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Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia

Print version ISSN 1806-3713On-line version ISSN 1806-3756

Abstract

PINHEIRO, Gabriela Pimentel et al. Self-reported smoking status and urinary cotinine levels in patients with asthma. J. bras. pneumol. [online]. 2018, vol.44, n.6, pp.477-485.  Epub Oct 08, 2018. ISSN 1806-3756.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1806-37562017000000018.

Objective:

To determine the frequency of active smoking among patients with asthma and individuals without asthma by self-report and urinary cotinine measurement.

Methods:

This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the city of Salvador, Brazil, and involving 1,341 individuals: 498 patients with severe asthma, 417 patients with mild-to-moderate asthma, and 426 individuals without asthma. Smoking status was determined by self-report (with the use of standardized questionnaires) and urinary cotinine measurement. The study variables were compared with the chi-square test and the Kruskal-Wallis test.

Results:

Of the sample as a whole, 55 (4.1%) reported being current smokers. Of those, 5 had severe asthma, 17 had mild-to-moderate asthma, and 33 had no asthma diagnosis. Of the 55 smokers, 32 (58.2%) were daily smokers and 23 (41.8%) were occasional smokers. Urinary cotinine levels were found to be high in self-reported nonsmokers and former smokers, especially among severe asthma patients, a finding that suggests patient nondisclosure of smoking status. Among smokers, a longer smoking history was found in patients with severe asthma when compared with those with mild-to-moderate asthma. In addition, the proportion of former smokers was higher among patients with severe asthma than among those with mild-to-moderate asthma.

Conclusions:

Former smoking is associated with severe asthma. Current smoking is observed in patients with severe asthma, and patient nondisclosure of smoking status occurs in some cases. Patients with severe asthma should be thoroughly screened for smoking, and findings should be complemented by objective testing.

Keywords : Asthma; Smoking; Cotinine.

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