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Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia

On-line version ISSN 1677-9487

Abstract

MONTENEGRO JR, Renan M. et al. Evolução materno-fetal de gestantes diabéticas seguidas no HC-FMRP-USP no período de 1992-1999. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab [online]. 2001, vol.45, n.5, pp.467-474. ISSN 1677-9487.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302001000500010.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of maternal and fetal complications, type of delivery and metabolic control of diabetic pregnant women followed at HCFMRP-USP, between 1992 and 1999. Outcome data were obtained on 261 patients where 44 (16.3%) had type 1 (DM1), 82 (30.5%) had type 2 (DM2) and 143 (53.2%) had gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). The occurrence of obesity prior to gestation was elevated in patients with GDM (47.6%) and DM2 (65.9%). Hypertension was also frequent in the latter group (46.3%). In spite of the late beginning of the prenatal care in all three groups, there was metabolic control improvement, observed through reduction of glycemias (DM1: 10h: 197±40 vs. 128±39mg/dl, p= 0.003; DM2: 7h: 147±53 vs. 102±19mg/dl, p= 0.001; 14h: 164±53 vs. 121±28mg/dl, p= 0.01; 20h: 201±55 vs. 147±43mg/dl, p= 0.01; DMG: 7h: 100±34 vs. 89±20mg/dl, p= 0.003; 10h: 144±49 vs. 122±29mg/dl, p= 0.03; 14h: 126±38 vs. 112±27mg/dl, p= 0.001), and HbA1 levels (DM1: 11.1±2.9 vs. 5.7±1.8%, p= 0.02). Hypoglycemia, urinary tract infections, vulvovaginites, hypertension and pre-eclampsia/ eclampsia were the most incident maternal complications. Hypoglycemia (29.5%, p< 0.0001), urinary tract infections (29.5%, p= 0.02), and abortions (11.4%, p= 0.003) were significantly more common in DM1 patients (11.4%) than in other groups. No maternal death was observed. Cesarea section was the mode of delivery predominantly used in all groups. Hypoglycemia, prematurity, jaundice and macrossomia were the most incident fetal complications. Prematurity (53.7%, p< 0.0001), natimortality (14.6%, p< 0.0001), and respiratory distress syndrome (13.9%, p= 0.003) were more frequent in newborns of DM1 patients. Although some degree of metabolic control improvement has been observed in all groups, a complete normalization of glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels has not been achieved, and probably contributed for the maternal and fetal complications rates observed.

Keywords : Diabetes mellitus; Pregnancy; Complications; Glycemic control.

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