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vol.33 issue5Evolution of the landscape in the region of quadrilátero ferrífero (Minas Gerais, Brazil) based on the measurement of erosion rates (10be) and pedogenesisPhysical and chemical properties of an oxisol cultivated under pastures with distinct use history author indexsubject indexarticles search
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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

On-line version ISSN 1806-9657

Abstract

GILLES, Luciléia et al. Water, soil, organic matter, and nutrient losses by rainfall erosion from an area of native pasture cropped with corn, influenced by tillage methods and fertilization types. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2009, vol.33, n.5, pp.1427-1440. ISSN 1806-9657.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832009000500033.

Despite the available knowledge on erosion of cultivated lands, there are situations of soil use and management that need more detailed studies. Based on that, this research work was accomplished with the objective of evaluating soil erosion by rainfall from an area of native pasture cropped with corn (Zea mays L.), under reduced-tillage and no-tillage, and mineral (chemical fertilizer containing N and P) and organic (poultry litter) fertilization. The study was developed in the field, at the Agriculture Experimental Station of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul (EEA/UFRGS), RS, Brazil, in the summer of 2006/2007, by applying simulated rainfall on an Ultisol having sandy loam texture in the surface layer and 0.13 m m-1 average slope steepness. Two erosion tests in the research, were performed, each one of them at the constant 64.0 mm h-1 rainfall intensity and for 1.5 h duration, by using the rotating boom rainfall simulator. The first test was performed soon after treatments establishment, at corn seeding, and the second one 75 days later, at corn tasseling. Soil and plant attributes were evaluated in the experimental plots and those of water erosion in the surface runoff. It was observed that the crop growth and the erosion losses were influenced by the studied treatments. Corn grew better in reduced-tillage, regardless of fertilization type. Soil loss occurred only in reduced-tillage and in the first erosion test, in very small amount, regardless of the fertilization type. Water, organic matter, and nutrients losses occurred in all treatments and erosion tests, in variable amounts, generally being higher in no-tillage and in the first erosion test. The pH of the runoff varied little and no trends in treatments and erosion tests were observed, whereas electric conductivity and mean concentrations of organic matter and nutrients varied widely and clear trends could be observed. This latter aspect repeated with the accumulated total amounts of organic matter and nutrients lost by erosion. The highest accumulated total amounts of nutrients lost by erosion were observed for K in both organic and mineral fertilization, for P in mineral fertilization, and for N in both organic and mineral fertilization, in this decreasing order of values and all under no-tillage. Accumulated total amounts of nutrients lost by erosion lower than the ones just mentioned, but still significant, were observed for K in practically all other treatments and for N under reduced-tillage with organic fertilization.

Keywords : simulated rainfall; reduced-tillage; no-tillage; mineral fertilization; organic fertilization.

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