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Sociedade e Estado

versão impressa ISSN 0102-6992versão On-line ISSN 1980-5462

Resumo

JATOBA, Sérgio Ulisses Silva; CIDADE, Lúcia Cony Faria  e  VARGAS, Glória Maria. Ecologism, environmentalism and political ecology: different views on sustainability and on territory. Soc. estado. [online]. 2009, vol.24, n.1, pp.47-87. ISSN 1980-5462.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0102-69922009000100004.

Given the historical evolution of how one understands sustainability and considering their implications on the different uses of territory, this paper explores how these different approaches discuss and deal with the territory. Using the different settings to understand the continuities, changes and tendencies of the process, the text examines the creation of ecology as a science, followed by the emergence of moderate environmentalism, and finally more recent approaches such as political ecology. In the first part, the concept of sustainability is presented as it begins to be shaped by means of ideas of nature protection and conservation, typical of radical ecology; then, it discusses the more moderate version of the concept, when it was expressed in the conciliatory terms of environmentalism and evolves to sustainable development; and finally, the concept is analyzed as it changes into a means of social critique, when seen through the framework of political ecology. The second part the text argues that radical ecology, moderate environmentalism and political ecology face territorial sustainability depending on the various historical and environmental settings and visions of nature. It concludes that different views change depending on the geographical scales in which they engage and on what is at stake in each one of them. Considering the current environmental crisis, these views can present viable alternatives, given that they assign priority to specific aspects such as the natural landscape, nature-society relations and socio-environmental inequalities.

Palavras-chave : sustainability; territory; radical ecology; environmentalism; sustainable development; political ecology.

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