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Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências

Print version ISSN 0001-3765On-line version ISSN 1678-2690

Abstract

CAVALHEIRO, MARIANA G. et al. Macrophages as target cells for Mayaro virus infection: involvement of reactive oxygen species in the inflammatory response during virus replication. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2016, vol.88, n.3, pp.1485-1499. ISSN 1678-2690.  https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201620150685.

Alphaviruses among the viruses that cause arthritis, consisting in a public health problem worldwide by causing localized outbreaks, as well as large epidemics in humans. Interestingly, while the Old World alphaviruses are arthritogenic, the New World alphaviruses cause encephalitis. One exception is Mayaro virus (MAYV), which circulates exclusively in South America but causes arthralgia and is phylogenetically related to the Old World alphaviruses. Although MAYV-induced arthritis in humans is well documented, the molecular and cellular factors that contribute to its pathogenesis are completely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that macrophages, key players in arthritis development, are target cells for MAYV infection, which leads to cell death through apoptosis. We showed that MAYV replication in macrophage induced the expression of TNF, a cytokine that would contribute to pathogenesis of MAYV fever, since TNF promotes an inflammatory profile characteristic of arthritis. We also found a significant increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at early times of infection, which coincides with the peak of virus replication and precedes TNF secretion. Treatment of the cells with antioxidant agents just after infection completely abolished TNF secretion, indicating an involvement of ROS in inflammation induced during MAYV infection.

Keywords : alphaviruses; Mayaro virus; macrophage activation; reactive oxygen species; viral arthritis.

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