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Tropical Plant Pathology

On-line version ISSN 1983-2052

Abstract

CAVALCANTE, Gilcianny Pignata et al. Potential of ethyl acetate fractions of Stryphnodendron adstringens shells and fruit extracts of Caesalpinia ferrea to control bacterial leaf speck and on the potentiation of defense enzymes in tomato. Trop. plant pathol. [online]. 2014, vol.39, n.4, pp.267-274. ISSN 1983-2052.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1982-56762014000400001.

Considering the importance of bacterial leaf speck (Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato) in reducing tomato yield and difficulties in disease control, this study investigated the effects of fractions of shells extract of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Sa) and fruit extract of Caesalpinia ferrea (Cf) compared to Acibenzolar-S-Methyl (ASM) on reducing bacterial leaf speck symptoms and on the potentiation of the activities of defense enzymes. The number of lesions per plant (NLP) was significantly lower in plants treated with the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) of S. adstringens (Sa) and ASM compared to other treatments (EAF of Cf, n-butanol fractions of Sa and Cf, aqueous fractions of Sa and Cf and sterile distilled water). The bacteria were inhibited by the EAF of Sa and EAF of Cf and n-butanol fractions of Sa and Cf according to the bioautography assay. Saponins and tannins were the two major compounds found in these fractions based on the phytochemical analysis. Peroxidase (POX), polyphenoloxidase (PPO), β-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities were determined on the leaves of plants treated with EAF Sa, ASM and sterile distilled water. Both POX and PAL activities were higher at 3 and 6 days after inoculation (dai), while the PPO and GLU activities were higher from 9 to 12 dai. It is suggested that saponins increased tomato resistance to P. s. pv. tomato because no antimicrobial activity against the bacteria was observed. In conclusion, the EAF Sa was very efficient in reducing bacterial leaf speck symptoms in conditions where the POX, PPO, PAL and GLU activities played a pivotal role in increasing tomato resistance to the disease.

Keywords : Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato; Solanum lycopersicum; induced host resistance; plant extracts.

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