Scielo RSS <![CDATA[International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology]]> vol. 24 num. 2 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Otorhinolaryngologists and Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)]]> <![CDATA[High Risk of COVID-19 Infection for Head and Neck Surgeons]]> <![CDATA[Can Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Predict Various Levels of Echelon Nodes in Oral Cancers?]]> Abstract Introduction The efficacy of sentinel node biopsy in early stage oral cancer is well established. Its evolving role can be reinforced by further studies. Objective Analyzing the predictability of the levels of echelon nodes for various oral cavity tumor subsites on sentinel node biopsy. Methods A prospective study of 20 patients with stage I/II oral squamous cell carcinoma who underwent sentinel node biopsy-guided neck dissection between January 2017 and 2018 at our institute. The procedure included radiotracer injection, imaging (lymphoscintigraphy, single photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography), and gamma probe application. Sentinel node detection on imaging and gamma probe were compared. Results Out of 20 patients, 13 (65%) had carcinoma of the tongue, 6 (30%) had buccal mucosa carcinoma, and 1 (5%) had retromolar trigone carcinoma. Themean age of the patients was 52.3 years. A total of 13 (65%) patients were male, and 7 (35%) were female. The sentinel node identification rates with imaging and gamma probe were of 70% and 100% respectively. In tongue and retromolar trigone primaries, the most common first-echelon nodes in both modalities were levels IIA and IB respectively. For buccal mucosa primaries, first-echelon nodes were detected only with the gamma probe, which was level IB. On imaging, second-echelon nodes were detected only for tongue primaries, and had equivalent incidence of levels II, III, and IV. On the gamma probe, level IIA, followed by III, and IV for the tongue, and level IIA were the most common second-echelon nodes for the buccal mucosa. Third-echelon nodes were detected only with the gamma probe for tongue carcinoma at level IV. Conclusion The combined use of imaging and gamma probe provides the best results, with high identification rate and predictability of echelon levels. <![CDATA[Behavioral and Electrophysiological Assessment of Adults Who Underwent Cochlear Implantation After Hearing Aid Experience]]> Abstract Introduction Cochlear implantation has been considered a viable option to restore hearing perception in adults with severe to profound postlingual hearing loss. Objectives To analyze behavioral hearing responses and P300 latency and amplitude measurements in adults with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss at two phases, first when they were using hearing aids (HAs) and, then, after 12 months of cochlear implant (CI) use. The associationbetweenbehavioral and electrophysiological evaluationswas explored, as it is believed that the study of auditory processing with different hearing devices can contribute to future CI adjustments and fittings, especially for patients who cannot give subjective feedback (such as small children and individuals with multiple disabilities). Methods Prospective comparative study (Ethical approval 11489/2014). Twelve adults were assessed, 7 males and 5 females, in the 22 to 76 years old age range, who had undergone CI surgery after HA experience. Results The analyses showed an improvement of hearing thresholds when patients started using CIs. Comparing data from P300 latency measurements, there was an increase of the P300 wave post-CI at Cz and Fz. Regarding the amplitude, P300 mean values decreased at Cz, but increased at Fz. There was no significant correlation between behavioral and electrophysiological assessment and the variables age, gender, auditory deprivation, and electronic device used. Conclusion There was a significant improvement of hearing thresholds after twelve months of CI experience. The mean latency values of P300 after 12 months of CI use increased at Cz and Fz, while mean amplitude values decreased at Cz and increased at Fz. <![CDATA[Importance of Vestibulo-ocular Reflex Gain and Refixation Saccade Analysis in Individuals with Auditory Neuropathy Spectrum Disorder]]> Abstract Introduction Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) features the presence of otoacoustic emissions, poor speech identification score and absent auditory brainstem response. Objective The present study was designed to evaluate the functioning of all six semicircular canals in individuals with ANSD and to compare it with those of normalhearing individuals. Methods A total of 50 individuals participated in the present study, in which Group I comprised25normal-hearingindividuals, and GroupII comprised25individualswithANSD. All of the participants underwent case history, pure tone audiometry, immittance, otoacoustic emissions, auditory evoked response and video head impulse test (vHIT). Results The independent sample t-test revealed significantly lower vestibulo-ocular reflex gain values in individuals with ANSD. A presence of 100% corrective refixation saccades was observed in the same group. The Pearson correlation test revealed no significant correlation between vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain with duration of hearing loss and pure tone thresholds for any of the three orthogonal planes. The chisquared test revealed no association between the VOR gain values and the presence or absence of saccades in any of the semicircular canals (p&gt;0.05). Conclusion Huge percentages of individuals with ANSD have been found to have associated vestibular dysfunction as well. Therefore, the vHIT can be used as one of the important tests of the vestibular test battery to evaluate all six semicircular canals in individuals with ANSD. <![CDATA[Audiological Abnormalities in Vitiligo Patients: A Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study]]> Abstract Introduction There are some discrepancies in the literature about the influence of vitiligo on auditory functions. According to some authors, vitiligo influences hearing, whereas others question such influence. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate audiological functions in vitiligo patients. Objectives To determine the effect of vitiligo on auditory functions. Methods A hospital-based observational study was done from January 2017 to July 2017. Clinically diagnosed cases of vitiligo were enrolled for the study. A complete otological examination was conducted in all patients. Results Fifty-two patients (male: female 28:24) were included in the study. Ten patients (19.2%) had sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). Seven patients (13.5%) had bilateral and 3 (5.7%) had unilateral SNHL. High frequency loss was seen in 17 out of 20 ears (10 affected patients), 6 ears had both low and high-frequency hearing loss. Of 12 ears with speech frequency involvement, mild hearing loss was seen in 5 and moderate to severe in 1 ear.Most cases of SNHL were detected in the age group 41 to 60 years old (63.6%), which was statistically significant (p-value 0.00). Conclusion The results of this study suggest that vitiligo patients require routine monitoring for auditory functions for early identification of SNHL. Older subjects with vitiligo might be at a higher risk for audiological abnormalities. These patients should also be informed regarding the associated risk with noise and ototoxic drug exposure. <![CDATA[Mismatch Negativity Elicited by Verbal and Nonverbal Stimuli: Comparison with Potential N1]]> Abstract Introduction Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a long latency auditory evoked potential, represented by a negative wave, generated after the potential N1 and visualized in a resulting wave. Objective To identify the time of occurrence ofMMNafter N1, elicited with verbal and nonverbal stimuli. Methods Ninety individuals aged between 18 and 56 years old participated in the study, 39 of whom were male and 51 female, with normal auditory thresholds, at least 8 years of schooling, and who did not present auditory processing complaints. All of them underwent audiologic anamnesis, visual inspection of external auditory meatus, pure tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic immittance measures and the dichotic sentence identification test as a screening for alterations in auditory processing, a requirement to participate in the sample. The MMN was applied with two different stimuli, with these being da/ta (verbal) and 750 Hz and 1,000 Hz (nonverbal). Results There was a statistically significant difference between the latency values of the N1 potential and the MMN with the two stimuli, as well as between the MMN with verbal and nonverbal stimuli, and the latency of the MMN elicited with da/ta being greater than that elicited with 750 Hz and 1,000 Hz, which facilitated its visualization. Conclusion The time of occurrence of MMN after the N1 elicited with verbal stimuli was 100.4 ms and with nonverbal stimuli 85.5ms. Thus, the marking of the MMN with verbal stimuli proved to bemore distant from N1 compared with the nonverbal stimuli. <![CDATA[Perfusion Computed Tomography Scan Imaging in Differentiation of Benign from Malignant Parotid Lesions]]> Abstract Introduction The most common site of salivary gland tumors is the parotid gland. Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and sonography are imaging modalities to differentiate benign from malignant parotid tumors. Objective The aim of this study is the evaluation of the diagnostic value of perfusion CT for differentiating histological categorization of benign and malignant parotid tumors. Methods A total of 29 patients with parotid neoplasms were enrolled in this study. Mean age and all CT perfusion variables (gradient and permeability, blood flow[BF], blood volume [BV], mean transit time [MTT], permeability surface [PS], maximum intensity projection [MIP], time-density curve [TDC], and time to peak [TTP]) were compared among three groups (malignant tumors [MTs],Warthin’s tumor [WT] and pleomorphic adenomas [PA]). Results The mean age of the patients was 55.9±14.1 (26-77), and 15 of them were male (51.7%). Eleven lesions were PAs [37.9%], 8 lesions were WTs (27.6%0 and 10 lesions (34.5%) were MTs (6 acinic cell carcinomas [ACCs], 3 adenocystic carcinomas [AdCCs], and 1 mucoepidermoid carcinoma [MEC]). The mean age of the patients with WTs was 62±7.5 years; 52±14.2 for patients with Pas, and 55.2±17.2 for those with MTs (p=0.32). The mean MIP was 122.7±12.2 in WT, while it was 80.5±19.5 in PA, and 76.2±27.1 in MTs (p&lt;0.001); The mean MIP for WT was higher than for PAs and MTs; the values of MTs and PAs were not statistically different. The average of BF, BV, and curve peak were higher inWTs in comparison with the other two groups, and curve time 2 and TTP were higher in PAs in comparison with MTs. Conclusion Based on this study, perfusion CT of the parotid gland and its parameters can distinguish between benign and malignant parotid masses. <![CDATA[Well-Being of Caregivers of Patients with Laryngeal Cancer Treated by Radiotherapy]]> Abstract Introduction Laryngeal cancer is the second most common head and neck cancer, but no study to date reports exclusively on the well-being of the caregivers of patients with laryngeal cancer treated by radiotherapy. Objective The present prospective pilot study aims to describe the impact of the work on the well-being of the caregivers of patients with laryngeal cancer. Methods The caregivers of patients undergoing radiotherapy with curative intent for laryngeal cancer were included in the present study, and they were asked to fill out a specific questionnaire, while the patients filled out the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) following diagnosis but prior to treatment. Results A total of 50 caregivers were included, 20% of which were male, and 80%, female. In total, 62% (n = 31) of the caregivers were spouses, while the remaining were daughters/sons (n = 11; 22%), siblings (n = 6; 12%), or they were classified as “other” (n = 2; 4%). The female caregivers scored lower (worse) on the depression/worry domain, and this was statistically significant (p = 0.047); they also reported a statistically significant higher negative impact on employment (p = 0.011) compared with the male caregivers. In general, the caregivers of patients with late-stage tumors tended to report lower (worse) scores on all domains (except hospital contact) comparedwith the caregivers of patients with early-stage tumors. No other differences were observed regarding the patients’ age, gender, tumor site or their HADS score. Conclusion The diagnosis and treatment of laryngeal cancer impacts the caregiver’s psychological well-being, particularly that of female caregivers. This should be taken into consideration when the patients begin the hospital treatment pathway. However, larger studies are needed to target resources more appropriately. <![CDATA[Adult Otogenic Meningitis in the Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccines Era]]> Abstract Introduction Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major pathogen of otogenic meningitis (OgM), the most commonly reported intra-cranial complication of otitis media (OM). Objectives To study the changes in adult OgM patients in the pneumococcal conjugated vaccines (PCVs) era. Methods Retrospective cohort of adults presenting with concurrent OM and meningitis in a secondary medical care center between 2005 and 2015. Data collected included demographics, OM-related symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and ear culture results, pre- and during hospitalization antibiotic treatment, imaging findings, and complications. We compared the pre-PCV years (2005-2009) with the post-PCV years (2010-2015). Outcomes were 1) incidence of all-cause adult OgM from the total meningitis cases; 2) impact of PCVs on the clinical presentation of OgM and bacteriology. Results Otogenic meningitis was diagnosed in 26 out of 45 (58%) cases of all-cause meningitis admissions. Of those, 10 (38%) were male, with a mean age of 62.4 years old. Ear-related signs and symptoms were documented in 70% of the patients, and OgM was diagnosed following imaging studies in 6 out of 26 (23%) patients. All of the patients received intravenous antibiotic therapy, and 7 (27%) patients required surgical interventions: 6 required myringotomy and 1 required mastoidectomy. There were 12 (46%) patients in the pre-PCV years and 14 (56%) in the post-PCV years. The positive pneumococcal CSF and ear culture rates remained high and unchanged (~ 75%). There were no significant changes in the clinical presentation or mortality rates. Conclusion Micro-otoscopy should be included in the routine work-up of any suspected adult meningitis, because OgM is underdiagnosed. Unlike their impact on pediatric otitismedia, PCVs did not change the epidemiology and bacteriology of OgM. <![CDATA[Mismatch Negativity Occurrence with Verbal and Nonverbal Stimuli in Normal-Hearing Adults]]> Abstract Introduction The mismatch negativity (MMN) is a long-latency auditory evoked potential related to a passive elicited auditory event. Objective To verify the occurrence of MMN with different stimuli, to describe reference values in normal-hearing adults with verbal and nonverbal stimuli and to compare them with each other, besides analyzing the latency, area, and amplitude regarding gender and between the ears. Method Normal-hearing individuals, aged between 18 and 59 years old, participated in the study. As inclusion criterion in the study, all of them underwent tone threshold audiometry, logoaudiometry, tympanometry, and the Dichotic Sentence Identification (DSI) test, and later the MMN with 4 different stimuli, being 2 verbal (da/ta and ba/di) and 2 nonverbal stimuli (750/1,000Hz and 750/4,000Hz), which are considered stimuli with low and high contrast. Results A total of 90 individuals composed the sample, being 39 males and 51 females, with an average age of 26.9 years old. In the analysis of the latency, amplitude, and area of the four stimuli between the ears, they were not considered statistically different. There was a significant difference between all of the stimuli in terms of latency, amplitude and area, with the highest latency found in da/ta, and the greatest amplitude and area in ba/di. Regarding gender, there was only difference in the latency of the da/ta stimulus. Conclusion The da/ta and 750/1,000Hz stimuli elicited the most MMN in the population of normal-hearing adults. Among the genders, there was difference only regarding the latency of the verbal stimulus da/ta, and there was no difference between the ears. <![CDATA[Functional Impact of Tinnitus in Patients with Hearing Loss]]> Abstract Introduction Tinnitus, which is considered the third worst symptom for humans, is a common complaint among people living with hearing loss and may negatively affect the quality of life of those who have it. Objective To analyze the perception of the handicap in patients with tinnitus and hearing loss as well as the possible associations between the variables hearing loss, loudness, onset, frequency and annoyance by tinnitus, and the correlation between the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI). Methods A total of 30 patients with complaints of tinnitus and the presence of sensorineural hearing impairment were selected for this cross-sectional, observational, and descriptive study. The loudness of the tinnitus was measured by a VAS and classified as mild,moderate, or severe. The THI was classified as slight, mild, moderate, severe, and catastrophic. Data were submitted to statistical analysis using the Fisher exact test and Spearman correlation coefficient. Results Eleven male (36.7%) and 19 female (63.3%) subjects with a mean age of 56.5 years old were evaluated. There was no significant association between loudness, annoyance, time and frequency of tinnitus, nor between hearing loss and tinnitus. There was a significant association between the variables hearing loss and loudness, and a weak correlation between VAS and THI. Conclusion Tinnitus has a practical impact in the lives of patients with hearing loss in terms of catastrophic, functional, and emotional aspects, regardless of loudness, frequency, or time of onset. Hearing loss was a factor that had an impact on the loudness of tinnitus. There was no statistically significant correlation between VAS and THI. <![CDATA[An Investigation of Hearing (250-20,000 Hz) in Children with Endocrine Diseases and Evaluation of Tinnitus and Vertigo Symptoms]]> Abstract Introduction Despite much advancement in medicine, endocrine and metabolic diseases remain an important cause of morbidity and even mortality in children. Objective The present study was planned to investigate the evaluation of hearing that also includes high frequencies, and the presence and degree of vertigo and tinnitus symptoms in pediatric patients diagnosed with endocrine diseases such as type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM), growth hormone deficiency (GHD), obesity, idiopathic short stature, and precocious puberty Methods The present study included a patient group of 207 children patients diagnosed with endocrine disease (95 males, 112 females; mean age 9.71 years old [range 6-16 years old]) and a control group including 55 healthy children who do not have any kind of chronic disease (26males, 29 females;mean age 9.33 years old [range 6-16 years old]). The subjects underwent a hearing test with frequencies between 250 and 20,000 Hz. The vestibular and tinnitus symptoms were evaluated with the Pediatric Vestibular Symptom Questionnaire. Results Out of 207 patients in the patient group, 5 (2.4%) had hearing loss in pure tones, 10 (4.8%) had it in high frequencies, 40 (19.3%) had tinnitus symptoms, and 18 (8.7%) had vertigo symptoms. A total of 4 out of 207 patients in the study group (1.9%), 2 out of 59 with type 1 DMpatients (3.4%), 1 out of 46 with GHD (2.2%), and 1 out of 43 obesity patients (2.3%) had hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus symptoms. Conclusions Our results suggest that some childhood endocrine diseases can cause some changes in the inner ear, although the exact cause is unknown. Perhaps, a detailed hearing and balance examination should be a routine in a child diagnosed with an endocrine disease.We think it is necessary to work on more comprehensive patient groups and tests in the future. <![CDATA[Study of Dosage-Dependent Effects of Cytostatic Drugs Using a Fibroblast Cell Culture of the Human Nasal Mucosa]]> Abstract Introduction Knowing a concentration at which cytostatic drugs are toxic for the nasal fibroblasts will enable the use cytostatic drugs in the clinical practice to prevent excessive cicatrization. Objective To determine the cytostatic concentrations of mitomycin С, doxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil affecting nasal mucosa fibroblasts. Methods We obtained material during an endonasal dacryocystorhinostomy with the patient’s informed consent. The cells were cultivated. Second- to fourth-passage cells were used in the experiments. The cells were stained for vimentin and cluster of differentiation 90 (CD90). An MTS test 3 (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)- 2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium); cell viability test was performed. Results The cytostatic drugs have a toxic effect on cultivated fibroblasts of the nasal mucosa. This effect is dose-dependent. In terms of reducing the level of tissue fibrotisation in the nasal cavity, the most justified approach is to carry out an experimental study of the effect of mitomycin C, doxorubicin, and 5-fluorouracil at the concentrations of 0.25mg/ml, 0.25mg/ml, and 12.5mg/ml respectively. Conclusion The authors argue that it is inappropriate to use these cytostatic drugs to conduct studies with the goal of analyzing their antifibrotic effect on the nasal mucosa at concentrations that are either lower or higher than the aforementioned ones. <![CDATA[Factors Associated with Drain Output in Patients Undergoing to Parotidectomy]]> Abstract Introduction Tumors of the parotid gland are heterogeneous. The purpose of the drain placement is to evacuate fluid that has a potential to accumulate in the dead space and cause infection after parotidectomy. Objectives To evaluate the factors associated with drain output among patients submitted to parotidectomy. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 1994 to December 2014. Patients who underwent parotidectomy were included in the study. Linear regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with drain output. Results A total of 193 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 46.3 years, and 57% of them were male. Length of surgery (β coefficient = 24.2; 95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 4.94-85.26), type of neck dissection (modified radical neck dissection: β = 93.9; 95% CI: 30.47-157.38; selective neck dissection: β = 79.9; 95%CI: 29.04-126.85), and type of parotidectomy (total β = 45.1; 95%CI: 4.94-85.26) were factors that significantly influenced drain output in patients submitted to parotidectomy with or without neck dissection. Conclusion Neck dissection, total parotidectomy and length of surgery were predictors of postoperative neck drainage in our cohort. These factors can help predict postoperative neck drain output and help in patient counselling. <![CDATA[Thermography for the Diagnosis of Acute Inflammation in the Paranasal Sinus]]> Abstract Introduction Although computed tomography scanning is the most common method for the diagnosis of sinusitis today, X-ray imaging is still used in outpatient clinics. Because X-ray imaging is beneficial for patients with severe sinusitis but not for those with mild sinusitis, an alternative method to visualize sinusitis without X-ray imaging is desirable. Objective To study the possibility of using thermography to visualize sinusitis. Methods In the present study, heat distribution on the faces of individuals with and without sinusitis was studied using thermography. Overall, 10 control subjects and 20 patients with sinusitis were included. Original thermography data were cropped, resized, and converted to relative thermography data based on the average temperature for visualization and statistical analysis. Results The shape of the maxillary and/or frontal sinuses was determined based on regions indicating increased temperature in patients with sinusitis. The region with increasing temperature was statistically visualized, and the significant side (t test, p&lt;0.05) coincided with the maxillary shadow on X-ray imaging. Conclusion Thermography demonstrates visually the correlation between the surface temperature of the face and inflammation patterns in the paranasal sinus. Therefore, our comparative study using thermography to visually differentiate individuals with and without sinusitis was effective, indicating that thermography is a possible alternative to X-ray imaging to detect sinusitis. <![CDATA[Malignancy Rate in Thyroid Nodules with Atypia or Follicular Lesion of Undetermined Significance]]> Abstract Introduction Atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) or follicular lesion of undetermined significance (FLUS) is one of the six diagnostic categories of the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology. The prevalence of malignancy among Bethesda category III cytology is variable, ranging from 5% to 37% in the literature. Objective To determine the rate of malignancy in thyroid nodules reported as Bethesda category III. Methods A total of 495 patients underwent surgical intervention for thyroid nodules from January 2015 to December 2017. The present study included 81 cases reported as Bethesda category III, and their medical records were reviewed. Results Out of 495 fine-needle aspiration cytology samples, 81 (16.4%) samples were labeled as AUS/FLUS. Among these 81 patients, the mean age was 43.0 years (±13.9), with only 11 (14%) patients older than 55 years of age.Most of our patients were female (n=69; 85.2%), and the rest were male. The rate of malignancy based on the final histology was of 33.3% (n=27). The majority were 17 cases (21%) of papillary carcinoma, followed by follicular carcinoma (n=6) (7.4%). Conclusion The risk of malignancy can be higher than it is commonly believed, and guidelines should be based on the data from the institutions themselves for a better assessment of the outcomes. <![CDATA[A Randomized Study on the Efficacy of Music Therapy on Pain and Anxiety in Nasal Septal Surgery]]> Abstract Introduction Nasal septal surgery is one of themost common surgeries performed by otolaryngology surgeons; however, anxiety before surgery and postoperative pain remain a significant cause of morbidity. The search for a complimentary modality to reduce the symptoms and side effects has gained momentum in recent years. Objective Music therapy is an exciting and inexpensive modality in this regard, but scientific evidence in terms of randomized clinical trials is still lacking for common otolaryngology surgeries. Hence, we performed the present study. Method The sample of our study was composed of 59 patients, 30 of which were submitted to conventional medicine, while the remaining 29 were submitted to both conventional medicine and music therapy with music of their own choice, with 2 sessions per day, each lasting 30minutes. This was performed using the generalized anxiety disorder-7 scale and the pain visual analogue scale until postoperative day 2, when the patients were discharged from the hospital. Result On comparing the anxiety and pain scores between the two groups, the group who underwent music therapy showed a statistically significant reduction in anxiety both preoperatively (p&lt;0.0001) and postoperatively (p&lt;0.0001), as well as reduced postoperative pain starting from day 0 (p&lt;0.001), which continued until postoperative day 2 (p&lt;0.001). Conclusion Music therapy is an effective adjunct in the control of anxiety and postoperative pain following nasal septal surgery. <![CDATA[The Impact of Olfactory Dysfunction on the Psychological Status and Quality of Life of Patients with Nasal Obstruction and Septal Deviation]]> Abstract Introduction Olfactory dysfunctionmay be present in patients with nasal obstruction and septal deviation. The impact of olfactory dysfunction on the psychological profile and quality of life (QoL) of these patients remains unexplored. Objective The present study aimed to investigate the emotional status and QoL of patients with olfactory dysfunction and septal deviation and to identify predictors associated with clinically significant improvement of psychological status and QoL, focusing mainly on the role of olfactory recovery after septoplasty. Methods The olfactory function was quantitatively assessed using the ‘‘Sniffin’ sticks’’ test (Burghart Messtechnik GmbH, Wedel, Germany) in 60 patients and 25 controls enrolled in this prospective study. The participants completed validated questionnaires specific for general health (Short Form-36), nasal-symptom related QoL (SinoNasal Outcome Test-22), olfaction-associated QoL (Questionnaire of Olfactory Deficits) and for assessing their psychological state (Short Anxiety Screening Test and Beck Depression Inventory) preoperatively and 6 months postoperatively. The patients used the Glasgow Benefit Inventory to evaluate their personal benefit after septoplasty with. Results Septoplasty led to significantly improved olfactory function. Patients with olfactory impairment had significantly lower nasal-symptom related QoL, higher stress levels, andmore depressivemood compared with normosmics and controls before and after septoplasty. Postoperatively, personal benefit from surgery was higher in normosmic patients. Improvement of nasal-symptom related QoL was significantly associated with higher likelihood of clinically significant improvement of patients’ psychological profile and more personal benefit from surgery. Olfactory dysfunction was negatively correlated with the emotional status of the patients. Conclusion Olfactory dysfunction appears to significantly affect the psychological status of patients with nasal obstruction, and olfactory recovery improves the patients’ perception of personal benefit from septoplasty. <![CDATA[Reversible Endoscopic Medial Maxillectomy: Endonasal Approach to Diseases of the Maxillary Sinus]]> Abstract Introduction The endoscopic access has reduced the morbidity associated with external approaches in diseases of themaxillary sinus. A reversible endoscopic medialmaxillectomy (REMM) is presented as an alternative for treatment of benign maxillary diseases. Objective To describe the REMM technique and report four cases of patients with benign maxillary sinus conditions treated through this approach. Methods The present study was divided into two parts: anatomical and case series. Two cadaveric dissections confirmed the feasibility of the REMMapproach. The same technique was performed on four consecutive patients with benign maxillary sinus disease. Results The cadaveric dissections confirmed wide exposure to the maxillary cavity, preserving the anatomy of the maxillary sinus. In the patient series, one patient presented with an antrochoanal polyp, one had a silent sinus syndrome, one had a chronic maxillary sinusitis secondary to a gunshot, and the last one had an inverted papilloma in the maxillary sinus. In all of the cases, the REMM approach provided excellent access and adequate resection, as well as preservation of the inferior turbinate, nasolacrimal duct, and lateral wall of the nose (including its osteomucosal component). Finally, all of the patients had an uneventful postoperative course. Conclusion The REMM technique is an excellent surgical approach to benign conditions of the maxillary sinus. It has few limitations and appears to be associated with less morbidity than conventional techniques.