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Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências

Print version ISSN 0001-3765On-line version ISSN 1678-2690

An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. vol.74 no.3 Rio de Janeiro Sept. 2002

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652002000300050 

HYDRODYNAMICS OF THE AMAZON BASIN

PIERRE SABATÉ

Institut de Recherche et Développement (IRD), Brasília, DF.

 

Registered under the CNPq/IRD convention, the HYBAM project is a model of multi-institutional and international cooperation. It involves the ANA, ANEEL and UnB, as well as researchers from other Brazilian (USP-CENA, UFRJ, IBGE, IEPA) Institutions and some neighboring countries (Bolivia, Peru and Equator).

We show here the wide spectrum of collected data on the Amazon River and its affluents, from Tabatinga to the Atlantic Ocean and an extensive view on modelling and applied domains. Complementary approaches are developed to understand hydrologic dynamics related to climatic forcing, sedimentary and geochemical dynamics.

The methodology implements a hydrologic permanent station net. The studies cover an altimetric calibration of the whole hydrologic network, rivers discharge gouges and several parameters to quantify dynamic processes. They encompass the wave tide influence on liquid and sedimentary discharge of the Amazon River and the influence of climatic index on its respective variability. The role played by flood plains on hydrodynamics is studied and inundation dynamics is followed by satellite imagery. Balance between erosion, transfer and depositional processes, from Andean sources to flood plains, is estimated by flux method and the present sedimentation, by geochemical tracers and geochronologic models. Space and time variability of trace element signatures of surface waters is studied to evidence trap areas and speciation risks of some heavy metals related to a historic study of mercury contamination.

One of the scopes is the Amazon river hydrology modeling (climate versus river discharge relation), its hydrodynamics applied to the prediction of water levels, flow velocities and flood plain dynamics, and of its sedimentology (transport capacities and sediment trapping quantification). Modeling will be useful to investigate the impact of anthropic activities (dams, mining, and so on) improve management of water resources, predict floods (cities of Manaus or Santarém) as well as navigability conditions (Madeira River). The research teams are preparing the corresponding GIS-Amazônia for these studies. — (May 24, 2002) .

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