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Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia

Print version ISSN 0031-1049On-line version ISSN 1807-0205

Pap. Avulsos Zool. vol.58  São Paulo  2018  Epub Nov 14, 2018

https://doi.org/10.11606/1807-0205/2018.58.48 

Articles

Catalogue of Neotropical Curtonotidae (Diptera, Ephydroidea)

Ramon Luciano Mello1 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1914-5766

Alessandre Pereira-Colavite2 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7660-8384

1Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Instituto de Biociências (INBIO), Laboratório de Sistemática de Diptera (LSD), Campo Grande, MS, Brasil. E-mail: ramon.mello@ufms.br

2Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza (CCEN), Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia (DSE). João Pessoa, PB, Brasil. E-mail: alepercol@gmail.com


Abstract

The Neotropical species of Curtonotidae are updated and catalogued. A total of 33 species names are listed, including two fossil taxa and one nomem dubium. Valid and invalid names and synonyms are presented, totaling 45 names. Bibliographic references are given to all listed species, including information about name, author, year of publication, page number, type species and type locality. Lectotype and paralectotypes are designated to Curtonotum punctithorax (Fischer, 1933). Curtonotum simplex Schiner, 1868 stat. rev. is recognized as a valid name.

Key-Words. Acalyptratae; Curtonotum; Hunchbacked flies; Lectotype; Paralectotype; Schizophora; Type material

INTRODUCTION

Curtonotidae, also called hunchbacked flies or quasimodo flies, is a small family of dipterous Acalyptratae with worldwide distribution. Although the family might be found in all biogeographic regions, they occur mainly in the tropical and subtropical areas, from sea level to high altitudes (+ 2,000 m) (Kirk-Spriggs, 2010a). Four living genera are known: Axinota Wulp (12 spp.) occurring in Afrotropical, Oriental and Australasian/Oceanic regions; Curtonotum Macquart (76 spp.) occurring in every zoogeographic region except the Australasian/Oceanic region; Cyrtona s.l. Séguy (4 spp.) and Tigrisomyia Kirk-Spriggs (4 spp.), both known only to Afrotropical region so far (Kirk-Spriggs, 2010a, 2010b, 2011; Klymko & Marshall, 2011; Kirk-Spriggs & Wiegmann, 2013). Fossil species are known from the Miocene Dominican amber to Curtonotum (1 sp.) and DepressonotumGrimaldi & Kirk-Spriggs (1 sp.) (Grimaldi & Kirk-Spriggs, 2012).

The entire fauna of the New World region includes only species in Curtonotum, currently accepted as a probably paraphyletic group in a sensu lato form. Nevertheless, all Neotropical species form a monophyletic clade, being commonly referred to as Curtonotum sensu stricto and characterized by elongate spermathecal ducts (Klymko & Marshall, 2011). The Neotropical species can be distinguished by the following characteristics: (1) small to medium-sized (length 4-12 mm) and distinctively hunchbacked flies; (2) coloring usually grayish to yellow, often with spots, stripes, or speckles on thorax and pigment patterns on abdomen; (3) arista plumose, with long dorsal and ventral rays; (4) wing pigmentation varying from hyaline to lightly fumose or boldly patterned; (5) subcostal vein complete, with cell cup present and cells dm and bm confluent; (6) costal vein with humeral and subcostal breaks; and (7) with several spinelike bristles between apices of R1 and R2+3 veins (Marshall et al., 2010).

The biology is scarcely known for curtonotids. The Afrotropical Curtonotum saheliense Tsacas, 1977 and the Palaearctic C. simile Tsacas, 1977 are saprophagous on damaged grasshopper and locust egg pods rather than being truly parasitic (Greathead, 1958; Kirk-Spriggs, 2008). The Nearctic Curtonotum helvum (Loew, 1862) occurs in sand dunes and the larvae probably develop on the same substrate as it’s congenial of the Old World (Meier et al., 1997; Marshall et al., 2010; Marshall, 2012). Adult Neotropical species occurs on dung baits and in association with tree falls (Marshall et al., 2010; Klymko & Marshall, 2011), but oviposition has not been observed and larval habits remain unknown.

The present catalogue covers all the names related to the Neotropical fauna of Curtonotidae. We list here a total of 45 names, including 33 valid species (including two fossils and one nomem dubium) and two taxonomically valid genera. A total of 44 references are given. According with the Article 74.1, of the 4th edition of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICNZ, 1999), the lectotype and paralectotypes of Curtonotum punctithorax (Fischer, 1933) are here designated in order to fix the identity of the name (Fig. 1). Curtonotum simplexSchiner, 1868 (Fig. 2), stat. rev. is removed from incertae sedis and placed as a valid name.

Figure 1 Curtonotum punctithorax (Fischer, 1933), lectotype male herein designated. (A) Habitus, lateral view; (B) Labels. Images provided by the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo. 

Figure 2 Curtonotum simplex Schiner, 1868, holotype female. (A) Habitus, lateral view; (B) Habitus, dorsal view; (C) Labels. 

Figure 3 Curtonotum curtispinum Klymko & Marshall, 2011, holotype male. (A) Habitus, lateral view; (B) Habitus, dorsal view; (C) Head, frontal view; (D) Labels. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The information presented in this catalogue is focused in species level, since Curtonotidae and Curtonotum occur in other biogeographic regions. Species are presented, in alphabetical order of specific name, with the following data: name, author, year of publication, page number, type locality, distribution, references, and sex of the primary type, including its depository institution. Taxonomically valid names are listed in bold, and synonyms and other invalid spellings are listed in italics, below the reference to the corresponding name.

Acronyms used in the catalogue are: AMNH: American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA; CBFC: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, La Paz, Bolivia; DEBU: University of Guelph Insect Collection, Guelph, Canada; HNHM: Hungarian Natural History Museum, Budapest, Hungary; IBSP: Instituto Biológico de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; MSNM: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milan, Italy; MZUSP: Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; NHM: The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom; NHMW: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria; QCAZ: Departamento de Biologia, Pontífica Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador; SMNS: Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany; SMTD: Staatliches Museum für Tierkunde Dresden, Dresden, Germany; USNM: National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., USA; ZMUC: Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.

The following abbreviations and symbols are used in the catalogue: cat. = catalogue; ch. = checklist; comb. = combination; desc. = description; design. = designation; distr. = distribution; lect. = lectotype; missp. = misspelling; mon. = by monotypy; n. = new; nam. = name; occ. = occurrence; phyl. = phylogenetic; pl. = plate; reds. = redescription; Ref(s). = reference(s); rels. = relationships; syn. = synonym; sync. = synonymic; tax. = taxonomic; † = fossil taxon.

RESULTS

Curtonotidae Duda, 1934

Curtonotidae Duda, 1934: 1. Type-genus CurtonotumMacquart, 1843.

CyrtonotinaeEnderlein, 1914: 326 (Nomen nudum).

Curtonotum Macquart, 1843

Curtonotum Macquart, 1843: 350. Type-species, Musca gibbaFabricius, 1805 (mon.) Junior primary homonym of Musca gibba Müller, 1776 and Musca gibba Rossi, 1794; Curtonotum taeniatumHendel, 1913: 629 accepted as the replacement name by Thompson & Pont (1993).

CyrtonotumAgassiz, 1846: 108 (Unjustified emendation of Curtonotum).

DiplocentraLoew, 1862: 13 (Unjustified new name to Curtonotum).

Seliacantha Bezzi, 1895: 66 (Nomen nudum).

SelidacanthaBezzi, 1895: 66 (Nomen nudum: emendation of Seliacantha Bezzi, 1895 nomen nudum).

ParapsinotaDuda, 1924: 177. (Syn.) Delfinado (1969).

adusticrus Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 48. Type-locality: BRAZIL, Rio de Janeiro, Itatiaia. Distr.: Brazil. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key). Holotype male (USNM).

apicale Hendel, 1913: 621. Type-locality: PERU, Junín, Chanchamayo. Distr.: Ecuador, Peru. Refs.: Hendel, 1913: 619 (key); Sturtevant, 1921: 114 (ch.), 123 (cat.); Fischer, 1933: 88 (ch.); Wirth, 1975: 1 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key), 52 (reds.), 54 (lect. design.). Lectotype male (SMTD).

atlanticum Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 93. Type-locality: BRAZIL, São Paulo, Campos do Jordão. Distr.: Brazil. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key). Holotype male (MZUSP).

bathmedum Hendel, 1913: 628. Type-locality: PERU, Huanúco, Mouth of Pachieta River. Distr.: Bolivia, Peru. Refs.: Hendel, 1913: 619 (key); Sturtevant, 1921: 114 (ch.), 123 (cat.); Malloch, 1930: 325 (n. occ.); Fischer, 1933: 88 (ch.); Hennig, 1958: 528, 671 (phyl.); Wirth, 1975: 1 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 17 (key), 43 (reds.) 44 (lect. design.). Lectotype male (SMTD).

bathymedumMalloch, 1930: 325 (missp. of bathmedum).

bivittatum Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 39. Type-locality: ECUADOR, Napo, Jatun Sacha Res., 6 km E Misahualli. Distr.: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key); Mello, 2016: 717 (cat.). Holotype male (QCAZ).

brunneum Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 64. Type-locality: BOLIVIA, La Paz, 8 km S Chulumani, Apa Apa. Distr.: Bolivia, Peru. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 25 (key). Holotype male (CBFC).

coriaceum Hendel, 1932: 133 (Cyrtonotum). Type-locality: BOLIVIA, Pilcomayo. Distr.: Bolivia. Refs.: Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 50 (tax. notes). Syntypes 2 females (SMNS).

curtispinum Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 61 (Figs. 3, 99-105 and 212). Type-locality: BRAZIL, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. Distr.: Brazil. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 25 (key). Holotype male (USNM).

decumanum Bezzi, 1914: 199 (Cyrtonotum). Type-locality: PARAGUAY, Alto Paraná, Puerto Bertoni. Distr.: Paraguay. Refs.: Lucas, 1915: 131 (notes); Sturtevant, 1921: 114 (ch.), 123 (cat.); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 50 (tax. notes). Syntypes male and female (MSNM).

desperatum Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 91. Type-locality: BRAZIL. Distr.: Brazil. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key). Holotype male (NHM).

†electrodominicum Grimaldi & Kirk-Spriggs, 2012: 3. Type-locality: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, from amber mines in Cordillera Septentrional, northern Dominican Republic. Distr.: Dominican Republic (Miocene). Holotype female (AMNH).

flavisetum Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 72. Type-locality: BRAZIL, Rondônia, Nova Mamoré, Vila Murtinho. Distr.: Brazil, Bolivia. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 25 (key). Holotype male (USNM).

Comments: Although Klymko & Marshall (2011: 75) indicated the type locality as “Mato Grosso [state], Villa Murtinho” the current location’s name is “Rondônia [state], Nova Mamoré, Vila Murtinho”, since Rondônia has become dismembered of part of Mato Grosso and Amazonas states in 1943, after collection of the holotype in 1922.

floridense Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 27. Type-locality: USA, Florida, Polk county. Distr.: USA. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 25 (key). Holotype male (DEBU).

fumipenne Hendel, 1913: 626. Type-locality: BOLIVIA, Mapiri, Sarampioni. Distr.: Bolivia. Refs.: Hendel, 1913: 619 (key); Sturtevant, 1921: 114 (ch.), 123 (cat.); Fischer, 1933: 88 (ch.); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 64 (tax. notes). Syntypes male and female (SMTD).

gracile Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 88. Type-locality: BRAZIL, Pará, Cachimbo ridge. Distr.: Brazil. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key). Holotype male (MZUSP).

hendelianum (Enderlein), 1917: 72 (Diplocentra). Type-locality: SURINAME. Distr.: Suriname. Refs.: Fischer, 1933: 87 (comb.); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15, figs. 1-5 (phyl. rels.); 26 (key), 83 (reds.). Holotype female (HNHM).

nigripalpeHendel, 1936: 90. Type-locality: BRAZIL, Pará, Belém. Distr.: Brazil, Guyana, Suriname. Refs.: Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Papavero, 2002: 1 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 83 (syn.). Holotype female (NHMW).

hunkingi Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 97. Type-locality: BRAZIL, Paraná, Bocaiúva do Sul. Distr.: Brazil. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key). Holotype male (USNM).

impunctatum Hendel, 1913: 625. Type-locality: PERU, Huanúco, Mouth of Pachieta River. Distr.: Ecuador, Peru. Refs.: Hendel, 1913: 619 (key); Sturtevant, 1921: 114 (ch.), 123 (cat.); Fischer, 1933: 88 (ch.); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 25 (key), 58 (reds.), 61 (lect. design.). Lectotype male (SMTD).

magnum Malloch, 1930: 326 (Cyrtonotum). Type-locality: BRAZIL, Rio de Janeiro, Itatiaia, Serra do Itatiaia. Distr.: Brazil. Refs.: Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key), 45 (reds.). Holotype female (USNM).

murinum Hendel, 1913: 622. Type-locality: PERU, Chanchamayo, Meshagua, Urubamba river. Distr.: Peru. Refs.: Hendel, 1913: 619 (key); Sturtevant, 1921: 114 (ch.), 123 (cat.); Fischer, 1933: 88 (ch.); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 50 (tax. notes). Syntypes male and female (SMTD).

nigrum Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 37. Type-locality: BRAZIL, Paraná, Curitiba. Distr.: Brazil. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key). Holotype male (MZUSP).

pantherinum (Walker), 1849: 1090 (Helomyza). Type-locality: BRAZIL. Distr.: Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana, Peru, Suriname, Venezuela. Refs.: Hendel, 1913: 619 (key), 623 (comb. reds.); Malloch, 1930: 325 (tax. notes); Fischer, 1933: 88 (ch.); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15, figs. 1-5 (phyl. rels.); 26 (key), 67 (reds.). Syntype male (NHM: lost, see Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 70).

salinumCurran, 1934: 440. Type-locality: GUYANA, Kartabo. Distr.: Guyana. Refs.: Malloch, 1930: 325 (syn. of C. pantherinum before the formal description of the species: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 70). Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 70 (tax. notes). Holotype male (AMNH).

papillatum Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 99. Type-locality: BRAZIL, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. Distr.: Brazil. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key). Holotype male (USNM).

perplexum Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 50. Type-locality: BOLIVIA, Pilcomayo. Distr.: Bolivia. Refs.: Hendel, 1932: 134 (desc. of Cyrtonotum impunctatum preoccupied by Curtonotum impunctatum Hendel, 1913); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 50 (n. nam.). Holotype female (SMNS).

punctithorax Fischer, 1933: 88 (Cyrtonotum) (Fig. 1). Type-locality: BRAZIL, São Paulo, São Paulo. Distr.: Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay. Refs.: Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key), 102 (reds.). Lectotype male (MZUSP).

Comments: Klymko & Marshall, 2011 redescribed the species based on a male and one female cited as paratypes. In fact, these specimens are paralectotypes as the type series was designated as cotypus. Below, it is established the lectotype based on a male specimen from MZUSP. Besides the lectotype and the five paralectotypes designated below, the original type series is composed by 75 specimens (35 males and 40 females). The material indicated as hosted on author’s collection (IBSP) was not found.

Studied material: Lectotype (hereby designated): male (MZUSP) “[white label] Cyrtonotum punctithorax / Fischer, 1933 | [white label] Fliegenfalle / São Paulo / 2-2-1933 | [red, black bordered label] Cotypus | [white label] ♂”. Paralectotypes, hereby designated: male (NHMW) “São Paulo Capital / 14. Dez. 1932 / Carlos R. Fischer, leg. | ♂ | Curtonotum punctithorax, Fischer. det. Wirth, 1913”; female (MZUSP) “Cyrtonotum punctithorax| Fischer, 1933 | Cotypus | Fliegenfalle / São Paulo / 31-1-1933 | ♀”; male (USNM) “Cotypus | São Paulo, Brasil / Capital, 30-1-1933 / C.R. Fischer leg. | Cyrtonotum punctithorax / Fischer, 1933 ♂”; female (USNM) “Cotypus | São Paulo, Brasil / Capital, 30-1-1933 / C.R. Fischer leg. | Cyrtonotum punctithorax / Fischer, 1933 ♀”; female (USNM) “Cotypus | São Paulo, Brasil / Capital, 5-2-1933 / C.R. Fischer leg. | Cyrtonotum punctithorax / Fischer, 1933 ♀”.

scambum Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 86. Type-locality: PERU, Loreto, Iquitos. Distr.: Peru. Refs.: Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key). Holotype male (USNM).

simplex Schiner, 1868: 237 (Fig. 2) stat. rev. Type-locality: BRAZIL. Distr.: Brazil, Mexico (probably misid.). Refs.: Giglio-Tos, 1895: 36 (Diplocentra comb., cat.); Wulp, 1897: 354 (ch., in Diplocentra); Aldrich, 1905: 641 (Cyrtonotum comb., cat.); Hendel, 1913: 618 (key: as Curtonotum); Sturtevant, 1921: 114 (ch.), 124 (cat.); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 107 (tax. notes). Holotype female (NHMW).

Comments: Curtonotum simplex undoubtedly belongs to the same species-group comprising C. impuctatum and C. curtispinum. In many features it agrees with the proposed description for C. curtispinum, including coloring patterns, setae positioning and wing appearance. Both species have similar type localities, coming from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Although we have the pictures of the type material in hand, a more detailed analysis (specimens in hands) is necessary for the taking of nomenclature acts. Probably C. curtispinum is a junior synonym of C. simplex, but they should be treated as different species until further analysis.

taeniatum Hendel, 1913: 629. Type-locality: PERU, Ucayali, Urubamba River. Distr.: Bolivia, Brazil, Peru. Refs.: Hendel, 1913: 620 (key); Enderlein, 1917: 69 (n. occ.); Sturtevant, 1921: 114 (ch.), 124 (cat.); Malloch, 1930: 326 (syn. of C. gibbum (Fabricius, 1805)); Fischer, 1933: 88 (ch.); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Thompson & Pont, 1993: 80 (syn. and replacement name for Musca gibba Fabricius, 1805); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 25 (key), 75 (reds.), 79 (lect. desing.). Lectotype male (SMTD).

gibba (Fabricius), 1805: 297 (Musca). Type-locality: South America. Distr. Brazil, Colombia, Guyana, Mexico, Suriname. Refs.: Wiedemann, 1830: 586 (comb. in Helomyza); Macquart, 1843: 350 (comb. in Curtonotum), pl. 25 (figs. 9-10); Rondani, 1848: 78 (sync. list); Walker, 1849: 1090 (sync. list); Schiner, 1864: 23 (tax. notes); Schiner, 1868: 237 (tax. notes); Giglio-Tos, 1895: 36 (syn. in Diplocentra); Wulp, 1897: 353 (ch., in Diplocentra); Aldrich, 1905: 641 (cat.); Coquillett, 1910: 529 (tax. notes); Hendel, 1913: 619 (key, as gibbum), 625 (tax.); Enderlein, 1917: 70 (sync. list, tax. notes), 71 (n. occ.); Frey, 1919: 14 (ch.); Sturtevant, 1921: 33 (notes, as gibbum), 114 (ch.), 123 (cat.); Hendel, 1933: 77 (sync. list); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Thompson & Pont, 1993: 80 (syn. and replacement name for Musca gibba Fabricius); Papavero, 2002: 1 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 79 (lect. design.). Lectotype female (ZMUC).

trypetipenne Hendel, 1913: 620. Type-locality: PERU, Ucayali, Unini. Distr.: Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru. Refs.: Hendel, 1913: 619 (key); Enderlein, 1917: 71 (n. comb. in Diplocentra, reds.); Sturtevant, 1921: 114 (ch.), 124 (cat.); Fischer, 1933: 88 (ch.); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 25 (key), 55 (reds.), 57 (lect. design.); Mello, 2016: 717 (cat.). Lectotype female (SMTD).

tumidum Enderlein, 1917: 68 (Cyrtonotum). Type-locality: SURINAME. Distr.: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Peru, Suriname. Refs.: Fischer, 1933: 88 (ch.); Wirth, 1975: 3 (cat.); Papavero, 2002: 1 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 26 (key), 80 (reds.), 83 (lect. design.); Mello, 2016: 717 (cat.). Lectotype male (HNHM).

vulpinum Hendel, 1913: 627. Type-locality: PERU, Pichis, Puerto Bermudez. Distr.: Bolivia, Peru. Refs.: Hendel, 1913: 619 (key); Enderlein, 1917: 69 (n. occ.); Sturtevant, 1921: 114 (ch.), 124 (cat.); Fischer, 1933: 88 (ch.); Wirth, 1975: 3 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 11-15 (phyl. rels.), 25 (key), 64 (tax. notes). Syntypes male and female (SMTD).

Depressonotum Grimaldi & Kirk-Spriggs, 2012

DepressonotumGrimaldi & Kirk-Spriggs, 2012: 10. Type species: Depressonotum priscum Grimaldi & Kirk-Spriggs, 2012 (orig. des.).

†priscum Grimaldi & Kirk-Spriggs, 2012: 10. Type-locality: DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, amber from Cordillera Septentrional, northern Dominican Republic. Distr.: Dominican Republic (Miocene). Holotype male (AMNH).

Nomen dubium according to Klymko & Marshall, 2011

hendeli Malloch, 1930: 325 (Cyrtonotum). Type-locality: BRAZIL. Distr.: Brazil, Guyana. Refs.: Hendel, 1913: 624 (Curtonotum gibbum: misidentification); Malloch, 1930: 325 (new name and combination to Curtonotum gibbum sensu Hendel, 1913); Curran, 1934: 441 (reds., n. occ.); Wirth, 1975: 2 (cat.); Klymko & Marshall, 2011: 106 (tax. notes). Syntypes (USNM).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors would like to thank Mrs. Camila Conti (MZUSP) for the photos of the lectotype of C. punctithorax and to the MSc. Sheila Lima (INPA) for the remarks about the type locality of C. flavisetum. We are indebted to Sergio Ide (Instituto Biológico, SP), Torsten Dikow (USNM) by the photos of the holotype of C. curtispinum (USNMENT: 01447501) and Peter Sehnal (NHMW) for the information about C. punctithorax type series and for the photos of C. simplex. We would like to thank Soltész Zoltán (HNHM) for confirming the presence of the types in his collection. APC is grateful to Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado da Paraíba (FAPESQ) and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the research support (Proc. #350052/2014-0).

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Received: August 06, 2018; Accepted: September 17, 2018

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