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Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia

On-line version ISSN 1677-9487

Abstract

GLEZER, Andrea  and  BRONSTEIN, Marcello D.. Prolactinoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metab [online]. 2014, vol.58, n.2, pp.118-123. ISSN 1677-9487.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-2730000002961.

Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary adenomas that affect young women at fertile age. Hyperprolactinemia causes hypogonadism, menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea in women, low serum testosterone levels in men, and infertility and sexual dysfunction in both men and women. Macroprolactinomas may cause cephalea, visual disturbance, and hypopituitarism. Clinical treatment with dopamine agonists is the gold standard, with cabergoline as the first choice due to its greater efficiency and tolerability. In about 20% of the cases, treatment is partially or completely ineffective, a situation in which surgery, in general by transsphenoidal route, is indicated. Radiotherapy is indicated only in the control of tumor growth in invasive/aggressive cases. In invasive macroprolactinoma, the necessary approach, in general, is the combination of several therapeutic modalities, including debulking and recently-approved drugs, such as temozolamide. As for pregnancy, the drug of choice to induce ovulation still is bromocriptine. In the cases of microprolactinomas and intrasselar macroprolactinomas, the treatment with dopaminergic agonists may be suspended after pregnancy is confirmed. In macroprolactinomas, management should be individualized.

Keywords : Prolactin; hyperprolactinemia; prolactinoma; pseudoprolactinoma; pituitary adenoma; neurosurgery; macroprolactina; dopamine agonist.

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