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Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria

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BROTTO, Mario Wilson Iervolino et al. Adrenoleukodystrophy (melanodermic leukodystrophy): report of a clinico-pathological case. Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. [online]. 1979, vol.37, n.2, pp.169-179. ISSN 0004-282X.

The case of a 14-year-old boy with "diffuse cerebral sclerosis", preceded by signs of primary adrenal cortical insufficiency for 7 years with familiar antecedents is reported. This disorder, named adrenoleukodystrophy, has a sex-lin(ed recessive inheritance. The clinical picture is characterized by mental deterioration, gait disturbances, visual impairment, associated with primary adrenal cortical insufficiency. Confirming the data from literature, in our case the pathological study showed myelin degeneration and diffuse gliosis in the cerebral white matter, with no involvement of subcortical fibers. Inflammatory cells are common, and have a perivascular distribution. In the fasciculata and reticular zones of the adrenal gland, "baloon-shaped" cells are evident, most of them presenting a vacuolized and striated cytoplasm. Similar lipidic inclusions have been found in the Schwann cells of the peripheral nerves and testis. The findings are compared with twenty cases from the literature.

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