Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Clinics]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=1807-593220150004&lang=en vol. 70 num. 4 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Medical education at the University of São Paulo Medical School]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400229&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Developing strategies to be added to the protocol for antenatal care: An exercise and birth preparation program]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400231&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: To describe the implementation process of a birth preparation program, the activities in the protocol for physical and birth preparation exercises, and the educational activities that have been evaluated regarding effectiveness and women's satisfaction. The birth preparation program described was developed with the following objectives: to prevent lumbopelvic pain, urinary incontinence and anxiety; to encourage the practice of physical activity during pregnancy and of positions and exercises for non-pharmacological pain relief during labor; and to discuss information that would help women to have autonomy during labor. METHODS: The program comprised the following activities: supervised physical exercise, relaxation exercises, and educational activities (explanations of lumbopelvic pain prevention, pelvic floor function, labor and delivery, and which non-pharmacological pain relief to use during labor) provided regularly after prenatal consultations. These activities were held monthly, starting when the women joined the program at 18–24 weeks of pregnancy and continuing until 30 weeks of pregnancy, fortnightly thereafter from 31 to 36 weeks of pregnancy, and then weekly from the 37th week until delivery. Information and printed materials regarding the physical exercises to be performed at home were provided. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01155804. RESULTS: The program was an innovative type of intervention that systematized birth preparation activities that were organized to encompass aspects related both to pregnancy and to labor and that included physical, educational and home-based activities. CONCLUSIONS: The detailed description of the protocol used may serve as a basis for further studies and also for the implementation of birth preparation programs within the healthcare system in different settings. <![CDATA[Expenditures in the health care system in Brazil: the participation of states and the Federal District in financing the health care system from 2002 to 2013]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400237&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To analyze the public expenditures of states on health care and the participation of states and the Federal District in financing the Unified Health System, better known by the acronym SUS. To develop the research, two targets were used: “to rescue expenses per government source (federal, state and municipal) during the period from 2002 to 2013” and “to rescue resource transfers from the federal SUS to the states and also to municipalities”. METHODS: This research is bibliographic, documentary and descriptive and used a quantitative approach. Data were extracted from the Information System Public Health Budget, and additional data were collected from the public managers of states, municipalities and the Federal District during the period from 2002 to 2013. Federal data from the Undersecretary of Planning and Budget (originally extracted from the Integrated System of Financial Administration of the Federal Government and available on the Budget Public Health System webpage) were also collected. RESULTS: The data revealed that during the same researched period, the Federal District has maintained the health care system budget, whereas states and municipalities have increased their budgets for the same spending. CONCLUSIONS: By analyzing the results, there is clearly a disparity regarding the investment expended by the entities of the Federation. Although municipalities and states have gradually increased their application of resources to health care, the federal state has maintained the same budget. These results reveal a bit of concern about public health funding. <![CDATA[Computed tomography imaging of early coronary artery lesions in stable individuals with multiple cardiovascular risk factors]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400242&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prevalence, extent, severity, and features of coronary artery lesions in stable patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Seventy-seven patients with more than 3 cardiovascular risk factors were suspected of having coronary artery disease. Patients with high-risk factors and 39 controls with no risk factors were enrolled in the study. The related risk factors included hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia, smoking history, and overweight. The characteristics of coronary lesions were identified and evaluated by 64-slice coronary computed tomography angiography. RESULTS: The incidence of coronary atherosclerosis was higher in the high-risk group than in the no-risk group. The involved branches of the coronary artery, the diffusivity of the lesion, the degree of stenosis, and the nature of the plaques were significantly more severe in the high-risk group compared with the no-risk group (all p &lt; 0.05). CONCLUSION: Among stable individuals with high-risk factors, early coronary artery lesions are common and severe. Computed tomography has promising value for the early screening of coronary lesions. <![CDATA[Is local resection sufficient for parathyroid carcinoma?]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400247&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignant disease of the parathyroid glands that appears in less than 1% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. In the literature, the generally recommended treatment is en bloc tumor excision with ipsilateral thyroid lobectomy. Based on our 12 years of experience, we discuss the necessity of performing thyroid lobectomy on parathyroid carcinoma patients. RESULTS: Eleven parathyroid carcinoma cases were included in the study. All operations were performed at the Department of Endocrine Surgery at Ankara University Medical School. Seven of the patients were male (63.6%), and the mean patient age was 48.9 ± 14.0 years. Hyperparathyroidism was the most common indication for surgery (n ϝ 10, 90.9%). Local disease was detected in 5 patients (45.5%), invasive disease was detected in 5 patients (45.5%) and metastatic disease was detected in 1 patient (9.1%). The mean follow-up period was 99.6 ± 42.1 months, and the patients' average disease-free survival was 96.0 ± 49.0 months. During the follow-up period, only 1 patient died of metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. CONCLUSION: Parathyroid carcinoma has a slow-growing natural progression, and regional lymph node metastases are uncommon. Although our study comprised few patients, it nevertheless showed that in selected cases, parathyroid carcinoma could be solely treated with parathyroidectomy. <![CDATA[Tanshinone IIA attenuates interleukin-17A-induced systemic sclerosis patient-derived dermal vascular smooth muscle cell activation via inhibition of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathway]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400250&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: Salvia miltiorrhiza has long been used to treat systemic sclerosis. Tanshinone IIA, one of the phytochemicals derived from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza, exhibits multiple biological activities. The present study aimed to investigate whether tanshinone IIA has an effect on the interleukin-17A-induced functional activation of systemic sclerosis patient-derived dermal vascular smooth muscle cells. METHODS: Systemic sclerosis patient-derived dermal vascular smooth muscle cells were incubated with various dosages of tanshinone IIA in the presence of interleukin-17A or the serum of systemic sclerosis patients. Cell proliferation was assessed using Cell Counting Kit-8. The expression of collagen 1 and 3 in cells was evaluated by immunofluorescence. Cell migration was measured using a transwell assay. The expression of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase was detected by Western blotting. RESULTS: Our data demonstrate that tanshinone IIA exerts an inhibitory effect on interleukin-17A-induced systemic sclerosis patient-derived dermal vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, collagen synthesis and migration. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that tanshinone IIA might serve as a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of systemic sclerosis. <![CDATA[The diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs for middle-aged (40–60-year-old) coronary artery disease patients]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400257&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: Circulating microRNAs have been recognized as promising biomarkers for various diseases. The present study aimed to explore the potential roles of circulating miR-149, miR-424 and miR-765 as non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in middle-aged (40–60-year-old) patients. METHODS: Sixty-five stable coronary artery disease patients (49–57 years old), 30 unstable coronary artery disease patients (49–58 years old), and 32 non-coronary artery disease patients (49–-57 years old) who were matched for age, sex, smoking habits, hypertension and diabetes were enrolled in this study. Total RNA was isolated from plasma with TRIzol reagent. Circulating miRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Circulating miR-149 levels were decreased 4.49-fold in stable coronary artery disease patients (1.18 ± 0.84) and 5.09-fold in unstable coronary artery disease patients (1.04 ± 0.65) compared with non-coronary artery disease patients (5.30 ± 2.57) (p&lt;0.001). Circulating miR-424 levels were reduced 3.6-fold in stable coronary artery disease patients (1.18 ± 0.60) and 5-fold in unstable coronary artery disease patients (0.86 ± 0.54) compared with non-coronary artery disease patients (4.35 ± 2.20) (p&lt;0.001). In contrast, circulating miR-765 levels were elevated 3.98-fold in stable coronary artery disease patients (6.09 ± 2.27) and 5.33-fold in unstable coronary artery disease patients (8.17 ± 2.77) compared with non-coronary artery disease patients (1.53 ± 0.99) (p&lt;0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the respective areas under the curve for circulating miR-149, miR-424 and miR-765 were 0.938, 0.919 and 0.968 in stable CAD patients and 0.951, 0.960 and 0.977 in unstable coronary artery disease patients compared with non-coronary artery disease patients. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that circulating miR-149, miR-424 and miR-765 might be novel, non-invasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease in middle-aged patients. However, future prospective trials in large patient cohorts are necessary before reaching a solid conclusion. <![CDATA[Serum alkaline phosphatase predicts survival outcomes in patients with skeletal metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400264&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: Bone metastasis is frequently associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The diagnosis and follow-up of bone metastatic patients usually relies on skeletal X-ray and bone scintigraphy, which are time-consuming and costly. This study aimed to evaluate whether serum alkaline phosphatase offers clinical value in predicting the clinical response and survival outcome for skeletal metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma. METHODS: Serum alkaline phosphatase was measured at baseline and then before each cycle of treatment in 416 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with bone metastasis. The correlations between the pre-treatment and post-treatment alkaline phosphatase levels and the treatment efficacy were analyzed using the chi-square test. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method and then compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: Patients with elevated pre-treatment alkaline phosphatase (&gt;110 IU/L) had significantly worse progression-free survival (P&lt;0.001) and overall survival (P&lt;0.001) than those with a normal level of this marker (≤110 IU/L). Patients with elevated post-treatment alkaline phosphatase had worse progression-free survival (P&lt;0.001) and overall survival (P&lt;0.001) compared with those with a normal level. Patients with normal pre-treatment and post-treatment alkaline phosphatase showed the most favorable prognosis. The Cox multivariate analysis revealed that only the pre-treatment and post-treatment alkaline phosphatase levels were independent prognostic factors for progression-free survival (HR ϝ 1.656, P&lt;0.001; HR ϝ 2.226, P&lt;0.001) and for overall survival (HR ϝ 1.794, P&lt;0.001; HR ϝ 2.657, P&lt;0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Serum alkaline phosphatase appears to be a significant independent prognostic index in patients with skeletal metastatic nasopharyngeal carcinoma, which could reflect the short-term treatment response of palliative chemotherapy and the long-term survival outcomes. <![CDATA[Post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio independently predicts amputation in critical limb ischemia without operation]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400273&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVES: Limited information is available concerning the post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in critical limb ischemia patients who receive conservative therapy. Accordingly, this study was designed to evaluate the predictive value of the post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio in critical limb ischemia patients without surgery. METHOD: From January 2009 to January 2011, critical limb ischemia patients were admitted to a vascular center. The demographic data, patient histories, comorbidities and risk factors were documented, and the differential cell count was determined at admission and seven days later after conservative therapy. The cutoff value of the post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was determined by an ROC curve. Patients were divided into groups A and B according to the cutoff value. Amputation-free survival was compared between groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify independent risk factors. RESULT: A total of 172 patients were identified with a mean age 71.98±10.09 years; among them, 122 were male. A value of 3.8 was identified as the cutoff value of the post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio. Groups A (post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio ≥3.8) and B (post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio &lt;3.8) showed a significant difference in amputation-free survival (P&lt;0.001). The 1-year, 2-year and 3-year amputation-free survival rates were 79.6%, 55.6% and 46.3%, respectively, in group A; however, in group B, these values were 89.7%, 79.3% and 75.9%, respectively. The post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio was identified as an independent predictive factor for amputation in critical limb ischemia patients (P&lt;0.001). CONCLUSION: The post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio is an independent predictive factor for amputation in critical limb ischemia patients. Patients with a post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio ≥3.8 are likely to suffer from amputation; amputation-free survival usually occurs in patients with a post-treatment neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio &lt;3.8. <![CDATA[Validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia)]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400278&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia by examining its temporal stability, internal consistency, and discriminant and convergent validity. METHODS: The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was administered to 116 stable patients with schizophrenia and 58 matched control subjects. To assess concurrent validity, a subset of patients underwent a traditional neuropsychological assessment. RESULTS: The patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse than the controls (p&lt;0.001) on all subtests of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia and on the total score, which attests to the discriminant validity of the test. The global score of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was significantly correlated with all of the subtests and with the global score for the standard battery. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia also had good test-retest reliability (rho&gt;0.8). The internal consistency of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia was high (Cronbach's α ϝ 0.874). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia exhibits good reliability and discriminant and concurrent validity and is a promising tool for easily assessing cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and for comparing the performance of Brazilian patients with that of patients from other countries. <![CDATA[Teleaudiometry as a screening method in school children]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400283&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and feasibility of teleaudiometry with that of sweep audiometry in elementary school children, using pure-tone audiometry as the gold standard. METHODS: A total of 243 students with a mean age of 8.3 years participated in the study. Of these, 118 were boys, and 125 were girls. The following procedures were performed: teleaudiometry screening with software that evaluates hearing at frequencies of 1,000, 2000 and 4000 Hz at 25 dBHL; sweep audiometry screening in an acoustic booth (20 dBHL at the same frequencies); pure-tone audiometry thresholds in an acoustic booth (frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz); and acoustic immittance measurements. RESULTS: The diagnostic capacities of the teleaudiometry/sweep audiometry screening methods were as follows: sensitivity ϝ 58%/65%; specificity ϝ 86%/99%; positive predictive value ϝ 51%/91%; negative predictive value ϝ 89%/92%; and accuracy ϝ 81%/92%. Teleaudiometry and sweep audiometry showed moderate agreement. Furthermore, the use of these methods in series with immittance testing improved the specificity, whereas parallel testing improved the sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Teleaudiometry was found to be reliable and feasible for screening hearing in school children. Moreover, teleaudiometry is the preferred method for remote areas where specialized personnel and specific equipment are not available, and its use may reduce the costs of hearing screening programs. <![CDATA[Annual national direct and indirect cost estimates of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400289&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: To estimate the annual direct and indirect costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer in Brazil. METHODS: This cost description study used a "gross-costing" methodology and adopted the health system and societal perspectives. The estimates were grouped into sets of procedures performed in phases of cervical cancer care: the screening, diagnosis and treatment of precancerous lesions and the treatment of cervical cancer. The costs were estimated for the public and private health systems, using data from national health information systems, population surveys, and literature reviews. The cost estimates are presented in 2006 USD. RESULTS: From the societal perspective, the estimated total costs of the prevention and treatment of cervical cancer amounted to USD $1,321,683,034, which was categorized as follows: procedures (USD $213,199,490), visits (USD $325,509,842), transportation (USD $106,521,537) and productivity losses (USD $676,452,166). Indirect costs represented 51% of the total costs, followed by direct medical costs (visits and procedures) at 41% and direct non-medical costs (transportation) at 8%. The public system represented 46% of the total costs, and the private system represented 54%. CONCLUSION: Our national cost estimates of cervical cancer prevention and treatment, indicating the economic importance of cervical cancer screening and care, will be useful in monitoring the effect of the HPV vaccine introduction and are of interest in research and health care management. <![CDATA[Heart rate turbulence analysis in female patients with fibromyalgia]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400296&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia is characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and discomfort. There are several reports regarding autonomic nervous system dysfunction in patients with fibromyalgia. Heart rate turbulence is expressed as ventriculophasic sinus arrhythmia and has been considered to reflect cardiac autonomic activity. Heart rate turbulence has been shown to be an independent and powerful predictor of sudden cardiac death in various cardiac abnormalities. The aim of this study is to determine whether heart rate turbulence is changed in female patients with fibromyalgia compared with healthy controls. METHODS: Thirty-seven female patients (mean age, 40±11 years) with fibromyalgia, and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy female control subjects (mean age, 42±9 years) were included. Twenty-four hours of ambulatory electrocardiography recordings were collected for all subjects, and turbulence onset and turbulence slope values were automatically calculated. RESULTS: The baseline clinical characteristics of the two groups were similar. There were no significant differences in turbulence onset and turbulence slope measures between patients and control subjects (turbulence onset: −1.648±1.568% vs. −1.582±1.436%, p ϝ 0.853; turbulence slope: 12.933±5.693 ms/RR vs. 13.639±2.505 ms/RR, p ϝ 0.508). Although body mass index was negatively correlated with turbulence slope (r ϝ −0.258, p ϝ 0.046), no significant correlation was found between body mass index and turbulence onset (r ϝ 0.228, p ϝ 0.054). CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate heart rate turbulence in patients with fibromyalgia. It appears that heart rate turbulence parameters reflecting cardiac autonomic activity are not changed in female patients with fibromyalgia. <![CDATA[Cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein for predicting all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: A meta-analysis]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1807-59322015000400301&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. However, the relationship between these two biomarker levels and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease remains unclear. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the association of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Relevant studies were identified by searching the MEDLINE database through November 2013. Studies were included in the meta-analysis if they reported the long-term all-cause or cardiovascular mortality of chronic kidney disease patients with abnormally elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin or C-reactive protein. Summary estimates of association were obtained using a random-effects model. Thirty-two studies met our inclusion criteria. From the pooled analysis, cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein were significantly associated with all-cause (HR 2.93, 95% CI 1.97-4.33 and HR 1.21, 95% CI 1.14-1.29, respectively) and cardiovascular (HR 3.27, 95% CI 1.67-6.41 and HR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10-1.28, respectively) mortality. In the subgroup analysis of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein, significant heterogeneities were found among the subgroups of population for renal replacement therapy and for the proportion of smokers and the C-reactive protein analysis method. Elevated serum levels of cardiac troponin and C-reactive protein are significant associated with higher risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. Further studies are warranted to explore the risk stratification in chronic kidney disease patients.