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Zoologia (Curitiba)

Print version ISSN 1984-4670

Zoologia (Curitiba, Impr.) vol.28 no.4 Curitiba Aug. 2011

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1984-46702011000400015 

TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE

 

Redescription and new distribution records of Acanthoscurria natalensis (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae)

 

 

Sylvia M. LucasI,1; Hector M. O. Gonzalez FilhoI; Felipe dos S. PaulaI; Ray GabrielII; Antonio D. BrescovitI

ILaboratório de Artrópodes, Instituto Butantan. Avenida Vital Brazil 1500, 05503-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil
IIHope Entomological Collection, Oxford University Museum of Natural History. Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PW, United Kingdom

 

 


ABSTRACT

Acanthoscurria natalensis Chamberlin, 1917 is redescribed. The following species are considered junior synonyms of A. natalensis: A. cursor Chamberlin, 1917, A. fracta Chamberlin, 1917, A. rondoniae Mello-Leitão, 1923, A. chiracantha Mello-Leitão, 1923, and A. parahybana Mello-Leitão, 1926. All examined specimens, including the types, share the same general aspect, morphology of the sexual organs, color, and measurements. Acanthoscurria natalensis resembles A. paulensis Mello-Leitão, 1923 and A. chacoana Brèthes, 1909 in the general aspect, size, and by the morphology of the sexual organs: male palpal bulb with embolus ending like a shell, due to the prolateral and superior keels. It can be distinguished from these two species by the less developed keels and the longer embolus. The female resembles A. paulensis and A. chacoana by the fused base of the spermathecae and differs by the more evident lobes, projected from base. The distribution of A. natalensis is expanded to Brazilian states covering the Caatinga and the Cerrado biomes.

Key words: Caatinga; Cerrado; synonymies; taxonomy; Theraphosinae.


 

 

Acanthoscurria Ausserer, 1871, with 39 described species (PLATNICK 2011), is widely distributed in the Neotropical region, mainly in South America. The genus is characterized by the presence of stridulating bristles on the retrolateral face of the palpal trochanter, only one tibial apophysis on leg I and a retrolateral nodule on palpal tibia of males. Females can be recognized by the seminal receptacles with a common base and two lobes, more or less evident (SCHIAPELLI & GERSCHMAN DE PIKELIN 1979, PÉREZ-MILLES et al. 1996). Early descriptions of species in this genus (AUSSERER 1871, C.L. KOCH 1842, MELLO-LEITÃO 1923) emphasized ambiguous features, such as color, eyes position and distances between them, but did not present illustrations or detailed descriptions of the male palpal bulb and seminal receptacles of females, nowadays considered important in spiders taxonomy. Several species are known only from their holotypes and most descriptions are poor in details. For example, CHAMBERLIN (1917) described three species based on single specimens deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (Harvard University), two from northeastern Brazil (A. natalensis Chamberlin, 1917, based on a female from Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, and A. cursor Chamberlin, 1917, based on a male from Maranguape, Ceará), and a third from northern Brazil, A. fracta Chamberlin, 1917 (based on a male from Pará). The holotypes of the first two species were reexamined by SCHIAPELLI & GERSCHMAN DE PIKELIN (1964), who mentioned more details and supposed that both could belong to the same species. MELLO-LEITÃO (1923) described A. rondoniae Mello-Leitão, 1923based on a single female from São Luiz de Cáceres (currently Cáceres), Mato Grosso, and A. chirachantha Mello-Leitão, 1923, based on a single male from São Paulo. MELLO-LEITÃO (1926) described A. parahybana Mello-Leitão, 1926, based on a single male from Campina Grande, Paraíba. The study of type material and comparisons to specimens deposited in the Mygalomorph Collection of the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo, enabled us to redescribe and establish the junior synonymies of A. natalensis: A. cursor, A. fracta, A. rondoniae, A. chiracantha, and A. parahybana.

 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The material examined is deposited in the collections of the Instituto Butantan, São Paulo (IBSP, curator: I. Knysak), Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ, curator: A. B. Kury), Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge (MCZ, curator: G. Giribet), Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN, curator: C. Rollard), and Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires (MACN, curator: C.L. Scioscia). Spine notation follows PETRUNKEVITCH (1925). All measurements are in millimeters. Female seminal receptacles were dissected and cleared in lactic acid for observation of internal structures. The length of leg segments was measured between joints in dorsal view. Length and width of carapace, eye tubercle, labium and sternum are maximum values. Total body length excludes pedicel and spinnerets. The drawings were made on a Leica MZ12 with a camera lucida. Abbreviations: (AME) anterior median eyes, (ALE) anterior lateral eyes, (PLE) posterior lateral eyes, (PME) posterior median eyes, (STC) superior tarsal claws; Spines: (ap) apical, (d) dorsal, (v) ventral, (p) prolateral, (r) retrolateral; Keels: (PI) prolateral inferior keel, (PS) prolateral superior keel, (A) apical keel (BERTANI 2000).

 

TAXONOMY

Acanthoscurria natalensis Chamberlin, 1917 Figs 1-9

Acanthoscurria natalensis Chamberlin, 1917: 64 (female holotype from Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, Stanford 1911 Exped. leg W.M. Mann, MCZ 88, examined); Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin, 1964: Pl. II, figs 1-2.

Acanthoscurria cursor Chamberlin, 1917: 65, Pl. IV fig. 10 (male holotype from Maranguape, Ceará, Brazil, Stanford 1911 Exped. leg W.M. Mann, MCZ 92, examined); Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin, 1964: Pl. II, figs 15-18. Syn. nov.

Acanthoscurria fracta Chamberlin, 1917: 66, Pl. V fig. I (male holotype from Pará, Brazil, N. Thayer Exped., MCZ 87, examined). Syn. nov.

Acanthoscurria rondoniae Mello-Leitão, 1923: 287 (female holotype, only seminal receptacle available, from São Luiz de Cáceres [currently Cáceres], Mato Grosso, Brazil, leg. E. de Oliveira, MNRJ 28, examined); Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin, 1964: Pl. II, fig. 24. Syn. nov.

Acanthoscurria chiracantha Mello-Leitão, 1923: 279, figs 81, 82, 89, 181 (male holotype from São Paulo, Brazil, MNRJ 38, examined); Schiapelli & Gerschman de Pikelin, 1964: Pl. II, figs 19-23. Syn. nov.

Acanthoscurria parahybana Mello-Leitão, 1926: 321 (male holotype from Campina Grande, Paraíba, Brazil, leg. T. Leitão, MNRJ 42, examined). Syn. nov.

Diagnosis. Males of A. natalensis resemble those of A. paulensis and A. chacoana in the aspect of the palpal organ with an embolus with two prolateral keels, one superior and the other inferior, and the presence of a blunt tubercle on the palpal tibia (Fig. 1), but can be distinguished by the less developed keels with a well marked anterior projection of the embolus (Figs 4-6). Females can be distinguished from other species of the genus by the lobes of the seminal receptacle more projected and with a narrower base (Figs 7 and 8).

Description. Male (IBSP 115328). Coloration in life: carapace dark brown bordered with short yellowish hairs. Femora with same coloration of carapace. Dorsal and ventral aspect of legs and body light brown, covered with short pale reddish hairs. Total length 38.2. Carapace 18.2 long, 16.8 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.50, ALE 1.65, PLE 1.96, PME 1.35. Eye tubercle 2.1 long, 2.9 wide. Labium 2.49 long, 2.48 wide, with 107 cuspules. Endites with 249 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 8.5 long, 7.0 wide, with posterior sigillae two times larger than anterior pair. Cheliceral furrow with 11 teeth and 39 smaller basal teeth. Stridulatory apparatus with approximately 20 bristles. STC I-II with 6 teeth, III-IV with 5. Palp: femur length 11.1, patella 5.8, tibia 9.9, cymbium 4.8, total 31.6. Legs: I: femur 19.2, patella 9.0, tibia 14.0, metatarsus 15.9, tarsus 9.0, total 67.1; II: 17.9, 7.6, 13.9, 14.1, 9.1, 62.6; III: 15.0, 7.1, 12.1, 15.1, 7.9, 57.2; IV: 17.5, 7.6, 15.8, 21.1, 9.0, 71.0. Spines: palp: femur d0-0-0-1, tibia p0-1-0-1-0-1-1-1-1-4ap; I: femur d0-0-0-1, tibia v1-0-0-2-1p-1-1-1-0-2-1p5ap, metatarsus v0-0-1-1ap; II: femur d0-0-0-0-1, tibia v2-0-1-1p-1-0-0-2-1-1p-0-3ap, metatarsus v0-2-1-0-0-2ap; III: femur d0-0-0-0-1, patella d0-1r-0, tibia v1-0-1-2-0-2-0-2-0-4ap, metatarsus v0-0-1-1-2-0-0-2-0-0-0-1p-5ap; IV: femur d0-0-0-0-1, patella d0-1r-0, tibia v0-0-1p-1r-0-1-2-0-3-0-3ap, metatarsus v1-1-0-0-1-1-0-1-0-1-1-0-1-1-0-2-1r-2-0-0-2-1-1-2-4ap. Scopulae on metatarsi I-II throughout ventral portion, restricted to apical half of metatarsi III and apical third of IV. All tarsi with undivided scopulae. Tibial apophysis of leg I large with 8 spines on apex (Figs 2 and 3). Palpal tibia with blunt retrolateral tubercle (Fig. 1). Male palpal bulb with long embolus, with shell-like end formed by two low keels, one superior and one inferior (Figs 4-6).

Female (IBSP 107155). Coloration as in male (Fig. 9). Total length 51.4. Carapace 24.5 long, 21.2 wide. Fovea procurved. Clypeus narrow. Eye group rectangular. Anterior eye row procurved, posterior recurved. Eye sizes: AME 0.70, ALE 2.39, PLE 1.74, PME 2.51. Eye tubercle 2.3 long, 3.2 wide. Labium 3.83 long, 4.19 wide, with 271 cuspules. Endites with 385 cuspules each. Sternum moderately convex, 11.6 long, 7.1 wide, with posterior sigillae two times larger than anterior. Cheliceral furrow with 12 teeth and 52 smaller basal teeth. Stridulatory apparatus with approximately 20 bristles. STC I with 5 teeth, II with 7, III with 4, IV with 6. Palp: femur length 13.2, patella 7.4, tibia 10.1, cymbium 9.8, total 40.5. Legs: I: femur 17.9, patella 10.2, tibia 13.8, metatarsus 12.8, tarsus 8.2, total 62.9; II: 15.3, 9.2, 11.5, 11.0, 7.8, 54.8; III: 13.9, 8.0, 10.0, 12.9, 6.9, 51.7; IV: 17.9, 10.1, 13.5, 17.3, 7.5, 66.3. Spines: palp: femur d0-0-0-1ap, tibia v0-1-0-1-1p-0-3ap; leg I: femur d0-0-0-1ap, tibia v1-0-0-1-0-1p-0-0-3ap, metatarsus v1-0-0-0-3ap; II: tibia v1-0-2-0-0-0-3ap, metatarsus v0-1-0-1r-0-0-3ap; III: tibia v0-0-2-1p-0-3ap, metatarsus v1p-0-1-1-0-1-1-0-1p-1r-1-0-0-0-0-4ap; IV: tibia v0-0-1r-0-2-0-2-0-4ap, metatarsus v0-1-0-1-0-0-1-0-0-1r-1-1-1p-0-1-0-1-1-0-0-2-0-2ap. Scopulae on metatarsi I-II throughout ventral portion, restricted to apical half of metatarsi III and apical third of IV. All tarsi with undivided scopulae. Spermathecae with narrower base and projected lobes (Figs 7 and 8).

Material examined. BRAZIL, Maranhão: São Luís, 2º32' 0.31"S, 44º18'20.76"W, 1 female, 1 immature, 15.VI.1966, Instituto Agronômico leg. (IBSP 103784); Itapecuru-Mirim, 3º23'54.94"S, 44º21'51.47"W, 1 female, 1 immature, II.1971, J.C. Freitas leg. (IBSP 104088); Santa Quitéria do Maranhão, Indústria Rosana, 3º30'1.53"S, 42º33'38.15"W, 1 female, 19.XII.2001, W. Fiores leg. (IBSP 111414); Bacabal, 4º13'2.82"S, 44º46'52.01"W, 1 male, 12.XI.1999, A. Zanotti leg. (IBSP 108036); Caxias, Povoado Boa Vista, 4º51'7.65"S, 43º21' 42.47"W, 1 female, 22.V.2004, J.S. Lopes leg. (IBSP 120498). Ceará: Fortaleza, 3º43'45.41"S, 38º33'25.11"W, 1 female, 16.XI.1960, A.R. Hoge & M.P. Paiva leg. (IBSP 100984); Ubajara, Parque Nacional de Ubajara, 3º51'25.59"S, 40º55' 35.75"W, 1 male, 1 female, 1 immature, VII-XII.2007, D. Loebmann leg. (IBSP 115328); Russas, 4º56'39.94"S, 37º58' 22.45"W, 1 male, IV.1986, D. Elias leg. (IBSP 107527); Quixadá, 4º58'31.56"S, 39º 1'21.79"W, 1 male, 15.III.1965, S. Cardoso leg. (IBSP 103706); Crateús, 5º11'55.51"S, 40º40'3.75"W, 1 female, V.1986, S. Lucas leg. (IBSP 107532); Pedra Branca, 5º29'2.76"S, 39º29'7.83"W, 1 male, 4.IX.1956, (IBSP 103484); Senador Pompeu, Fazenda Bom Lugar, 5º35'30.43"S, 39º21'59.49"W, 1 male, 24.VIII.82, Alfredo L. leg. (IBSP 109755); Parambú, 6º12'33.94"S, 40º41'49.03"W, 1 female, V.1985, D. Elias leg. (IBSP 107155). Piauí: Parnaíba, Campus Embrapa, 2º53'41.57"S, 41º45'18.20"W, 1 female, 3 immatures, 10.I-22.II.2005, D. Loebmann leg. (IBSP 111268); Teresina, 5º5'7.35"S, 42º48'9.79"W, 1 female, VIII.1978, R. Schwarck leg. (IBSP 102342B); Curimatá, 7º16'0.88"S, 40º49'58.30"W, 1 female, V.1986, P.S. Kawall leg. (IBSP 107529); São Raimundo Nonato, 9º0'38.68"S, 42º41' 53.84"W, 1 female, 14.VIII.1978, Fundação Ruralista Curral Novo leg. (IBSP 104204A); Caracol, Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões, 9º33'57.40"S, 45º28'0.44"W, 1 female, 11-26.I.2002, Giovana leg. (IBSP 111844). Rio Grande do Norte: Mossoró, 5º11'20.41"S, 37º19'46.79"W, 1 male, I.2008, D. Araújo leg. (IBSP 115326). Tocantins: Guaraí, Fazenda Marupiara, Km 300 BR 153, 8º48'18.56"S, 48º30'46.93"W, 1 male, F. F. Curcio leg. (IBSP 109775); Miracema do Tocantins, Usina Hidrelétrica Luíz Eduardo Magalhães, 9º45'31.06"S, 48º21'40.11"W, 1 male, 08.X.2001, C.Y. Fukai & E.K. Kashimata leg. (IBSP 110203); Palmas, 10º13'12.98"S, 48º16'30.39"W, 1 male, 1 female, 1 immature, 14.I.1982, V.L.C. Olivetto leg. (IBSP 107216); Ipueiras, Fazenda Ouro Verde, 11º13'44.14"S, 48º27'2.99"W, 1 male, 01.XI.2001, I. Knysak et al. leg. (IBSP 109355); Gurupí, 11º44'51.29"S, 49º3'33.29"W, 1 male, XII.1980, H. S. G. Schullz leg. (IBSP 104596). Paraíba: Santa Luzia, 6º51'51.86"S, 36º55'38.09"W, 1 male, 23.VI.1952, J. Soares de Oliveira leg. (IBSP 102962); Santa Rita, 7º7'0.70"S, 34º58'55.45"W, 1 female, X.2004, G.G. Santana leg. (IBSP 113176); Campina Grande, Distrito de Galante, 7º13'44.47"S, 35º53'10.97"W, 1 female, VIII.1985, J. J. Medeiros leg. (IBSP 107430). Pernambuco: Araripina, 7º34'40.07"S, 40º29'38.65"W, 1 female, 29.V.02, F. Soave leg. (IBSP 109798); Salgueiro, Sertão Central, 8º3'32.94"S, 39º7'48.07"W, 1 female, D.F.L. Silva leg. (IBSP 110392); Recife, 8º3'25.13"S, 34º52'51.94"W, 1 female, D.F.L. Silva leg. (IBSP 110689); Jaboatão dos Guararapes, 8º6'7.28"S, 35º0'31.05"W, 1 female, 27.X.1947, L. Sichiaralli leg. (IBSP 101021); Floresta, Usina Hidrelétrica de Itaparica, 8º30'24.94"S, 38º30'43.35"W, 4 females, 3 immatures, V.1988, W. Bockermann leg. (IBSP 104930). Mato Grosso: São Félix do Araguaia, 11º37'0.97"S, 50º41'51.90"W, 4 males, 2 immatures, leg. (IBSP 102678); Sapezal, Usina Hidrelétrica de Sapezal, 12º54'13.15"S, 58º54'56.06"W, 1 male, 2007, F.D. de Godoy leg. (IBSP 113749). Bahia: Santo Sé, Fazenda Castela, 9º45'33.81"S, 41º53'37.27"W, 2 males, 2.XII.1964, Cia. de Mineração Cominag leg. (IBSP 103699); Queimadas, 10º58'36.84"S, 39º37'30.40"W, 1 female, I.2004, leg. (IBSP 111415); Irecê, 11º17'59.51"S, 41º51'41.74"W, 1 immature, IX.1980, Marília Guimarães leg. (IBSP 104558); Capim Grosso, 11º22'27.57"S, 39º59'41.57"W, 1 male, 11.XII.1986, E.P. Rodrigues leg. (IBSP 104928); Riachão das Neves, 11º44'46.11"S, 44º54'26.27"W, 1 female, 18.II.1974, A. Pereira Filho leg. (IBSP 104234); Barreiras, Fazenda Inês Pita, 12º9'7.99"S, 44º59'7.01"W, 1 male, 31.VII.2000, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. (IBSP 108687); Feira de Santana, 12º16'19.64"S, 38º57'28.39"W, 1 female, 12.III.1976, Paulo Cesar David leg. (IBSP 104182); Camaçari, 12º41'46.76"S, 38º19'26.92"W, 1 female, 30.VI.1986, Central de Polímeros da Bahia leg. (IBSP 104920); Salvador, 12º58'9.14"S, 38º30'30.03"W, 1 male, 1981, T.B. Nunes leg. (IBSP 107904). Alagoas: Campo Grande, 10º13'57.34"S, 36º30'13.80"W, 1 male, XI.1998, R.C. Abujamra leg. (IBSP 111981). Sergipe: Canindé de São Francisco, Usina Hidrelétrica Xingó, 9º37'33.26"S, 37º47'4.29"W, 1 immature, 06.XII.1996, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. (IBSP 111982). Goiás: Minaçu, Usina Hidrelétrica da Serra da Mesa, Rio Tocantins, 13º49'50.21"S, 48º18'16.83"W, 2 females, 1996, Resgate de Fauna leg. (IBSP 111934); Posse, 14º3'55.99"S, 46º20'31.34"W, 1 male, 29.X.1991, V. G. da Silva leg. (IBSP 107254); Luziânia, Usina Hidrelétrica de Corumbá, 16º47'40.71"S, 47º55'48.40"W, 1 male, 22.XI.2005, Equipe Butantan leg. (IBSP 112939); Ipameri, 17º43'44.05"S, 48º8'56.66"W, 1 male, (IBSP 107223); Panamá, 18º9'33.13"S, 49º16'59.12"W, 1 male, J.E.B. Onaga leg. (IBSP 104688). Minas Gerais: 16º34'9.10"S, 46º36'37.69"W, 1 male, 6.XI.1975, Cia. Reflorestamento Rio Escuro leg. (IBSP 104164); Paracatu, 17º13'53.88"S, 46º53'1.90"W, 1 male, 23.II.2001, R.A. Gallon leg. (IBSP 160915). Mato Grosso do Sul: Coxim, 18º30'48.35"S, 54º42'55.86"W, 1 male, IX.1982, A. Marques leg. (IBSP 104183).

Distribution. Brazilian Caatinga and Cerrado: states of Pará, Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Tocantins, Pernambuco, Paraíba, Mato Grosso, Bahia, Alagoas, Sergipe, Goiás, and Minas Gerais (Fig. 10).

 

 

Remarks. The type locality of A. chiracantha is doubtful and probably wrong. MELLO-LEITÃO (1923) mentioned only São Paulo as type locality with no further information. In the large Mygalomorph Collection of the Instituto Butantan, only two species of Acanthoscurria are represented from the state of São Paulo: A. paulensis, with a large distribution range (LUCAS et al. 2010) and A. gomesiana Mello-Leitão, 1923, which is a common species around the city of São Paulo according to MELLO-LEITÃO (1923).

The female allotype of A. fracta Chamberlin, described by VELLARD et al. (1945) from Alto Gy-Paraná, Mato Grosso, was originally deposited in MACN; it could not be located. The description and figures do not allow the identification of the species. The only information available on the type locality of A. fracta is "Pará." Due to these problems, the type localities of A. chiracantha and A. fracta are not given in Fig. 10.

The synonymies established in this article were based on the examination of holotypes and of specimens of the Mygalomorph Collection of the Instituto Butantan. The comparative study was based mainly on the palpal bulb, tubercle of the palpal tibia and tibial apophysis of leg I of males and seminal receptacle of females.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We wish to thank Irene Knysak and her lab staff, who collected the specimens from Tocantins, Brazil, reported in this article. We are grateful to Wilson Lourenço, Gustavo Ruiz, Rafael P. Indicatti, and Cristina Rheims for helpful comments on the manuscript and assistance. We also thank the following curators who sent us specimens for study: G. Giribet, A. B. Kury, C. Rollard, and C. L. Scioscia. This study was supported by funds from the INCTTox PROGRAM of Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico to FSP (ATP) and ADB (PQ) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo.

 

LITERATURE CITED

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SCHIAPELLI, R.D. & B.S. GERSCHMAN DE PIKELIN. 1979. Las arañas de la subfamilia Theraphosinae (Araneae, Theraphosidae). Revista del Museu Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia" (Entomología) 5(10):287-300.         [ Links ]

VELLARD, J.; R.D. SCHIAPELLI & B.S. GERSCHMAN DE PIKELIN. 1945. Arañas Sudamericanas colleccionadas por el Doctor J. Vellard. I. Theraphosidae nuevas o poco conocidas. Acta Zoologica Lilloana 3:165-213.         [ Links ]

 

 

Submitted: 01.III.2011; Accepted: 23.IV.2011.

 

 

Editorial responsibility: Gabriel L.F. Mejdalani
1 Corresponding author. E-mail: sylvialucas@butantan.gov.br

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