Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Brazilian Journal of Poultry Science]]> vol. 22 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[The Effects of Sodium Chloride versus Sodium Bicarbonate at the Same Dietary Sodium Concentration on Efficacy of Dietary Phytase and a Carbohydrase-Protease Cocktail in Broilers]]> ABSTRACT A trial was conducted to determine the effect of phytase (PHY) or a carbohydrase/protease cocktail (CPX) on broilers fed diets with two different levels of chloride (0.28% or 0.43%) created by altering dietary salt (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3). There were 6 combination dietary treatments (3 enzyme x 2 NaCl treatments) applied to 4 replicate pens. The treatments were as follows: Control diet (CON), CON+PHY and CON+CPX, with 0.5% or 0.25% NaCl. The 0.25% NaCl versions contained 0.35% sodium bicarbonate. The 0.5% salt versions had no sodium bicarbonate. Replicate pen BW, and feed consumption (FC) were measured at 1, 14, and 35 d, and mortality was weighed daily for feed conversion ratio (FCR) calculations. Feed consumption at 14 d tended to be lower (p&lt;0.10) for CON+CPX diets compared to CON and CON+PHY diets. The birds fed CON+CPX diet consumed less feed but exhibited improved FCR in the presence of 0.5% NaCl at 14 d. The birds fed the CON, and CON+PHY diets exhibited higher BW at 14 d (p&lt;0.05) and 35 d (p&lt;0.01) of age than did CON+CPX birds. From 15 d to 35 d, birds fed the CON+CPX diet exhibited poorer BW gain (BWG) in the presence of 0.25% NaCl (p&lt;0.05). In conclusion, Cl, as NaCl versus NaH2CO3, could affect CPX but not PHY feed enzyme function in broilers. Further, it may be suggested that certain feed enzymes may be best utilized at later broiler ages rather than in initial feeds. <![CDATA[Effects of Lactobacillus Reuteri E81 Added into Rations of Chukar Partridges (Alectoris Chukar) Fed Under Heat Stress Conditions on Fattening Performance and Meat Quality]]> ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of the addition of Lactobacillus reuteri E81 (LRE) into rations of chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) fed under heat stress (HS) conditions on fattening performance and meat quality. This study included 256 chukar partridges aged 1 day. The study comprised an adaptation period of 7 days and a fattening period of 35 days and included 8 different groups with 32 animals in each group. Each group was further divided into four subgroups with eight animals in each subgroup. At the end of the study, the best results in terms of fattening performance in the non-HS groups were obtained in the LRE 600 ppm group and in the HS groups, SLRE 200 ppm had the best effect on average live weight and average live weight increase, whereas SLRE 400 ppm had the best effect on FCR (p&lt;0.05). The analysis of the samples collected from chukar partridges on day 21 showed that, there was no effect on the colour parameters and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level in the LRE in the HS and non- HS groups, whereas the meat pH level decreased in the SLRE 400 ppm group (p&lt;0.05). The analysis of the samples collected on day 42 showed that there was no effect on colour parameters in the HS and non-HS groups. TBARS level decreased at the dose of LRE 200 ppm in the non-HS group, and the meat pH level decreased in both HS and non-HS groups (p&lt;0.05). <![CDATA[Interactions Between Non-Allelic Loci and Their Effects on Categorized Meat Performance Traits in Ducks]]> ABSTRACT Traits associated with meat performance are characterized by a complex inheritance model, including the effects of non-allelic interactions. The aim of this study was to estimate the significance of non-allelic interactions between pairs of loci in each of two alternative groups based on four important performance traits of ducks: body weight (BW), carcass yield calculated as the ratio of carcass weight to body weight (CY), breast and leg muscle yield as a fraction of carcass weight (BL-CW), and skin weight and abdominal fat, again as a fraction of carcass weight (SF-CW). The experimental material was based on an F2 cross between two parental lines: A-55 (Polish Peking) and GL-30 (French Peking). In total, 368 individuals were recorded. All of the birds (including parents and F1) were genotyped for 23 polymorphic microsatellite loci. Entropy was taken as a measure of interaction between pairs of loci, and the chi-square test was used to verify significance. In total, 253 pairs of loci were analyzed in both categories of each of the four traits. Statistically significant interactions were obtained for each trait. However, it was observed that some of the loci showed a greater tendency to have significant opposite interactions for alternative categories of the same trait. The results indicate the dependence of the recombination rate within pairs of loci on the level of each of the four traits. <![CDATA[Haematology, Carcass and Fatty Acid Composition of Finishing Broilers Fed Enzyme Supplemented Expeller Copra Meal in Corn-Animal Protein Diets]]> ABSTRACT This study analyzes the effect of different levels of expeller copra meal (ECM) in animal protein-based diets with enzyme on the haematology, carcass and fatty acid composition of broilers. One hundred and sixty 20 days old Cobb broilers were assigned 8 different diets, 2 of them being controls and 6 others containing ECM at 150, 300 and 450 g/kg, with or without enzymes. Four replicate cages of 5 birds each were fed the diets in a completely randomized design. Higher white blood cell (WBC) counts were obtained in chickens fed the control and 150 g/kg ECM with enzyme (p&lt;0.05) diets. Meat saturated fatty acids (SFA) content increased on the 150 g/kg diet and later decreased above 300 g/kg without enzyme (p&lt;0.05). Monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content was reduced with the inclusion of increasing ECM levels (p&lt;0.05). No interaction effect on polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was found. Main effects observed were MUFA and PUFA decrease with the inclusion of ECM in the diet (p&lt;0.05). Saturated fatty acid (SFA) content was found to increase on the 150 g ECM/kg diet and later to reduce with increasing ECM levels (p&lt;0.05). Enzyme supplementation reduced SFA and MUFA content (p&lt;0.05) but had no effect on PUFA (p&gt;0.05). In conclusion, inclusion of ECM up to 300 g/kg in corn-animal protein diets has no adverse effects on most broiler haematological variables, but meat fatty acid composition may be altered. More research into basal diet composition, enzyme source and concentration is recommended. <![CDATA[Effect of Environmental Enrichment on the Body Weight in Broiler Chickens]]> ABSTRACT The present study had the objective of analysing the impact of the use of environmental enrichment (music and light stimuli), broiler sex, and age in broiler chickens’ weight during growth. The observational study was carried out on a commercial farm. The environmental enrichment consisted of broilers’ stimulation by sound and light, and a house was kept without stimulus (control). The music stimuli consisted of different music styles and was played during the experiment to promote motivation for the birds. The light stimuli came from a coloured (red and green) LED strobe projector. Both stimuli were applied once a day for about 6 minutes, for five weeks. The broilers were weighed at the end of each week of growth. Throughout the growth period, broiler behaviours were analysed weekly through videos, and the leg disorders of the birds were put into score evaluations. The effects of the environmental enrichment type, gender, and age, and the probable interactions of these variables, on the weight of the broiler chickens were analysed by the comparative analysis of means, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey test of multiple comparisons. 7, 14, and 21 day old broiler chickens did not differ on body weight when compared with age, gender, and environmental enrichment (broiler house) (p&gt;0.05). Males from 21 days of age had an increase in body weight when compared with females. Light enrichment presented the lowest body weight when compared with all studied houses, while the absence of enrichment presented the highest broiler weight. <![CDATA[The Effect of a Balanced Diet Containing Yellow Lupin (Lupinus Luteus L.) on Carcass and Meat Quality of Broiler Ducks]]> ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to compare the final productivity parameters, carcass and meat quality in ducks fed with yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus) as a protein source instead of soybean meal. 200 Cherry Valley ducks were divided into two equal groups. Control (1) was fed with soybean meal, experimental (2) was fed with yellow lupin. Productivity parameters were calculated. After 8 weeks of rearing, 10 ducks from each group were slaughtered. The pH of breast muscles was measured 15 minutes and 24 hours post-mortem. Carcasses were dissected and each carcass part was weighed. After dissection, breast and leg muscles were analysed for selected parameters of meat quality (water holding capacity, and colour). Additionally, drip loss in breasts was analysed. The body weight of ducks, as well as FI and FCR between groups was compared (p&lt;0.05). There were no differences (p&gt;0.05) between groups in post-slaughter parameters, but the weight of offal was higher (p&lt;0.05) in group 1 than in group 2. There were no differences in the weight of carcass muscles and fatness between the two groups (p&gt;0.05). Lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) of breast muscles were higher (p&lt;0.05) in group 2 than in group 1. The water-holding capacity of leg muscles was higher (p&lt;0.05) in group 1 than in group 2. Yellow lupin in duck feed as a high-protein component did not deteriorate most meat traits, or the physicochemical parameters of their muscles. It can be proposed as a partial alternative to soybean meal. <![CDATA[Study on the Efficient Methods for Chicken Eggshell windowing and the Factors Affecting the Hatchability]]> ABSTRACT In order to find out the main factors influenced the hatchability and improve the hatchability of the windowed chicken eggs at stage X, several experiments were made on the basis of the former patent of eggshell windowing methods on equatorial plane, such as cutting and sealing techniques, air cell recovering, laying position immediately after sealing, as well as the injection volumes into the subgerminal cavity of the blastoderm. The result showed that:1) the best sealing material combination was straw powder (SP) and instant glue (IG); 2) there was a highly positive correlation between air cell rate and hatchability; 3) the highest hatchability increased to 71.6% when the eggs were windowed and sealed with IG dropped firstly and then SP sprinkled, finally lay down with the blunt end upward immediately after being sealed; 4) the hatchability was significantly reduced as injection volume (DMEM) was increased (p&lt;0.05 or p&lt;0.01) from 1 µL to 10 1 µL, and the group of injecting 1 µL was the highest (48.4 %). The hatchability and efficiency with such method of windowing, injecting, and sealing was the highest at the present time (more than 30 eggs per hour per person), and it might be broadly used in the fields of avian transgenesis, genetic resources preservation, and embryonic development model of human medicine. <![CDATA[Effect of Broiler Crating Density and Transportation Distance on Preslaughter Losses and Physiological Response During the Winter Season in Punjab, Pakistan]]> ABSTRACT A study was conducted to determine the impact of crating density and transportation distance on losses and physiological response of broilers during the winter season. For this, ROSS-308 broilers were crated at three densities (i.e., 10, 12, and 15 birds/crate) in plastic crates and transported in three distances (i.e., 80, 160, and 240 km) during the winter season at 3.6 - 9.5ºC temperature and 63.3 - 78.8% relative humidity. Results showed that body weight loss increased significantly with the increase in transportation distance and decrease in crating density, whereas dead on arrival, physical injuries and bruises were not different among different transportation distance and crating density treatments. Significant reduction in carcass and breast yield was observed with the increase in transportation distance, whereas an increase in crating density above 12 birds per crate increased breast yield. Birds transported for 240 km had the highest serum catalase activity and the lowest rectal body temperature compared to other treatments. A gradual increase in crating density resulted in the increase in thyroxine concentration and reduction in rectal temperature. Serum glucose, albumin and uric acid concertation increased significantly after 160km of transportation, but serum triglyceride contents decreased. Moreover, an increase in crating density also increased serum glucose and triglyceride. Results suggested that longer transportation distance during the winter season increased body weight shrinkage with a reduction in carcass and breast yield, and the impact of losses and stress was greater in treatments having a lower number of birds in crates. <![CDATA[Evaluation of Quality and Safety Attributes of Slaughtered Versus Dead Chicken Birds Meat]]> ABSTRACT The adulteration of dead chicken meat with halal meat is a concern in Pakistan that can harm safety of meat as well as religious beliefs of the Muslims. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to evaluate slaughtering methods (Islamic and decapitation) with dead chicken meat on composition, quality and safety attributes. Purposely, (n=24) birds were slaughtered and (n=12) dead birds samples were collected and subjected to proximate, mineral and quality analysis including pH, color (L*, a*, b*), cooking loss, texture, as well as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), peroxide value (PV), haem and non-haem iron. The results indicated ash content, minerals and oxidation parameters including TBARS, PV affected significantly (p&lt;0.05). The highest Iron (Fe) and Magnesium (Mg) levels reported in dead bird meat were 14.21±0.99 and 959.62±2.11 whereas, the lowest in halal slaughtered bird’s meat were 10.09±1.10 and 870.48±2.11, respectively. However, Manganese (Mn) was only detected in halal slaughtered bird meat. Likewise, pH of dead chicken meat was lowest among treatments however, L* was highest in halal slaughtered bird meat. Additionally, the lowest lipid oxidation and haem iron values reported in halal slaughtered meat were 0.32±0.02 and 2.32±0.21, lower than in decapitated and dead bird meat. Our findings draw lines between slaughtering methods and mineral analysis could be used for the differentiation of halal slaughtered meats with dead chicken meat. <![CDATA[Comparison of Some Biomechanical Properties of Tibiotarsus in Four Different Feather Color Lines of 60-Day Old Female Quails]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to compare some morphological and mechanical measurements of four different color female quails to contribute to the formation of the morphological database. Quails are the smallest farmed avian species which are becoming more important for the poultry industry. They are also used as experimental animals and are valuable birds for researches. Genetic factors are important determinants of bone strength. Thus, skeletal disorders may be reduced by breeding selection in quails. Forty female quails with four different feather colors, including wild, white, yellow, and black, were compared at 60 days of age. Each quail group contained ten individuals. A three-point bending test was performed with a custom-made testing machine designed for low strength materials. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of body weight. The tibiotarsus weight in wild and black (0,665±0,055g and 0,687±0,025g, respectively) was significantly lower than in the others but, the significant highest value was in white quails (0,758±0,063g) (p=0.001). Significantly shorter tibiotarsus was observed in the black quails (51,286±1,374mm), while the tibiotarsi of the white and yellow quails were the tallest (53,216±1,796mm and 53,083±1,092mm, respectively) (p=0.005). There were no significant differences among the groups in the biomechanical properties of tibiotarsus, except stiffness. Stiffness was the highest in the white quails (109,500±3,807 N/mm) and the lowest in the black quails (99,000±9,498 N/mm) (p=0.042). In conclusion, white quails have been observed to have relatively better bone biomechanical properties compared to the other color groups at 60 days of age. <![CDATA[Carcass Washing as an Alternative to Trimming - Is It Possible to Use Carcass Washing as an Alternative to Trimming in Commercial Broiler Slaughterhouses in Brazil?]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate visual contamination rates of carcasses of broilers slaughtered in establishments supervised by the Federal Inspection Service (SIF) and efficiency of carcass washing in replacement of trimming. The work was divided into three parts: analysis of partial and total carcass condemnation by contamination in hot (October to March) and cold (April to September) periods; evaluation of microbiological contamination before and after washing 800 carcasses (400 that did not go through washing x 400 that went through washing); and carcass washing test. For the test, twenty carcasses were evaluated in five treatments: carcasses without contamination - before washing; carcasses without contamination - after washing; contaminated carcasses - before washing and before trimming; contaminated carcasses - after washing; contaminated carcasses - after trimming. Hot and cold periods obtained a similar number and weight of slaughtered chickens. There were no differences regarding condemnation by contamination. Periods of the year did not influence the average weight of the birds slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Carcass washing in the slaughter line was effective in reducing total bacterial contamination, E. coli, and enterobacteria. There is a similarity in the reduction of condemnations by contamination, evidencing that the uniformity of production systems. Although it is not yet a reality in Brazilian slaughterhouses, the washing procedure can be considered a safe replacement for trimming. <![CDATA[Effect of Graded Levels of an Enhanced E.coli Phytase with Step-Wise Reduction of Supplemental Inorganic Phosphate on Growth Performance of Broilers Fed Corn-Soy Diet]]> ABSTRACT This study evaluated the potential of incremental doses of an enhanced Escherichia coli-derived phytase to support step-wise reduction of supplemental inorganic phosphate in an all-vegetable broiler diet. Corn-soybean meal-based diets containing 0.40/0.80%, 0.35/0.70%, and 0.30/0.60% avP and Ca, respectively from 0-10, 10-25, and 26-42 days posthatch served as experimental control (PC). Three test diets were formulated with 500, 1000, and 1500 FTU/kg of phytase assigned respectively an avP matrix of 0.15, 0.19, and 0.23% and a fixed Ca matrix of 0.15%. An additional diet (PC++) containing extra avP and Ca (+0.05% avP/+0.1% Ca) to that of PC was included to test if avP and Ca were not limiting in PC. Each diet was offered to 16 replicates of straight-run broilers kept in floor pens (30 birds per pen). PC++ had lower (p&lt;0.05; 10 and 25 d) or similar (42 d) BW and toe ash compared with PC confirming the avP and Ca set in PC were sufficient to support optimal growth and bone mineralization. Compared to the PC, diets containing 1000 and 1500 FTU phytase had higher BW (p&lt;0.05) at 10 and 25 d. For the overall period of 0-42 d, FI, BW and FCR did not differ across treatments. Percentage-, but not the absolute-, toe ash at phytase treated groups was significantly (p&lt;0.05) low compared with the PC. The experiment demonstrated that 1500 FTU/kg of enhance E. coli phytase supports optimal BW and FCR of broilers fed corn-soy diet largely void of supplemental inorganic phosphate. <![CDATA[Eggshell and Bone Quality in Two Different Genetic Groups of Aged Layer Breeders]]> ABSTRACT The present study was conducted on pair aged commercial laying breeder strains (Hy-Line Brown and Hy-Line W-36) to evaluate genetic differences of eggshell and bone quality. In addition, egg production performance, mortality rate, internal organs and reproductive measurements were determined. Correlation coefficients among some eggshell and bone traits were calculated. White layer breeder hens had significantly higher percentages of hen-day and hen-housed egg production compared to the brown one. Brown Hy-Line layer breeder strain had better eggshell quality compared to W-36 Hy-Line layer breeder strain. The white layer breeder strain had a significantly higher relative oviduct weight compared to the brown one. Brown layer breeder strain recorded the higher humerus width in comparison with the white one. Tibia bone weight of brown layer breeder strain was significantly heavier by 22.87% as compared to the white strain. Moreover, the brown breeder strain recorded the higher figure of tibia width, thickness, and strength. In conclusion, at the end of the laying cycle, brown Hy-Line layer breeder strain exhibited better eggshell quality, body weight and tibia bone quality than those of W-36 breeder strain. Positive correlation coefficients were detected between humerus bone strength and both eggshell thickness and strength in brown and white strains. <![CDATA[Morphology, Blood Chemistry and Behavioral Response of Crossbred Chickens Reared Under Alternative Production Systems]]> ABSTRACT In the present study, the second generation of two genotypes RNN (Rhode Island Red × Naked Neck) and BNN (Black Australorp × Naked Neck) obtained by two self-crosses (RNN × RNN =RR and BNN × BNN= BB) and two reciprocal crosses (RNN × BNN = RB and BNN × RNN = BR) were evaluated in three alternative production systems (conventional cages, enriched cages, and aviary). In total 480 birds, comprising 240 pullets with 240 cockerels (60 pullets &amp; 60 cockerels from each crossbred) were used during rearing phase (17-21 weeks). Higher body weight, shank circumference, body and drumstick length were noticed in RB and BR genotypes. Among different production systems, chickens reared in enriched cages showed higher body weight and body lengths than other production systems. Comparing the behavior of chickens, higher feeding, jumping and dust bathing were observed in chickens reared in aviary systems than in other production systems while the maximum perching behavior was showed by the chickens reared in enriched cages. The highest glucose level was observed in RR genotypes when reared in aviary systems. Antibody titers against ND and IB were highest in chickens reared in aviary systems. In conclusion, RB and BR genotypes had better performance in terms of morphometrics and blood biochemistry when reared under enriched cages and aviary systems.