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Scientia Agricola

versão impressa ISSN 0103-9016versão On-line ISSN 1678-992X

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DUFFECK, Maíra Rodrigues; TIBOLA, Casiane Salete; GUARIENTI, Eliana Maria  e  DEL PONTE, Emerson Medeiros. Survey of mycotoxins in Southern Brazilian wheat and evaluation of immunoassay methods. Sci. agric. (Piracicaba, Braz.) [online]. 2017, vol.74, n.4, pp.343-348. ISSN 1678-992X.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-992x-2016-0263.

One hundred commercial wheat grain samples were collected during the 2015 sea-son across 78 municipalities in the states of Paraná (PR), Rio Grande do Sul (RS), and São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Separate subsamples were analyzed for the concentration of deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenona (ZEA) and ochratoxin A (OTA) mycotoxins using two methods: UHPLC-MS/MS (reference method) and a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (AgraQuant®). The OTA mycotoxin was not found in the samples by both methods. DON and ZEA were detected in 55 % and 39 % of the samples by the reference method, with overall mean levels of 795.2 μg kg−1 and 79.78 μg kg−1, respectively. There was a significant and positive correlation (Spearman rank) between DON and ZEA estimates by the reference method (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). The DON levels estimated by the immunoassay agreed poorly with the reference, being largely overestimated. Based on a cut-off level of 1000 μg kg−1, the immunoassay correctly classified 57 samples as true negatives and 15 as true positives. Only 28 were classified as false positives. For ZEA, the levels estimated by the two methods were in better agreement than for DON. Using the cut-off level of 200 μg kg−1, 96 % of the samples were classified correctly as true positives and only one sample was classified as false positive. The levels for both mycotoxins were mostly acceptable for human consumption. Further studies should focus on multi-toxin methods compared with immunoassays to understand the reasons of overestimation and the role of immunoassays as a cost-effective solution for fast screening of mycotoxins in the food chain.

Palavras-chave : Triticum aestivum; UHPLC; ELISA; trichothecenes; ochratoxin.

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