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Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria

Print version ISSN 0004-282X

Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. vol.55 no.4 São Paulo  1997

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X1997000500012 

Treatment of febrile seizures with intermittent clobazam

 

Tratamento de convuslsões febris com clobazam intermitente

 

 

Maria Luiza G. Manreza; José Luiz D. Gherpelli; Lúcia R. Machado-Haertel; Cristiane C. Costas Pedreira; Carlos O. Heise; Aron Diament

Serviço de Neurologia Infantil, Divisão de Clínica Neurológica, Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo (FMUSP). São Paulo SP, Brasil

 

 


ABSTRACT

Fifty children, 24 female and 26 male, with ages varying from 6 to 72 months (mean=23.7 m.) that experienced at least one febrile seizure (FS) entered a prospective study of intermittent therapy with clobazam. Cases with severe neurological abnormalities, progressive neurological disease, afebrile seizures, symptomatic seizures of other nature, or seizures during a central nervous system infection were excluded. Seizures were of the simple type in 25 patients, complex in 20 and unclassified in 5. The mean follow-up period was 7.9 months (range=l to 23 m.), and the age at the first seizure varied from 5 to 42 months (mean=16.8 m.). Clobazam was administered orally during the febrile episode according to the child's weight: up to 5 kg, 5 mg/day; from 5 to 10 kg, 10 mg/day; from 11 to 15 kg, 15 mg/day, and over 15 kg, 20 mg/day. There were 219 febrile episodes, with temperature above 37.8 °C, in 40 children during the study period. Twelve children never received clobazam and 28 received the drug at least once. Drug efficacy was measured by comparing FS recurrence in the febrile episodes that were treated with clobazam with those in which only antipyretic measures were taken. Ten children (20%) experienced a FS during the study period. Of the 171 febrile episodes treated with clobazam there were only 3 recurrences (1.7%), while of the 48 episodes treated only with antipyretic measures there were 11 recurrences (22.9%), a difference highly significant (p<0.0001). Adverse effects occurred in 10/28 patients (35.7%), consisting mainly in vomiting, somnolence and hyperactivity. Only one patient had recurrent vomiting which lead to drug interruption. These effects did not necessarily occurred in every instance the drug was administered, being present in one febrile episode and not in the others. We conclude that clonazepam is safe and efficacious in preventing FS recurrence. It may be an alternative to diazepam in the intermittent treatment of FS recurrence.

Key words: febrile seizures, clobazam, antiepileptic drugs.


RESUMO

Avaliamos prospectivamente o uso intermitente do clobazam na profilaxia de convulsão febril em 50 crianças, 24 do sexo feminino e 26 do masculino, com idades entre 6 e 72 meses (média = 23,7 meses) que haviam apresentado pelo menos um episódio de convulsão febril. Foram excluídas crianças com anormalidades neurológicas severas, doença neurológica progressiva, crises durante infecção do SNC e crises epilépticas sintomáticas outras. As convulsões febris foram classificadas como simples em 25 crianças, complicadas em 20 e em 5 crianças não foi possível a classificação. O tempo médio de seguimento foi 7,9 meses (1-23 meses) e a idade, na primeira crise, variou de 5 a 42 meses (média = 16,8 meses). O clobazam foi administrado por via oral, durante os episódios febris, na dose de 5 mg/dia, em crianças até 5 kg; 10 mg/dia, de 5-10 kg; 15 mg/dia, de 11 -15 kg, e 20 mg/dia, acima de 20 kg. Quarenta crianças apresentaram febre (T > 37,8 °C), num total de 219 episódios febris. Doze crianças não chegaram a receber clobazam e 28 receberam pelo menos uma vez. A eficácia do tratamento foi avaliada comparando a recorrência de convulsão febril entre os episódios febris tratados com clobazam e aqueles tratados apenas com medicação anti-pirética. Dez crianças (20%) apresentaram recorrência de convulsão febril, durante o período de estudo. Dos 171 episódios febris tratados com clobazam, houve apenas 3 (1,7%) recorrências, enquanto dos 48 episódios tratados apenas com anti-térmicos houve 11 (22,9%) recorrências, uma diferença altamente significativa (p < 0,0001) Efeitos colaterais foram observados em 10/28 (35,7%), principalmente vômito, sonolência e hiperatividade. A interrupção da medicação devido a efeitos colaterais foi necessária em um paciente, com vômitos recorrentes. Concluímos que o clobazam é droga eficaz e segura na prevenção de recorrência de convulsão febril na infância, podendo ser uma alternativa ao tratamento com diazepam intermitente.

Palavras-chave: convulsão febril, clobazam, drogas anti-epilépticas.


 

 

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Aceite: 1-agosto-1997.

 

 

Dr. Maria Luiza Giraldes de Manreza M.D. - Serviço de Neurologia Infantil, Divisão de Clínica Neurológica do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP - P.O. Box 8091 - 05403-970 São Paulo SP - Brasil. FAX: 55-11-852 0063.

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