SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.23 issue5Expression of cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid associated with tooth movement induced by aligners: a pilot studyEffect of mangosteen peel extract as an antioxidant agent on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to bleached teeth author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links


Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics

Print version ISSN 2176-9451On-line version ISSN 2177-6709


NOMURA, Suzy et al. Evaluation of the attractiveness of different gingival zeniths in smile esthetics. Dental Press J. Orthod. [online]. 2018, vol.23, n.5, pp.47-57. ISSN 2177-6709.


To evaluate the smile attractiveness of different gingival zeniths by general dentists, orthodontists and laypersons and the esthetic perception in the symmetric and asymmetric changes in gingival zeniths.


Posed photographs of five patients were taken and digitally manipulated in Keynote software, in the gingival zenith region, in increments of 0.5 to 1mm in maxillary central and lateral incisors, symmetrically and asymmetrically, in nine different ways for each patient. The photos were then uploaded to a website, where evaluators (general dentists, orthodontists and laypersons) could observe and vote according to their esthetic perception, scoring from 1 to 10, 1 being the least attractive and 10 the more attractive. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for comparison.


Asymmetric gingival zeniths were less attractive than symmetrical gingival zeniths; gingival zenith differences greater than 1mm were perceptible in the smile attractiveness, both by laypersons, general dentists and orthodontists. When comparing maxillary central incisors with maxillary lateral incisors, the aesthetic change performed in the central incisors are more perceptible than those performed in lateral incisors, both symmetrical and asymmetrical. In a general way, orthodontists and general dentists are more critical in the evaluation and perception of gingival zenith changes, with the laypersons perceiving this change only from 1mm of maxillary right central incisor asymmetrical change.


Asymmetric gingival zeniths are less attractive than symmetrical ones. Gingival zenith differences greater than 1mm are perceptible in the smile attractiveness. Orthodontists and general dentists are more critical in evaluating smile esthetics.

Keywords : Smile; Gingival zenith; Esthetics; Attractiveness.

        · abstract in Portuguese     · text in English     · English ( pdf )