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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

On-line version ISSN 1806-9657

Abstract

GOMIDE, Plínio Henrique Oliveira et al. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in vegetation types in the Pantanal of Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo [online]. 2014, vol.38, n.4, pp.1114-1127. ISSN 1806-9657.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832014000400007.

The Pantanal (tropical wetland) biome is recognized as one of the largest continuous areas of natural wetlands, harboring a flora and fauna of rare beauty and abundance. Studies to assess the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are nonexistent for this environment. The goal of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of AMF in different vegetation types of the Pantanal of Nhecolândia, Brazil. Soil samples were collected during the dry and wet season in a Neossolo Quartzarênico (Entisol) in vegetation types subject to different flooding regimes: flood-free - semi-deciduous forest (FS) and "Cerradão" (CE); subject to occasional flooding - grassland dominated by Elyonurus muticus (CLE) and "Cerrado" (CC); and subject to seasonal flooding - grasslands dominated by Andropogon spp. (CLA), the edge of bays (BB), and areas exposed at low water/lowlands (VB). Trap crops were established with Brachiaria brizantha to recover cryptic AMF species. Chemical analyses and spore extraction were carried for each soil sample to identify AMF species and determine their abundance and richness. A total of 37 AMF species, belonging to 10 genera and six families, were detected for both seasons. Spore numbers varied significantly among vegetation types, and the highest values were found in CE and CLA. The greatest richness of species was detected in CC (25 species), followed by VB, with 22 species, and CE, with 21 species. This is the first report on AMF diversity from the Pantanal biome. Results of this study suggest that AMF diversity is related to the heterogeneity among vegetation types and that soil chemical characteristics influence the structure of these fungi communities. Considering that the Pantanal is one of the most conserved biomes in the world, the survey of the occurrence of AMF in this study provides important information for better understanding the biodiversity of the phytophysiognomies of this biome.

Keywords : mycorrhiza; diversity; species richness; spore abundance; Glomeromycota.

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