Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Zoologia (Curitiba)]]> vol. 37 num. lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Character variation and taxonomy of short-tailed fruit bats from <em><em>Carollia</em></em> in Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Carollia has a complex taxonomic history and is widely distributed in the Neotropics. Species of Carollia appear to have differentiated recently in the late Cenozoic, and present overlapping morphological characters that may not be useful to distinguish among species. Carollia has recently been revised, but only a few specimens representing the Brazilian distribution of Carollia within Brazil were studied. We reviewed specimens of Carollia distributed in several localities of Brazil revisiting previously described morphological characters for species identification, and taxonomic problems within the genus. We found a large degree of overlap between characters previously used to distinguish among species of Carollia, and some of them constitute variation within a same species. We also report new records extending the known distribution of C. benkeithi to farther east of its previously known distribution (Parauapebas, southeastern Pará, and Vitória do Xingu, Pará, eastern Amazonian Brazil) and one record extending the distribution of C. brevicauda south to Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. <![CDATA[A remarkable new species of <em><em>Cavichiana</em></em> (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from southeastern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Cavichiana Mejdalani et al., 2014 was a formerly monotypic Cicadellinae genus exclusively found in bromeliads from southeastern Brazil. Here a new species is described, diagnosed, and illustrated from Itatiaia National Park, municipality of Itamonte, state of Minas Gerais (Mantiqueira mountain range); specimens were collected on Vriesea spp. (Bromeliaceae). Cavichiana alpina sp. nov. (male holotype in DZRJ) can be recognized by the following combination of features: (1) forewing clavus with basal portion and area along commissural margin orange, remainder of claval area blue (except dark brown apex); (2) corium with large blue area adjacent to claval sulcus, connected to blue area of clavus; (3) distal portion of female and male pygofer not sclerotized; (4) aedeagus with distinct basidorsal lobe and with apex narrowly rounded, not bearing crown of spines; and (5) female sternite VII with deep V-shaped posterior emargination. Notes on the distribution of the genus are provided and C. bromelicola Mejdalani et al., 2014 is newly recorded from southern Brazil. <![CDATA[<em>Glossidiella peruensis</em> sp. nov., a new digenean (Plagiorchiida: Plagiorchiidae) from the lung of the brown ground snake <em><em>Atractus major</em></em> (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Peru]]> ABSTRACT During a survey of helminth parasites of the brown ground snake, Atractus major Boulenger, 1894 (Serpentes: Dipsadidae) from Moyobamba, region of San Martin (northeastern Peru), a new species of Glossidiella Travassos, 1927 (Plagiorchiida: Plagiorchiidae) was found and is described herein based on morphological and ultrastructural data. The digeneans found in the lung were measured and drawings were made with a drawing tube. The ultrastructure was studied using scanning electron microscope. Glossidiella peruensis sp. nov. is easily distinguished from the type- and only species of the genus, Glossidiella ornata Travassos, 1927, by having an oblong cirrus sac (claviform in G. ornata), distinctly ovate testes (rounded testes in G. ornata) and button-like papillae on the dorsal edge of the oral sucker region (absent in G. ornata). In addition, G. peruensis sp. nov. differs from G. ornata by possessing a longer distance between testes and substantially wider oral and ventral suckers. This is the first time that a species of digenean is described and reported parasitizing snakes in Peru. <![CDATA[Reproductive parameters of the Chestnut-capped Blackbird, <em><em>Chrysomus ruficapilus</em></em> (Passeriformes: Icteridae), in a natural wetland from southeastern Brazil]]> ABSTRACT The Chestnut-capped Blackbird, Chrysomus ruficapilus (Vieillot, 1819), is a common bird species in flooded areas of South America. Data on its reproductive parameters have been reported mainly for rice paddies from Uruguay and southern Brazil, where reproductive phenology might have been influenced by the chronology of agricultural activities. Here we provide reproductive data for a population in a natural marshland from São Paulo state, southeastern Brazil. A total of 45 active nests were monitored between December 2017 and April 2018. Clutch size was 2.8 ± 0.44. Incubation and nestling periods were respectively 11.8 ± 0.39, and 12.3 ± 0.75 days, and overall nesting success was 65%. The reproductive season lasted about five months, which is longer than that observed in rice paddies from southern Brazil. This suggests that the reproductive phenology has been underestimated before. Although clutch sizes were bigger in our study population than that from rice paddies from southern Brazil, nest survival was higher in the artificial habitat, suggesting that the Chestnut-capped Blackbird can obtain benefits from nesting in artificial habitats. <![CDATA[Encounter rate and behavior of <em><em>Alouatta guariba clamitans</em></em> in the Ilha Grande State Park, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil]]> ABSTRACT Alouatta guariba clamitans Cabrera, 1940 is an endemic species of the Atlantic Forest that occurs from south Bahia, Brazil, extending south to the province of Misiones, Argentina. In Rio de Janeiro state, the species was classified as threatened, indicating that attention is needed for the conservation of this taxon. Additionally, an outbreak of yellow fever spread throughout the southeastern states of Brazil from January 2017 until March 2018 seriously threatening Rio de Janeiro populations of the species. Herein, we aimed to provide the first estimates of A. g. clamitans encounter rate, density, and population size in the Ilha Grande State Park (PEIG), which is part of the Atlantic Forest biome of Brazil. Data were collected in two different periods, the first between December 2003 and May 2005, and the second from August 2009 to May 2010, and information on encounter rates and behavior was collected to better understand aspects of species’ ecology. The estimated encounter rate in the first period through the distance sampling method was 0.04 ± 0.01 individuals per kilometer. Nine groups were recorded in the second period of the study, with 47 individuals along 3 km. Our estimates of encounter rate, density and population size were low and reinforces the need to initiate species monitoring and assess the impact that yellow fever outbreaks may have on PEIG populations. The results presented here can be a starting point to support future strategic actions for the species, to measure impacts and to the management of the species, and for a conservation program. <![CDATA[Updates on <em><em>Berlandiella</em></em> (Araneae: Philodromidae): a new species, description of the male of <em><em>B. querencia</em></em> and new diagnosis for the genus]]> ABSTRACT Berlandiella Mello-Leitão, 1929 is currently composed of six Neotropical species, of which Berlandiella querencia Lise &amp; Silva, 2011 is known only from female specimens; the other species of the genus were described based on both males and females. In this paper, we describe and illustrate Berlandiella zabele sp. nov., based on a few individuals collected in Sete Cidades National Park, Piracuruca and Brasileira, state of Piauí, Brazil. We illustrate and describe the previously unknown male of B. querencia, based on a specimen collected from Reserva Mocambo, Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. The taxa described herein have scopula in the tarsi and metatarsi, and the males have a cymbial process, characters recorded for the first time for the genus. Additionally, we present an updated diagnosis for Berlandiella. <![CDATA[Chilling to the bone: Lower temperatures increase vertebrate predation by <em><em>Tonatia bidens</em></em> (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae)]]> ABSTRACT The greater round-eared bat, Tonatia bidens (Spix, 1823), is a medium-sized phyllostomid bat distributed in the north of Argentina, Paraguay and Brazil. The diet and foraging patterns of this species are poorly known. We analyzed the composition of the diet of a population of T. bidens and how the temperature influences the consumption of vertebrates and invertebrates. To describe diet composition, we conducted weekly collections of food scrap from two monospecific night-perches. Data of temperature for the study period were taken from the meteorological station installed 300 m from the collection perches. The influence of temperature was evaluated using generalized linear models (GLMs) with negative binomial distribution. Tonatia bidens consumed 28 taxons (204 records), being at least 17 Artropods and 11 Passeriformes birds. Temperature explained a greater proportion of vertebrate abundance (R2 = 0.23) than invertebrate (R2 = 0.16) or to both pooled (R2 = 0.11). The relation with temperature was positive with invertebrates and negative with the vertebrates. The diet of the population of T. bidens comprised mainly invertebrates, which were the most frequent and diverse taxa. Data suggests that T. bidens has a diverse diet, with proportion of the item’s consumption varying temporally. Environmental factors, such as the temperature presented on this work, seems to be good proxies for the dietary traits of this species. <![CDATA[Analysis of reproductive biology and spawning season of the pink ear emperor <em><em>Lethrinus lentjan</em></em> , from marine ecosystem]]> ABSTRACT A total of 593 samples of Lethrinus lentjan (Lacepede, 1802) were collected from the Red Sea, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, to study their productive biology and spawning season of the local population. Sampling was carried out on a monthly basis for a period of one year. The monthly sex ratios indicated that females were dominant throughout the study period, with an overall male:female sex ratio of 1:7.98, although males were larger than females. The highest monthly performance maturation index (PMI), as well as the male and female gonadosomatic index (GSI) and ovarian maturation rate (OMR) were observed in February and March. Histological examination of the gonads confirmed the process of sexual transformation in this fish species, wherein individuals mature first as female, and then change sex to male (protogynous hermaphroditism). Histological sections also showed that the sexual maturation of males of L. lenjtan comprised three main stages, while the sexual development of females could be classified into four main stages. Extended spawning in the form of batches released during different months throughout the year were recorded for this fish species, with the main spawning season in February and March, and an additional, shorter spawning season in September. <![CDATA[Survival of the copepod <em><em>Mesocyclops longisetus</em></em> during simulations of transport from hatchery to target areas for biological control of mosquito larvae]]> ABSTRACT Copepods have been successfully used in many countries for the biological control of larvae of mosquitoes that vector diseases. In Brazil, this line of research has been focused on the use of the copepod Mesocyclops longisetus (Thiébaud, 1914) for the biological control of the mosquito Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, 1792). The transportation of the copepods from the place where they are reared to where they will be used often involves long distances for extended periods of time. This study assesses the survivorship of M. longisetus during simulation of transport under different conditions. Different loading densities (20, 30, 40, 80, and 120 ind.L) and stirring times (30 minutes, one hour, two hours, and four hours) were tested. Survivorship was high, with 75% of the results equal or higher than 90% survival. Reduced mortality was observed when transportation time was up to 120 minutes and densities were up to 40 ind.L. In higher densities or longer transportation times, the mortality rate was significantly affected. <![CDATA[Living among thorns: herpetofaunal community (Anura and Squamata) associated to the rupicolous bromeliad <em><em>Encholirium spectabile</em></em> (Pitcairnioideae) in the Brazilian semi-arid Caatinga]]> ABSTRACT Bromeliads are important habitats for reptiles and amphibians, and are constantly used as shelter, refuge, foraging or thermoregulation sites due to their foliar architecture, which allows for constant maintenance of humidity and temperature. This study aimed to identify the herpetofauna inhabiting the non-phytotelmata rupicolous bromeliad Encholirium spectabile Mart. ex Schult. &amp; Schult.f. and to analyze the microhabitat usage of these bromeliads by different species in the Caatinga of northeastern Brazil. From January 2011 to August 2012, we collected data by active search throughout three paralel transects in a rock outcrop in the municipality of Santa Maria, state of Rio Grande do Norte. We recorded four species of anuran amphibians, six lizards, and seven snakes in the bromeliads. The average air temperature was lower and air humidity higher inside than outside the bromeliads, and bromeliads at the rock outcrop borders had lower temperatures and higher humidity than those at the center. We found a significant difference in the distribution of individuals throughout the rock outcrop, with most specimens found at the borders. We also found significant differences regarding the use of each microhabitat by the taxonomic groups, with lizards and snakes using green leaves and dry leaves evenly, along with fewer records in inflorescence stems, and anurans mainly using green leaves, with few records on dry leaves, and no records in the inflorescence stems. This study highlights rupicolous bromeliads as key elements in the conservation and maintenance of amphibians and reptiles in the rock outcrops of Brazilian semi-arid Caatinga. <![CDATA[New combination and redescription of <em><em>Bumba humile</em></em> , description of four new species and new records from Brazil (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae)]]> ABSTRACT The taxonomic history of Bumba Pérez-Miles, Bonaldo &amp; Miglio, 2014 is mainly based on the inclusion of the new species. Bumba have been characterized by the type IV urticating setae present, retrolateral process on male palpal tibia, palpal bulb resting in a ventral distal excavation of palpal tibia, metatarsus I passes between the two branches of tibial apophysis when flexed, presence of spiniform setae on prolateral and retrolateral sides of maxillae and coxae I-IV. In this paper we include the row of teeth (denticulate row) in the median region of the inferior prolateral keel in all male palps. This structure range from a residual tooth to a ridge of up to five teeth. Both, the denticulate row and the retrolateral process on male palpal tibia in males could be considered as putative synapomorphies for Bumba. Here, Homoeomma humile Vellard, 1924 is transferred to Bumba and redescribed, while the female is described for the first time. Bumba cabocla (Pérez-Miles, 2000) is synonymyzed with B. horrida (Schmidt, 1994). Bumba pulcherrimaklaasi (Schmidt, 1991) is transferred to Cyclosternum Ausserer, 1871. Four new species are described and illustrated: Bumba tapajos sp. nov. from state of Pará, Bumba cuiaba sp. nov. and Bumba rondonia sp. nov., both from states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso, respectively, and Bumba mineiros sp. nov. from Paraguay and the Brazilian states of Goiás, Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Diagnosis of B. horrida and B. lennoni are extended and figures of this species are presented. <![CDATA[The effects of rainfall and arthropod abundance on breeding season of insectivorous birds, in a semi-arid neotropical environment]]> ABSTRACT Rainfall in tropical semi-arid areas may act as a reliable cue for timing bird reproduction, since it precedes future food supply. With this in mind, we set-up a study to test the reproductive response of insectivorous bird to arthropod abundance and rainfall patterns. Sampling occurred in a seasonally dry Neotropical forest, in north-eastern Brazil, between October, 2015 and October 2016, at 14-day intervals. We used brood patch to assess reproductive periodicity of insectivorous birds (eight species, 475 captures, 121 patch records). We sampled arthropods to quantify abundance, using biomass and number of individuals (1755 individuals, 15 Orders). Rainfall temporal distribution was analyzed using daily precipitation data. We used a cross-correlation function to test for correlation and time-lags between the covariates under study. Both the number of reproductively-active birds and arthropod abundance were higher in time periods close to the rainy season. Increase in arthropod biomass in the aerial stratum preceded the period of greatest rainfall by one (14 days, r = 0.44) to three sampling periods (0.47). In contrast, the highest proportion of individuals with brood patches occurred after the main rainfall peak, with the strongest relationship occurring after two (0.52) to four (0.50) time lags. Finally, the proportion of individuals with brood patches was positively correlated with aerial stratum arthropod biomass when five time lags were considered (0.55). Our results support the hypothesis of a temporal process involving rainfall, arthropods and reproduction of insectivorous birds in the wet/dry tropics. However, rainfall did not appear to act as a cue for the timing of reproduction, since records indicated higher arthropod biomass before the main rainfall peak. At least occasionally in the study area, insectivorous bird reproduction peaks after food abundance. <![CDATA[Type specimens of Limnophorini (Diptera: Muscidae) deposited in the Museum für Naturkunde, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (Berlin, Germany)]]> ABSTRACT The type specimens of 153 species of Limnophorini in the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany, were revised. Differential diagnoses, notes on the types, and photographs of some of them (habitus and labels) are provided. <![CDATA[Genetic analysis of whole mitochondrial genome of <em><em>Lateolabrax maculatus</em></em> (Perciformes: Moronidae) indicates the presence of two populations along the Chinese coast]]> ABSTRACT The whole mitochondrial genome of Lateolabrax maculatus (Cuvier, 1828) was used to investigate the reasons for the observed patterns of genetic differentiation among 12 populations in northern and southern China. The haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity of L. maculatus were 0.998 and 0.00169, respectively. Pairwise FST values between populations ranged from 0.001 to 0.429, correlating positively with geographic distance. Genetic structure analysis and haplotype network analysis indicated that these populations were split into two groups, in agreement with geographic segregation and environment. Tajima’s D values, Fu’s Fs tests and Bayesian skyline plot (BSP) indicated that a demographic expansion event may have occurred in the history of L. maculatus. Through selection pressure analysis, we found evidence of significant negative selection at the ATP6, ND3, Cytb, COX3, COX2 and COX1 genes. In our hypotheses, this study implied that demographic events and selection of local environmental conditions, including temperature, are responsible for population divergence. These findings are a step forward toward the understanding of the genetic basis of differentiation and adaptation, as well as conservation of L. maculatus. <![CDATA[Occurrence and ecological implication of a tropical anguillid eel, <em>Anguilla marmorata</em>, in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo Island]]> ABSTRACT Tropical anguillid eels account for two-thirds of the 19 species in Anguilla Schrank, 1798. However, information on the species diversity, geographical distribution, and life histories of the tropical eels is very limited. Recent studies suggested that morphological species identification of the tropical anguillid eels should be validated by molecular analysis for accurate identification. After surveying for three years, two anguillid eels were found in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo Island. They were firstly identified as Anguilla marmorata Quoy &amp; Gaimard, 1824 using morphological analysis and further gene analysis of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) confirmed the species identification. This study is the first comprehensive description of A. marmorata in Brunei Darussalam, Borneo Island. Furthermore, it is also the first study to validate two anguillid eels collected from the tropical Bonin Islands of Japan as A. marmorata by means of morphological and COI analyses. The molecular phylogenetic tree and haplotype network analyses suggest that A. marmorata found in Brunei Darussalam would belong to the North Pacific population of the westernmost distribution.