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Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo

On-line version ISSN 1678-9946


SILVA, Guilherme Almeida Rosa da et al. Prevalence of asymptomatic urethritis by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae and associated risk factors among males living with HIV-1. Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo [online]. 2018, vol.60, e11.  Epub Mar 08, 2018. ISSN 1678-9946.


The increase in HIV transmissibility in non-ulcerative sexually transmitted infection is already well-established. It is estimated that symptomatic carriers of N. gonorrhoeae and C. trachomatis have a relative risk of 4.8-fold and 3.6-fold, respectively, for the sexual acquisition of HIV. This type of evaluation for asymptomatic urethritis is necessary to reinforce strategies to combat HIV transmission. This study aims to assess the prevalence of patients with asymptomatic urethritis among men diagnosed with HIV-1 and determine the risk factors associated with this infection.


We enrolled a total of 115 male patients aged 18 years or older who have been diagnosed with HIV infection and have no symptoms of urethritis or other sexually transmitted infections and who have been evaluated between May and August 2015 in a follow-up visit at the Immunology Outpatient Clinic of a Brazilian University Hospital.


Four asymptomatic patients were positive for C. trachomatis and were considered asymptomatic carriers of urethritis. Prevalence was 3.47%. Patients who were positive for C. trachomatis urethritis had a lower mean age (p = 0.015).


The presence of asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection is a challenge in clinical practice. We recommend that, in outpatient practice, the habit of inquiring on previous sexual behavior to obtain more information about risks and associations with asymptomatic sexually transmitted infection, a routine physical examination and complementary tests to detect STI pathogens should be performed to discard these conditions. The development of rapid tests for this purpose should also be encouraged.

Keywords : HIV; AIDS; Urethritis; Chlamydia trachomatis; Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

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