Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy]]> vol. 43 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Estimating the area and weight of cactus forage cladodes using linear dimensions]]> ABSTRACT. The forage palm is one of the main forages of ruminants in semiarid regions. Measurements of leaf area are required in agronomic studies because they are one of the main parameters used to evaluate plant growth. The objective of this study was to validate and define the best models for estimating the area and weight of Giant Sweet clone (Nopalea cochenillifera) forage cladodes in a non-destructive way based on the linear dimensions of length, width and thickness. There were 432 randomly measured cladodes at 550 days after planting. The length, width and thickness of each cladode were measured using a digital calliper. The cladodes were weighed individually. The cladode area was calculated by the gravimetric method. The power regression model was the most efficient method to explain the cladode area as a function of the product of length by width, while the gamma model was the most efficient method to explain the weight of cladodes as a function of the product of length by width and thickness. The power model, R C A ̂ = L W 0.982, and gamma model, W C ̂ = 0.536 T + 0.028 L W, were used to determine the area and weight of Nopalea cochenillifera Giant Sweet clone cladodes, respectively, based on the values of linear dimensions measured independently of the order of the cladode. <![CDATA[Control of the fungi <em>Lasiodiplodia theobromae</em>, the causal agent of dieback, in cv. syrah grapevines]]> ABSTRACT. Grapevine trunk diseases are among the most important limiting factors of worldwide viticulture. In this context, we aimed to verify the effect of chemical fungicides, biological agents and plant extracts on the control of Lasiodiplodia theobromae in pruning wounds and their physiological effects in cv. Syrah grapevines. Plant extracts (clove, cinnamon, garlic, rosemary and lemongrass), commercial fungicides (difeconazole, tebuconazole, mancozeb, sulfur, pyraclostrobin, fosetyl-Al, and azoxystrobin), chitosan, Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis were used for the in vitro trials. The protection of pruning wounds in the potted vines was studied using fosetyl-Al, tebuconazole, Trichoderma harzianum, Bacillus subtilis, garlic extract and clove extract. The experiments were carried out through two vegetative cycles: 2015/2016 and 2016/2017. The length of wood discoloration, pathogen re-isolation percentage, fresh mass of the pruning material, peroxidase activity, fluorescence, chlorophyll index, phenological stages, shoot length and leaf area were evaluated. The treatments with clove, garlic extract, tebuconazole, pyraclostrobin, mancozeb, fosetyl-Al and B. subtilis reduced mycelial growth by more than 90%. In the grapevines, the use of T. harzianum decreased the re-isolation of L. theobromae, but no differences were verified for the other plant evaluations. We concluded that the use of T. harzianum would be a potential option for wound protection without altering the physiological aspects of cv. Syrah grapevines. <![CDATA[Silicon slag increases melon growth and resistance to bacterial fruit blotch]]> ABSTRACT. Melon bacterial fruit blotch (BFB) is the major bacterial melon disease in Northeastern Brazil. We evaluated the effects of applying a silicon (Si) slag on BFB suppressiveness in two melons cultivars as well as in soil chemical attributes and plant growth and nutrition. Slag was incorporated into the soil at concentrations equivalent to 0.00, 0.12, 0.24, 0.47, 0.71, and 1.41 g kg-1 of silicon. Plants were inoculated with Acidovorax citrulli 20 days after emergence. Results showed that amending the soil with Si slag improved the resistance of two melon cultivars against bacterial fruit blotch. Such an effect is probably related not only to the Si uptake by plants but also to changes in soil characteristics and improvement in plant nutrition. Both hybrid cultivars (AF4945 and Medellín) increased biomass, nutrient and Si accumulation as a function of Si doses applied to soil. According to Si concentration and Si to Ca ratio in plant tissue, both cultivars are regarded as intermediary Si-accumulators. We also observed that an intermediate dose of Si (0.71 g kg-1) posed better results on controlling melon bacterial fruit blotch than the highest dose tested. Long-term, field experiments testing Si slag rates and effects on melon yields are warranted. <![CDATA[Asian soybean rust control in response to rainfall simulation after fungicide application]]> ABSTRACT. Asian soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is the main disease that affects soybean in Brazil. Fungicide applications are the main control method, but they can be influenced by the occurrence of rain. We aimed to study the control of Asian soybean rust in response to the occurrence of simulated rainfall at different times after fungicide application. The penetrant fungicides trifloxystrobin + prothioconazole (60 + 70 g a.i. ha-1) and azoxystrobin + benzovindiflupyr (60 + 30 g a.i. ha-1) and the nonpenetrant fungicides mancozeb (1,500 g a.i. ha-1), chlorothalonil (1,440 g a.i. ha-1), and copper oxychloride (672 g a.i. ha-1) were tested using two spray volumes: 70 and 150 L ha-1. Rain was simulated from 30 to 240 minutes after fungicide application. Soybean leaflets were collected and inoculated with a spore suspension of P. pachyrhizi (5.0 x 104 mL-1) and incubated in plastic boxes for 20 days. The trials were repeated twice. Nonpenetrant fungicides were more susceptible to rain washing, mainly when the 70 L ha-1 spray volume was used. For the penetrative fungicides, the best control percentages were obtained when the rainfall occurred between 120 and 180 minutes after application, while the protective fungicides had the best control percentages when the rainfall occurred approximately 240 minutes after application. The Asian rust control is affected by the characteristics of the fungicide applied, by the time interval between fungicide application and rain occurrence and by the spray volume. <![CDATA[Genetic progress over twenty-three years of irrigated rice breeding in southeastern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT. The importance of rice (Oryza sativa) is indisputable this cereal is the staple food for half of the global population. Genetic progress estimation allows evaluation of the effectiveness of genetic improvement of crops and helps in the planning of breeding programs. This paper aims to estimate the genetic yield progress made by the program in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, which is run by the Epamig/UFV/Embrapa consortium. A total of 210 lines were evaluated by value for cultivation and use testing that was conducted in the municipalities of Janaúba, Leopoldina, and Lambari, from 1993 to 2016. Based on Vencovsky’s (1986) method, the genetic gains in Lambari, Janaúba, and Leopoldina were 1.46, 0.14, and 0.11%, respectively. The gain in Leopoldina was considered very low during the evaluated period. According to Breseghello’s (1998) method, the annual average genetic gain was 0.23 and 0.04% in Lambari and Janaúba, respectively. In Leopoldina, a yield gain of - 2.37% per year was observed for the evaluation period from 1994 to 1999, and a yield gain of 0.1% per year was observed from 2000 to 2016. These results can be explained by the focus on quality as a strategy for the breeding program in Minas Gerais State in the 1990s. Vencovsky’s (1986) and Breseghello’s (1998) methods were able to quantify yield gains and demonstrate the dynamics of the irrigated rice genetic improvement program in Minas Gerais State. <![CDATA[Analysis of the reproduction mode in <em>Psidium</em> spp. using the pollen:ovule ratio]]> ABSTRACT. This research aimed to explore the reproductive characteristics of three species of Psidium (P. guajava L., P. cattleyanum Sabine, and P. guineense Sw.) and estimate a probable reproduction strategy based on the pollen:ovule (P:O) methodology. The number of pollen grains per floral bud (NGPB), number of pollen grains per anther (NGPA), number of anthers per flower bud (NAB), number of ovules per flower bud (NOB), and the P:O ratio of each species were estimated. All species had a P:O ratio over 2,000 and were classified as xenogamous. P.guajava presented the highest values for all characteristics evaluated, with the NGPB at 3,777,519, the NOB at 584.50 and a P:O ratio of 6,462.82. Similarly, P. cattleyanum had a P:O ratio of 5,649.89 (NGPB 762,736 and NOB 135). However, P. guineense was considered facultative xenogamous, with P:O of 2,085.75, the NGPB at 741,484 and the NOB at 355.50. Thus, it was concluded that the studied species have a preference for allogamy and require many pollen grains to fertilize each ovule, demonstrating that the transfer of pollen to the stigma is not very specialized. <![CDATA[Inference of population effect and progeny selection via a multi-trait index in soybean breeding]]> ABSTRACT. The selection of superior genotypes of soybean entails a simultaneous evaluation of a number of favorable traits that provide a comparatively superior yield. Disregarding the population effect in the statistical model may compromise the estimate of variance components and the prediction of genetic values. The present study was undertaken to investigate the importance of including population effect in the statistical model and to determine the effectiveness of the index based on factor analysis and ideotype design via best linear unbiased prediction (FAI-BLUP) in the selection of erect, early, and high-yielding soybean progenies. To attain these objectives, 204 soybean progenies originating from three populations were examined for various traits of agronomic interest. The inclusion of the population effect in the statistical model was relevant in the genetic evaluation of soybean progenies. To quantify the effectiveness of the FAI-BLUP index, genetic gains were predicted and compared with those obtained by the Smith-Hazel and Additive Genetic indices. The FAI-BLUP index was effective in the selection of progenies with balanced, desirable genetic gains for all traits simultaneously. Therefore, the FAI-BLUP index is an adequate tool for the simultaneous selection of important traits in soybean breeding. <![CDATA[Expression of genes related to the mechanism of resistance of <em>Conyza sumatrensis</em> to glyphosate]]> ABSTRACT. The elucidation of the resistance mechanism of weeds to herbicides is important for management practices. The objective of this work was to investigate the resistance mechanism of glyphosate-resistant C. sumatrensis biotypes by determining the expression levels of the constitutive gene epsps and two ABC transport protein-coding genes designated m7 and m11 with RT-qPCR. Two biotypes of C. sumatrensis were evaluated: one resistant and one susceptible to glyphosate. The treatments consisted of the absence or application of two doses of glyphosate (1,080 and 8,640 g a.e. ha-1). Plant leaves were collected at 1 and 4 days after herbicide application. No difference was observed in epsps gene expression between the studied biotypes. The expression of the m7 and m11 genes revealed that both genes had higher relative expression in the resistant biotype with the application of glyphosate at both doses. The overexpression of the m7 and m11 genes in the resistant biotype treated with glyphosate reveals that these genes play a role in herbicide resistance. These genes may be involved in the sequestration of glyphosate into the vacuole lumen in the resistant C. sumatrensis biotype studied. <![CDATA[Genetic resistance of common bean cultivar Beija Flor to <em>Colletotrichum lindemuthianum</em>]]> ABSTRACT. Anthracnose, which is caused by the fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, is one of the most widespread and important diseases of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in the world. The objective of the present study was to characterize the genetic resistance of the Beija Flor cultivar by inheritance and to conduct allelism tests. The inheritance test was conducted in the F2 population derived from the Beija Flor (resistant) x TU (susceptible) cross inoculated with race 2047 of C. lindemuthianum. Furthermore, allelism tests exhibited a fitted segregation ratio of 15R:1S, thereby indicating the independence of the Beija Flor gene from the following previously characterized genes: Co-1, Co-2, Co-4, Co-42, Co-6, Co-12, Co-14, Co-15, and Co-Pe. Based on the aforementioned results, we are proposing the symbol Co-Bf to designate the new anthracnose resistance gene in the Brazilian Andean common bean cultivar Beija Flor. This cultivar is an important source of resistance to C. lindemuthianum that should provide a valuable contribution to the common bean breeding program for anthracnose resistance. <![CDATA[Subset selection of markers for the genome-enabled prediction of genetic values using radial basis function neural networks]]> ABSTRACT. This paper aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of subset selection of markers for genome-enabled prediction of genetic values using radial basis function neural networks (RBFNN). To this end, an F1 population derived from the hybridization of divergent parents with 500 individuals genotyped with 1000 SNP-type markers was simulated. Phenotypic traits were determined by adopting three different gene action models - additive, additive-dominant, and epistatic, representing two dominance situations: partial and complete with quantitative traits having a heritability (h2) of 30 and 60%; traits were controlled by 50 loci, considering two alleles per locus. Twelve different scenarios were represented in the simulation. The stepwise regression was used before the prediction methods. The reliability and the root mean square error were used for estimation using a fivefold cross-validation scheme. Overall, dimensionality reduction improved the reliability values for all scenarios, specifically with h2 =30 the reliability value from 0.03 to 0.59 using RBFNN and from 0.10 to 0.57 with RR-BLUP in the scenario with additive effects. In the additive dominant scenario, the reliability values changed from 0.12 to 0.59 using RBFNN and from 0.12 to 0.58 with RR-BLUP, and in the epistasis scenarios, the reliability values changed from 0.07 to 0.50 using RBFNN and from 0.06 to 0.47 with RR-BLUP. The results showed that the use of stepwise regression before the use of these techniques led to an improvement in the accuracy of prediction of the genetic value and, mainly, to a large reduction of the root mean square error in addition to facilitating processing and analysis time due to a reduction in dimensionality. <![CDATA[Heterosis for the root distribution trait in common bean]]> ABSTRACT. Heterosis has been one of the most studied phenomena since genetic studies were conceived. Knowledge of this phenomenon for the root distribution trait in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) can favour the development of genotypes that are more tolerant to abiotic stresses. This study aimed to verify the occurrence of heterosis for the root distribution trait in hybrid F1 populations of common bean derived from crosses within and between gene groups. Thirty-six populations (six parents and 30 hybrids) were evaluated under field conditions in the agricultural years 2016/17 and 2017/18. The root distribution was assessed with the adapted Bohm method. The genotypes responded similarly to environmental changes (absence of an interaction). However, the root distribution differed significantly between the agricultural years. Comparisons between the mean of hybrids from crosses within each gene pool and the mean of parents did not reveal heterosis. The comparisons between gene groups showed significant differences only between BRS Embaixador x IPR Uirapuru, CBS 14 x IPR Uirapuru, and BAF 53 x IPR Uirapuru and the mean of parents. The absence of heterosis in the root trait can be explained by the degree of kinship between the gene groups, as well as some epistatic interactions. <![CDATA[Proportion of parental line (A receptor and R pollinator) seeds improving rice hybrid production]]> ABSTRACT. The high price of rice hybrid seeds is one of the major limiting factors for increasing the use of this technology. An important step toward minimizing high rice hybrid seed cost is developing techniques that help improve hybrid seed yield. Our goal was to determine the proportion of seeds of line A (receptor) and line R (pollinator) that, under mixed sowing, would allow optimized rice hybrid seed production and grain quality. Trials were performed for two growing seasons in the southern region of Brazil. The cultivar INTA Puita was used as a pollinator and line 464 A as receptor. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications. Treatments included six proportions of seeds of the INTA Puita (0.75, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0, and 24.00%) mixture with seeds of line 464 A (99.25, 98.50, 97.00, 94.00, 88.00, and 76%, respectively). By increasing the percentage of the pollinator seeds (INTA Puita CL) from 0.75 to 24% in the mixture with the receptor (line 464 A), we increased yield of INTA Puita CL grains (7 to 2676 kg ha-1) and hybrid seeds (279 to 1493 kg ha-1). The mixture of different proportions of INTA Puita CL (pollinator) with the receptor (line 464 A) did not change the rice grain quality or the production cost. The cost of production per kg of hybrid seeds decreased quadratically with the increasing percentage of the pollinator (INTA Puita CL), from US$ 6.71 to US$ 1.23. Revenue achieved from the commercialization of the grains of INTA Puita CL with hybrid seeds 464 A showed quadratic increases with the increased percentage of INTA Puita cl in the mixture. Our results showed a potential technique that could be used to improve hybrid seed production, reduce cost per kg of hybrid seed and improve revenue from producing rice hybrid seeds. <![CDATA[Morphology and enzymatic activity of seedlings from wheat desiccated in pre-harvest]]> ABSTRACT Desiccation practiced during the preharvest period contributes to mechanized seed harvesting. This work aimed to verify whether wheat preharvest desiccation influences the morphological and physiological characteristics of the seedlings produced from the seeds of desiccated plants. The preharvest treatments included a combination of herbicides (glufosinate-ammonium, glyphosate, and paraquat) and phenological application stages (Zadoks: 83, 85, 87, and 92), as well as a control treatment (without application). Two wheat cultivars were used (BRS Parrudo and TBIO Sinuelo). Herbicide applications were observed to decrease the length and projected area of the shoots by 52 and 46%, respectively, as well as reduce the length, surface area and root volume when compared to the control treatment without application. The hydrogen peroxide concentration, as well as the enzymatic activity of guaiacol peroxidase, was observed to rise only in the treatments where the herbicides were applied. Physiologically, an increased hydrogen peroxide output was revealed, while the guaiacol peroxidase enzymatic activity increased in both cultivars, but with no effect noted in the superoxide dismutase enzymatic activity. The shoot and root morphology were negatively influenced, showing a rise in the enzymatic activity and hydrogen peroxide concentration in the seedlings from the desiccated plants. <![CDATA[Morpho-phenological and agronomic performance of strawberry cultivars with different photoperiodic flowering responses]]> ABSTRACT. The adaptability of the strawberry is known; however, little is known about the morphological and agronomic performance of these runner plants when transplanted in the Southern Hemisphere. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether strawberry cultivars classified according to their flowering differ in morpho-phenology and agronomic performance. Six cultivars of strawberry were used, two of which were Short Day (SD), Camarosa and Camino Real, and four of which were Neutral Day (ND), Aromas, Albion, Monterey, and San Andreas. The cultivars were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four blocks. The research developed in two parts: one part as descriptive research (morphological performance and phenology) and the other part as explanatory research (morphology of the root system and the agronomic performance). In the descriptive research, the data about the strawberry cultivars were presented in a descriptive way. The data on morpho-agronomic performance (explanatory research) were submitted to analysis of variance and Tukey’s test at a 5% probability of error. It is inferred that there is variability among cultivars regardless of their classification in terms of flowering. In all cultivars, we observed a botanical structure called a hypsophyll that is not included in the morphological descriptors of the species. <![CDATA[Visual and anatomical analysis of welding quality x scion survival in <em>Araucaria angustifolia</em>]]> ABSTRACT. Grafting is an alternative method for the early production of Araucaria angustifolia seeds, and welding quality is essential for the success of the technique. The objective of this study was to create a classification of welding quality to estimate the percentage of scion survival. The patch and flute grafting techniques were used in a greenhouse and in the field. Survival was evaluated 270 days after grafting (DAG). At 60 DAG, observations of the graft connection region were made with the naked eye, classifying the connections into four welding classes. After 160 DAG, transverse cuts were performed on each class and visually and anatomically evaluated. Flute grafting presented higher initial survival (79%), but at 180 DAG, the survival rate of both techniques was similar (48% for flute and 41% for patch). There was greater scion survival for the class that had only two regions in contact with discontinuity in the bark. Stabilization of survival occurred after 180 DAG, regardless of the welding class. Visually, there were differences in welding quality; however, anatomically, all classes presented vascular connections. The visual welding quality assessment underestimated the percentage of scion survival. However, the vascular connection and development of parenchymatous tissue are promising for diagnosing grafting success. <![CDATA[Ammonia loss from protected urea in soil under different irrigation depths]]> ABSTRACT. This study presents an evaluation of the viability of using protected urea under different irrigation depths to reduce nitrogen losses caused by the volatilization of ammonia (NH3) under the conditions of the Southwestern Amazon. The study was carried out at the Experimental Station of Embrapa Rondônia, in the municipality of Porto Velho, Rondônia State, Brazil. The experiment was conducted in a Red-Yellow Latosol and arranged in a 5 x 6 factorial design consisting of a combination of five treatments (N sources) with six irrigation depths. The sources of N were as follows: 1) urea (45.5% N); 2) urea (44.3% N) + 0.15% copper and 0.4% boron; 3) urea (45% N) + NBPT; 4) urea (43% N) + sulfur (1%); and 5) control (without N). The irrigation depths were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 mm. The results showed that, regardless of the use of urease inhibitors, an irrigation depth of 10 mm is suitable for incorporating urea into the soil and stabilizing N losses from NH3 volatilization. NBPT is the most efficient inhibitor under nonirrigated conditions. All N sources promote increases in the concentrations of nitric and ammonia nitrogen in the soil. In the first 15 days after fertilizer application, the highest concentrations of ammonium were in the 0 - 10 cm and 10 - 20 cm soil layers, and NBPT showed the highest ammonium content compared to that of the other sources in the 0 - 10 cm layer. The nitric nitrogen content in the soil was slightly influenced by the irrigation depth in the first 15 days after fertilizer application. However, the ammonia nitrogen content decreased exponentially with the increase in irrigation depth due to the movement of ammonia in the soil.