Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening]]> http://www.scielo.br/rss.php?pid=2326-459420200001&lang=pt vol. 8 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.br/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.br <![CDATA[Otorhinolaryngological Findings in Patients from Southwestern Colombia with Clinical, Enzymatic and Molecular Diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidosis II, IV-A and VI]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2326-45942020000100301&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt ABSTRACT Mucopolysaccharidosis is characterized by excessive accumulation of glycosaminoglycan sulfate in organs and tissues. Otorhinolaryngological and upper respiratory tract pathologies are among the earliest clinical manifestations. We realized a retrospective study of clinical and otorhinolaryngologic findings of 35 patients diagnosed with MPS type II, IV-A and VI of the Colombian southwest. As a result, we found that 64% of the patients evaluated had hearing loss, 11.3% had hypertrophy of the tonsils,17.10% short neck and macroglossia. Additionally, 47.8% of the patients presented otitis media. 20% received treatment with hearing aids. no patient reported otosclerosis or tinittus. In patients with different types of MPS, there is a high frequency and progressive tendency to suffer audiological losses and recurrent infections, so it is important an opportune diagnosis, permanent monitoring and adequate therapy to avoid the repercussion of the pathology in the quality of life of patients. <![CDATA[Monitoring of Phenylalanine Levels in Patients with Phenylketonuria Using Dried Blood Spots: a Comparison of Two Methods]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2326-45942020000100302&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Phenylketonuria (PKU) is caused by deficient activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH), responsible for the conversion of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine (Tyr). Monitoring of patients with PKU requires the measurement of Phe in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or in dried blood spots (DBS) using different techniques to adjust treatment strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate Phe levels in DBS measured by two different methods and compare them with Phe levels measured in plasma by HPLC. We analyzed 89 blood samples from 47 PKU patients by two different methods: fluorometric method developed in-house (method A) and the commercially available PerkinElmer® Neonatal Phenylalanine Kit (method B) and in plasma by HPLC. The mean Phe levels by method A, method B, and HPLC were 430.4±39.9μmol/L, 439.3±35.4μmol/L, and 442.2±41.6μmol/L, respectively. The correlation values between HPLC and methods A and B were 0.990 and 0.974, respectively (p &lt; 0.001 for both). Our data suggest that methods A and B are useful alternatives for monitoring Phe levels in patients with PKU, with method A being in closer agreement with the reference standard (HPLC). <![CDATA[Safety and Efficacy of Elosulfase Alfa in Australian Patients with Morquio a Syndrome: A Phase 3b Study]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2326-45942020000100303&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract The safety and efficacy of elosulfase alfa were evaluated in a multicenter, open-label, phase 3b study in Australian Morquio A patients, consisting of a 49-week initial phase and an extension phase until elosulfase alfa was government funded. Thirteen patients (1-27 years) were enrolled. No new safety concerns were identified over 138 weeks. Most drug-related adverse events were mild or moderate in severity; none led to study discontinuation. After 49 weeks of treatment, median improvements from baseline were seen in the 6-minute walk test (+41.0 m), 3-minute stair climb test (+14.0 stairs/min), forced vital capacity (+16.4%), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (+14.1%), urine keratan sulfate (-7.1 µg/mg creatinine), and pain intensity. Growth, cardiac function, sleep, and quality of life results were mixed or stable. These results provide further evidence of the acceptable safety/tolerability profile of elosulfase alfa. The improvements in endurance, pulmonary function, and pain support findings from previous studies. <![CDATA[The Challenges of Living with and Caring for a Child or Children Affected by Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis Type 2 Disease: In-Depth Family Surveys in the United Kingdom and Germany]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2326-45942020000100304&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Limited research has investigated the challenges faced by families caring for children with neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis type 2 (CLN2) disease. Face-to-face, mixed-method, in-depth surveys were conducted with 19 families (23 children) in the UK (n=9) and Germany (n=10) to assess the impact of caring for children with CLN2 disease, using national wellbeing and quality of life (QoL) measures. Primary (n=19) and secondary (n=10) caregivers, adult siblings (n=2), and child siblings (n=2) were included. Caregivers reported reduced health-related QoL compared with age and gender-matched controls (mean utility scores 0.08 and 0.11 lower in Germany and the UK, respectively). Hours of caregiving were significantly higher relative to that provided to a child of normal health, with stress, back pain, and reductions in sleep being recorded. Lower life satisfaction and happiness with partners were also reported, along with significant financial burden. Those caring for children in the late stage of disease were more greatly impacted than those with children in the rapidly progressive stage, or who were bereaved. The results of this study make clear the importance of emotional and practical support for caregivers and siblings coping with CLN2 disease. <![CDATA[Perthes-Like Disease Masquerading Non-Classical MPS]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2326-45942020000100305&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are inborn errors of metabolism caused by deficient lysosomal enzymes, leading to organomegaly, hip osteonecrosis, coarse facial features, bone deformities, joint stiffness, cardiac and pulmonary symptoms (MPS VI) or hypermobility (MPS IVA). Some patients may present with non-classical forms of the disease in which osteoarticular abnormalities are the initial symptoms of non-classical forms. As orthopedists and surgeons are the specialists most frequently consulted before the diagnosis, it is critical that MPS may be considered as a differential diagnosis for patients with bone dysplasia. Experts in Latin America reviewed medical records focusing on disease onset, first symptoms and the follow-up clinical and surgical outcomes of non-classical MPS VI and IVA patients. All patients displayed orthopedic issues, which worsened over time, followed by cardiac and ophthalmological abnormalities. Our findings enlighten the necessity of including non-classical MPS as possible diagnosis for patients who report osteoarticular abnormalities in absence of inflammation. <![CDATA[Development of a Clinical Algorithm for the Early Diagnosis of Mucopolysaccharidosis III]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2326-45942020000100401&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Mucopolysaccharidosis III (MPS III) is a rare inherited metabolic disease primarily affecting the central nervous system, leading to developmental and/or speech regression. Early diagnosis of the disease is important to introduce appropriate management measures and to optimize therapeutic outcomes. The diagnosis of MPS III is often significantly delayed due to the rarity of the disease, the more attenuated somatic presentation compared to other MPS types, and the symptom overlap with other developmental disorders. To shorten the time to diagnosis, a list of eight early signs and symptoms was identified through an expert system approach by a global, multidisciplinary working group of 13 specialists with expertise in various aspects of MPS and developmental disorders and three parents of MPS III patients. Coarse facial features and persistent hirsutism or prominent, thick eyebrows were identified as the most important MPS III early signs. The list of eight early MPS III signs and symptoms is the first step towards the development of a clinical algorithm aiming to identify neonates and infants with MPS III before the onset of neurocognitive damage, ultimately shortening the diagnostic journey of MPS III patients. <![CDATA[Clinical Application of Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry Using Dried Blood Spot as a More Rapid Method for Determination of Methylmalonic Acid, Propionylcarnitine, and Total Homocysteine]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2326-45942020000100501&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Methylmalonic acidemia (MMA) should be diagnosed in early infancy and receive appropriate management promptly after the diagnosis to prevent severe complications leading to death. At present, a newborn screening (NBS) method using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) identifies suspected patients with MMA by elevated propionylcarnitine. In addition, a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method using dried blood spot is effective to detect some metabolites as a second-tier test, and reduces the false-positive rate in NBS. However, these tests were only used in screening, and not applied as an examination for evaluating treatment. Herein, we describe a 57-day-old girl with MMA under treatment with cobalamin who had elevated urinary methylmalonic acid levels. We applied the LC/MS/MS method with a separation column to evaluate her cobalamin responsiveness, and discovered an insufficient cobalamin dose earlier than would have been possible using other methods. Based on the current data, this method seems to be applicable for the follow-up of the treatment of MMA patients. However, this should be confirmed with more experience with a larger number of cases and a wider spectrum of disorders. <![CDATA[Description of Functioning in Children and Adolescents with Mucopolysaccharidosis - Case series]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2326-45942020000100502&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Introduction: Rare health conditions as mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) can directly influence functioning experiences. Mobility restriction, osteoarticular alterations, leads to delayed neuropsychomotor development are some of the negative impacts of MPS. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functioning of children with MPS, from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) perspective. Methodology: It is a case series study with a sample of 15 children and adolescents with MPS with a median age of 12 years, followed in a tertiary hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results: The patients were assessed by the model ICF and results were as following: regarding body functions, most categories presented slight impairment. For mobility of joints and gait, the impairment was severe. Activity and participation with most significant limitations were "learning to read/write", "read/write", "listening" and "performing multiple tasks." In self-care, the main limitations were in "drinking", "taking care of body parts" and "taking care of one's health." Also, there were restrictions on "doing household tasks", "basic economic transactions", "community living" and "religion and spirituality". Conclusion: MPS can have a significant impact in different body systems which act as limiting activities that require body mobility. <![CDATA[Obituary: Toshiyuki Fukao (1961-2020), a friend of the Latin American IEM community]]> http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S2326-45942020000101001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Introduction: Rare health conditions as mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) can directly influence functioning experiences. Mobility restriction, osteoarticular alterations, leads to delayed neuropsychomotor development are some of the negative impacts of MPS. Aims: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functioning of children with MPS, from the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) perspective. Methodology: It is a case series study with a sample of 15 children and adolescents with MPS with a median age of 12 years, followed in a tertiary hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results: The patients were assessed by the model ICF and results were as following: regarding body functions, most categories presented slight impairment. For mobility of joints and gait, the impairment was severe. Activity and participation with most significant limitations were "learning to read/write", "read/write", "listening" and "performing multiple tasks." In self-care, the main limitations were in "drinking", "taking care of body parts" and "taking care of one's health." Also, there were restrictions on "doing household tasks", "basic economic transactions", "community living" and "religion and spirituality". Conclusion: MPS can have a significant impact in different body systems which act as limiting activities that require body mobility.