, and 50.0 g kg−1. Body weight, weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion were determined. At the end of the experiment, four broiler chicks were slaughtered per experimental unit: two were used for evaluation of moisture content, crude protein, fat, and body ash and the other two were used in the collection of small-intestine segments for evaluation of villus height and crypt depth. The increasing yeast levels resulted in a linear increase in feed intake and feed conversion. Inclusion of more than 14.4 g kg−1 yeast resulted in a reduction of body ash content. Villus height and crypt depth in the jejunum showed maximum values at the sugarcane yeast levels of 20.9 and 20.6 g kg−1, respectively. In the ileum, the crypt depth reduction at the level of 25.6 g kg−1 also resulted in an increase in villus:crypt ratio. Yeast inclusion increases feed intake and feed conversion, improves body mineral absorption, and increases villus height in the jejunum and the villus:crypt ratio in the ileum of broiler chicks. <![CDATA[The role of condensed tannins in ruminant animal production: advances, limitations and future directions]]> ABSTRACT Tannins represent one of the most abundant polyphenolic compounds in plants. Tannins exist as a multitude of chemically unique entities in nature. The most commonly occurring tannins are typically divided into two major classes based on chemical structure: hydrolysable (HT) or condensed tannins (CT). Hydrolysable tannins are esters of gallic or ellagic acid linked to a polyol core, typically glucose. Condensed tannins or proanthocyanidins consist of flavan-3-ol subunits linked together to form oligomers and polymers. Both HT and CT are defined as astringent, medium-to-high-molecular weight polyphenolic compounds that characteristically bind and precipitate soluble proteins. The objective of this paper was to present recent advances in CT-ruminant interactions, the limitations associated with understanding and using CT in ruminant animal production, and future needs for research to further advance our knowledge of the role of CT in optimization of ruminant animal production. Condensed tannins pose some anti-nutritional problems to ruminants due to their astringent property that reduces feed intake and, consequently, animal performance. Ruminants can, however, tolerate CT by slowly adapting the ruminal microbes to the toxic effects of CT and by releasing CT-binding salivary proteins. The protein-binding ability of CT has some benefits to the ruminant due to complexes formed with essential amino acids, preventing their degradation in the rumen, but releasing them in the lower gut for absorption by the animal. Recent data have suggested increased N retention when CT is given to growing animals. There are potential benefits of using CT and HT for anthelmintic purposes due to their ability to inhibit egg hatching and larval motility of gastrointestinal nematode parasites, especially in small ruminants. Condensed tannins also bind to minerals (Al, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, P, and Zn). Although studies with ruminants have been contradictory, it has been reported that because the CT-metal ion complex is stable over a wide pH range, CT may reduce the bioavailability of minerals. Methane mitigation by feeding CT might be the most impactful benefit for ruminant production. Many empirical equations have been developed to predict ruminal methane emissions, but very few have included CT. Future research should focus on the improvement of methodology to assess CT biological activity, interaction with other plant-specialized metabolites, and associated physiological and nutritional impacts on ruminants.