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Bragantia

Print version ISSN 0006-8705On-line version ISSN 1678-4499

Bragantia vol.53 no.2 Campinas  1994

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0006-87051994000200004 

I. BIOTECNOLOGIA, FISIOLOGIA DE PLANTAS E FITOQUÍMICA

 

Adequação de meios de cultura de anteras e testes de genótipos de trigo1

 

Culture medium, microenvironment and genotype effects on wheat anther culture

 

 

Luis Carlos da Silva RamosI, III, Erica Yumi YokooI, III; Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira CamargoII, III

ISeção de Genética, Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC), Caixa Postal 28, 13001-970 Campinas (SP)
II
Seção de Arroz e Cereais de Inverno, IAC
IIICom bolsa do CNPq

 

 


RESUMO

Realizaram-se dois experimentos, o primeiro visando conhecer a capacidade androgênica de variedades de trigo e identificar as melhores condições para alcançar aquele objetivo, em termos de meios de cultura e microclima. No segundo, estudou-se maior número de variedades. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas as seguintes: PF 853031 e IAC 24, a primeira, usada como padrão; dois meios de cultura básicos, batata-2 e N6; duas auxinas, IAA e 2,4-D, nas doses de 3, 9 e 27 ìmol/L, e cinetina, nas doses de 2, 6, 12 e 24 ìmol/L. As anteras plaqueadas foram acondicionadas em sala fotoperiódica: (a) com 14 h de luz, 60 ìmol.m-2.s-1 (3.200 lux), à temperatura de 25°C, e (b) submetidas a pré-tratamento por quatro dias a 6°C e, em seguida, retornadas à condição a. Notou-se que a melhor combinação de tratamentos para a variedade IAC 24 foi o meio batata-2, 2,4-D a 27 .ìmol/L e cinetina 2 a 6 ìmol/L, por promover maior indução de estruturas androgênicas. Já para a variedade PF 853031, a mesma combinação de tratamentos, exceto 2,4-D a 9 µmol/L, promoveu também maior indução de estruturas androgênicas. Por outro lado, o pré-tratamento de quatro dias de frio causou maior indução de estruturas androgênicas em ambas as variedades. No segundo experimento, foram estudadas cinco variedades: PF 853048, usada como padrão, IAC 21, BH 1146, IAC 60 e Anahuac; dois meios de cultura básicos: batata-2 e N6; duas combinações hormonais: CH1 (10 µmol/L IAA e 30 ìmol/L de cinetina), e CH2 (10 ìmol/L de 2,4-D e 3,0 ìmol/L de cinetina). Observou-se maior indução de estruturas androgênicas para a 'PF 853048', seguida da 'Anahuac'. Todavia, somente foram obtidas plantas para a primeira. Essa constatação sugere que a capacidade androgênica seja controlada geneticamente no trigo. Na combinação hormonal 10 ìmol/L de 2,4-D e 3 ìmol/L de cinetina houve maior formação de estruturas androgênicas. Transplantaram-se as plantas regeneradas para vasos contendo solo, alocando-as em casa de vegetação para aclimatação, crescimento e florescimento. As plantas mostraram-se inférteis, mas produziram sementes após a duplicação pela técnica da colchicina.

Termos de indexação: trigo, Triticum aestivum L., cultura de anteras, diaplóide, variedades, reguladores do crescimento.


ABSTRACT

Experiments were carried out to establish conditions and to access varietal effects for wheat androgenesis. The varieties PF 853031, a standard known for androgenic capacity, and the IAC 24 of high agronomic value, were tested in two culture mediums, potato-2 and N6, including two auxins, IAA and 2.4-D, at 3, 9 and 27 ìmol/L, and kinetin, at 2, 6, 12 and 24 µmol/L. The experiment was installed in factorial design with six blocks and 20 anthers per plate (a block). About 5,760 anthers were plated per variety. The experiment was left in a photoperiodic room with (a) 14 h of cool fluorescent light, 60 ìmol.m-2.s-1 (3,200 lux), at temperature of 25°C, and (b) pretreated in dark at 6°C for four days, then backed to a. The variety IAC 24 showed higher androgenic capacity than the PF 853031 variety, in medium potato-2, 2.4-D at 27 ìmol/L and kinetin from 2 to 6 µmol/L. Cold treatment for four days was beneficial in improving androgenesis to both varieties. Five other varieties were studied, PF 853048, as a androgenic control, IAC 21, BH 1146, IAC 60 and Anahuac; two culture mediums, potato-2 and N6, along with two hormonal combinations, CH1 (IAA 10 µmol/L and kinetin 30 µmol/L) and CH2 (2.4-D 10µmol/L and kin 3 .mol/L) in the condition as (b) above. The standard variety PF 853048 ranked first and Anahuac, the second in terms of androgenic response. However, plants were only obtained from PF 853048. It is likely that the androgenic effect is under genotype control in wheat. The hormonal combination 10 µmol/L of 2.4-D and 3 µmol/L of kinetin were observed to induce higher androgenic response. Regenerated plants were potted and left to flower. All of them showed to be infertile, but produced seeds after colchicine treatment.

Index terms: wheat, Triticum aestivum L., anther culture, dihaploids, varieties, growth regulators.


 

 

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Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS

BJORSTAD, A.; OPSAHL-FERSTAD, H-G. & AASMO, A. Effect of donor plant environment and light during incubation on anther cultures of some spring wheat (Trilicum aeslivum L.) cultivars. Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture, Dordrecht, 17:27-37, 1989.        [ Links ]

CHIA-CHUN, C; TSUN-WEN, O.; HSU, C; SHU-MIN, C. & CHIEN-KANG, C.A. Set of potato media for wheat anther culture. Proceedings of Symposium on Plant Tissue Culture. Peking, Science Press, 1978. p.51-56.        [ Links ]

CHIH-CHING, CHU. The N6 medium and its applications to anther culture of cereal crops. Proceedings of Symposium on Plant Tissue Culture. Peking, Science Press, 1978. p.43-50.        [ Links ]

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LAZAR, M.D.; SCHAEFFER, G.W. & BAEZINGER, P.S. The effects of interactions of culture environment with genotype on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) anther culture response. Plant Cell Reports, Heidelberg, 8:525-529, 1990.        [ Links ]

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OUYANG, J.W.; ZHOU, S.M. & JIA, S.E. The response of anther culture to culture temperature in Triticum aestivum. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, Berlin, 66:101-109, 1983.        [ Links ]

SCHAEFFER, G.W.; BAENZINGER, P.S. & WORLEY, J. Haploid plant development from anthers and in vitro culture of wheat. Crop Science, Madison, 19:697-702, 1979.        [ Links ]

TROTTIER, M.; COLLIN, J. & COMEAU, A. Comparison of media for their aptitude in wheat anther culture. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Dordrecht, 35:59-67, 1993.        [ Links ]

ZHOU, H. & KONZAK, C.F. Improvement of anther culture methods for haploid production in wheat. Crop Science, Madison, 29:817-821, 1989.        [ Links ]

 

 

Recebido para publicação em 24 de fevereiro e aceito em 27 de outubro de 1994.

 

 

1 Trabalho parcialmente financiado com recursos da Cooperativa dos Produtores de Trigo do Vale do Paranapanema.

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