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Revista de Saúde Pública

Print version ISSN 0034-8910On-line version ISSN 1518-8787

Rev. Saúde Pública vol.54  São Paulo  2020  Epub Mar 16, 2020

http://dx.doi.org/10.11606/s1518-8787.2020054001088 

Original Article

Relationship between anthropometric indicators and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in adults and older adults of Rio Branco, Acre

Nathalia Silva de Lima LoureiroI 
http://orcid.org/0000-0001-9713-7326

Thatiana Lameira Maciel AmaralII 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9197-5633

Cledir de Araújo AmaralIII 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7221-5364

Gina Torres Rego MonteiroIV 
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9900-1825

Maurício Teixeira Leite de VasconcellosV 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-1658-2589

Miguel Junior Sordi BortoliniVI 
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-0778-1164

I Universidade Federal do Acre . Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde na Amazônia Ocidental. Rio Branco , AC , Brasil

II Universidade Federal do Acre . Centro de Ciências da Saúde e do Desporto . Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva . Rio Branco , AC , Brasil

III Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Acre . Campus Rio Branco . Rio Branco , AC , Brasil

IV Fundação Oswaldo Cruz . Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública Sérgio Arouca . Rio de Janeiro , RJ , Brasil

V Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística . Escola Nacional de Ciências Estatísticas . Rio de Janeiro , RJ , Brasil

VI Universidade Federal do Acre . Centro de Ciências da Saúde e do Desporto . Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Saúde na Amazônia Ocidental. Rio Branco , AC , Brasil


ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE

To analyze the association between anthropometric variables and cardiovascular risk factors in adults and older adults of Rio Branco, Acre.

METHODS

A population-based cross-sectional study with 641 adults and 957 older adults was conducted. The statistical analyses consisted of the distribution of anthropometric variables according to the cardiovascular risk factors by frequency and dispersion measures. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) using the SPSS ® version 20.0.

RESULTS

Moderate correlations were obtained in adult men for waist-hip ratio and total cholesterol (r = 0.486; p < 0.001) and for waist-hip and triglyceride ratios (r = 0.484; p < 0.001). The highest prevalence of hypertension and diabetes in adults were observed in men; in the older adults, the prevalence of hypertension was above 65% in both sexes. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was above 78% in obese adults and older adults. When analyzing the associations, a higher strength of association was found between arterial hypertension and waist-to-stature ratio (PR = 13.42; 95%CI 12.58–14.31) and body mass index greater than 30 kg/m 2 (PR = 6.61; 95%CI 6.34–6.89) in adult men. In the analysis of diabetes, the waist-hip ratio presented greater robustness in the association for women (PR = 7.53; 95%CI 6.92–8.20) and men (PR = 9.79; 95%CI 9.14–10.49).

CONCLUSION

Anthropometric variables are important predictors of cardiovascular risk; however, their assessments should be performed independently, according to sex and age group.

Key words: Cardiovascular diseases; Risk Factors; Body Weights and Measures; Anthropometry; Cross-Sectional Studies

RESUMO

OBJETIVO

Analisar a associação entre variáveis antropométricas e os fatores de risco cardiovascular na população de adultos e idosos de Rio Branco, Acre.

MÉTODOS

Estudo transversal de base populacional com 641 adultos e 957 idosos. As análises estatísticas consistiram na distribuição das variáveis antropométricas segundo os fatores de risco cardiovascular por medidas de frequência e dispersão. Foram calculadas a correlação de Pearson e razões de prevalência (RP) com seus respectivos intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC5%), empregando as rotinas do SPSS ® versão 20.0.

RESULTADOS

Correlações moderadas foram obtidas nos adultos homens para relação cintura-quadril e colesterol total (r = 0,486; p < 0,001) e para relação cintura-quadril e triglicerídeos (r = 0,484; p < 0,001). As maiores prevalências de hipertensão arterial e diabetes nos adultos foram observadas nos homens; já nos idosos, as prevalências de hipertensão ficaram acima de 65% em ambos os sexos. As prevalências de dislipidemia ficaram acima de 78% nos indivíduos obesos adultos e idosos. Ao analisar as associações, constatou-se maior força de associação entre hipertensão arterial e relação cintura-estatura (RP = 13,42; IC95% 12,58–14,31) e com índice de massa corporal maior que 30 kg/m 2 (RP = 6,61; IC95% 6,34–6,89) nos homens adultos. Na análise para diabetes, a relação cintura-quadril apresentou maior robustez na associação para mulheres (RP = 7,53; IC95% 6,92–8,20) e homens (RP = 9,79; IC95% 9,14–10,49).

CONCLUSÃO

As variáveis antropométricas são importantes preditores de risco cardiovascular; no entanto, suas avaliações devem ser feitas de forma independente, segundo sexo e grupo etário.

Palavras-Chave: Doenças Cardiovasculares; Fatores de Risco; Pesos e Medidas Corporais; Antropometria; Estudos Transversais

INTRODUCTION

The epidemiological profile of the population has been suffering the influence of chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCD) 1 , with obesity emerging as one of the main complications for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) 2 , having an influence on its main risk factors, which are arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes 3 .

The high prevalence of overweight in developing countries is associated with changes in eating habits and with the sedentary lifestyle 2 . According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, more than 1.9 billion adults were overweight and more than 600 million of these were obese 5 , a fact that partly explains CVD as the main causes of death, accounting for 31% of deaths globally 6 .

Studies have shown the excess adipose tissue, especially the concentration in the central region of the body, is associated with systemic inflammation, contributing directly to the elevation of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality 7 . The atypical presence of visceral fat creates physiological changes that promote lipid changes and may contribute to dyslipidemia, a triggering factor of CVD 8 .

Anthropometric indicators, used in assessment of routines on body composition, have been used in the CVD risk prediction because of its practicality, low cost, and good reliability, being widely used both in the clinic and in epidemiological studies 9 . However, it remains uncertain which anthropometric variable has greater robustness for the CVD screening. For example, studies indicate that waist circumference (WC) 10 and waist-hip ratio (WHR) 10 are better for CVD screening than the body mass index (BMI), since they are indicators of fat distribution. But the BMI is still widely used. However, in a study comparing BMI with the conicity index (CI), the former could better predict the CVD incidence and mortality, but they were different for men and women 11 . Also in the hypertension and dyslipidemia risk analysis, BMI presented relationships similar to those observed for the WC and WHR variables 12 .

This study aims to analyze the association between anthropometric variables and cardiovascular risk factors in the population of adults and older adults, based on the data collected by the Study of Chronic Diseases (EDOC), performed in Rio Branco, Acre.

METHODS

This article analyzes data from EDOC, a cross-sectional population-based study with adults and the older adults, of both sexes, carried out from April to September 2014 and composed of two household surveys: EDOC-A, with adults (18 to 59 years of age), and EDOC-I, with older adults (60 years of age or older), living in Rio Branco, Acre. Pregnant women and individuals with cognitive impairments that could hinder communication or the understanding of the questions were excluded.

Sampling plans were selected in two stages, census enumeration area (CEA) and households. The first stage was common for EDOC-A and EDOC-I. The CEA were selected with probability proportional to their number and the number of private households in the 2010 Demographic Census (CD2010) of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). The households were selected by systematic sampling with random starts and distinct ranges per survey. In the selected households for EDOC-A, all living adults were interviewed, and in the selected households for EDOC-I, all older adults were interviewed.

The sample size was estimated considering the 15% prevalence of renal function changes in adults and 40% in older adults 13 , with 95% confidence level and 3% absolute error for the simple random sampling. Considering the sampling plan, what is cluster by CEA and household , a 1.95% sampling plan effect was arbitrated to determine the sample size, which received a 20% increase for adults and 12.5% for older adults to compensate the expected non-response rates. This procedure resulted in samples from 652 adults and 1,148 older adults. Dividing these sample sizes by the average number of adults and of older adults per household obtained in CD2010 and defining the selection by CEA of 11 households for EDOC-A and 73 households for EDOC-I, all the sample was obtained from 40 CEA. The effective interviewed sample was 685 adults and 1,020 older adults.

The sample weights were estimated by the inverse of the product of inclusion probabilities in each stage and subsequently calibrated for population data by sex and age groups, using a post-stratification estimator, in order to deal with the typical biases of the home studies and correct non-differential answers 14 . The population data used in the calibration of the sample weights were estimated for July 1st, 2014, using the linear trend method that IBGE applies to its population estimates by municipality. For this study, a subsample of the base project was used with 641 adults and 957 older adults who had complete anthropometric measurement. Due to the loss of anthropometric information, it was necessary to perform a new calibration of the sample weights to deal with this non-response (or loss) and obtain weights that produce estimates for 211,902 adults and 23,416 older adults. Further details on the EDOC sampling plan, calculation and calibration of sample weights and different subsamples can be obtained in Amaral et al. 2019 15 .

Anthropometric variables included BMI, WC, WHR, waist-to-stature ratio (WSR), and CI. In all assessments, the protocols recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine 16 , all in duplicate, were considered the means of the measurements in each variable.

The weight was measured using a G-Tech Bal Gl 200 digital scale ® with a 50-gram resolution arranged on a flat surface. The interviewees were instructed to wear light clothes and to climb barefoot and with empty pockets in the center of the base of the scale, with the body standing and weight evenly distributed between the two feet, arms beside the body, and looking forward.

The participants’ height was determined by a portable stadiometer Sanny ® , with resolution in millimeters and with the base always arranged on a flat surface. The participant, without using objects on his head, was arranged with his back to the anthropometer, with parallel legs and feet, weight equally distributed in both, arms beside the body, and palms facing the body. After aligning the back of the head, back, buttocks, legs, and heels, and looking forward using the Frankfurt’s plane for head positioning, the interviewee was asked to deeply inspire and hold his breath during the measurement, performed by shifting the moving part of the stadiometer to the highest point of the head, compressing the hair enough to obtain the height measurement.

The BMI was determined by the body mass ratio in kilograms by height square in meters. The following classification for adults was adopted: eutrophic (< 25 kg/m 2 ), overweight (25.0 to 29.9 kg/m 2 ), and obese (≥ 30 kg/m 2 ) 4 . For the older adults, the classification was: low weight (< 22 kg/m 2 ), eutrophic (22 27 kg/m 2 ), and overweight (≥ 27 kg/m 2 ) 17 .

A Cescorf ® inelastic tape with millimeter resolution was used for the WC measurement, measured at the midpoint between the upper anterior iliac crest and the last rib, with participants breathing normally and with relaxed abdomen. The WC was considered normal when lower than 102 cm in men and lower than 88 cm in women 4 . For the hip measurements, the largest region of the gluteal bulge in the horizontal plane was considered, with the participants with their arms slightly in front of their body and feet together. The measurement was read on its side. Both measurements were used to estimate the WHR (WHR = waist/hip measurement), considering adequate values lower than 0.85 for women and less than 0.90 for men 18 .

The WSR (WSR = waist/height measurement) was considered adequate when less than 0.5, as recommended by the Brazilian Association for Studies of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome 18 . To estimate the conicity index, the following equation was used:

CI = WC ÷ (0.109 |weight ÷ height)

The blood pressure (BP), expressed in mmHg, was obtained by a blood pressure measurement digital device of model arm BM35 of the Beurer ® brand. The BP was measured three times, one after five minutes of initial rest and two more at two-minute intervals, recording the mean, according to the determinations of the VI Brazilian Guidelines for Hypertension. The systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) was defined as diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg, systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140mmHg, and/or current use of anti-hypertensive medication 20 .

For laboratory tests of blood samples, peripheral blood was collected from the antecubital fossa, fractionated into two test tubes for triglyceride dosage, total cholesterol, and fractions (HDL: high density lipoprotein, and LDL: low-density lipoprotein), and glycemia, with participants fasting for 12h.

The presence of diabetes was defined according to the criteria of the American Diabetes Association (ADA): ≥ 126 mg/dL fasting plasma glucose or use of oral hypoglycemic or insulin 21 . Dyslipidemia was defined by abnormal levels of one or more of the following lipid blood components: ≥ 200 mg/dL triglycerides, ≥ 160 mg/dL total cholesterol, ≥ 150 mg/dL LDL, < 40 mg/dL HDL in men and < 50 mg/dL in women, in addition to the medication record to reduce these values.

The statistical analyses consisted of the distribution of anthropometric variables according to cardiovascular risk factors by frequency and dispersion measures, according to sex and age. To assess the correlation of anthropometric variables with lipid profile, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and glycemia, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used. The level of significance was set at α < 0.05. The association between anthropometric variables and independent variables between men and women was performed with prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). In all analyses, the sample design and weight of observations were considered using the routines of Complex Samples of the Statistical Package SPSS ® version 20.0.

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Universidade Federal do Acre, and all the participants signed an informed consent form.

RESULTS

According to the anthropometric variables, the measures of central tendency of cardiovascular risk factors found that adult men classified with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m 2 , WHR ≥ 0.90, WC ≥ 102, WSR > 0.5, and CI > 1.25 presented altered triglyceride averages (TG) and total cholesterol (TC). In women, averages above the TG reference values were observed for all analyzed anthropometric indicators and TC among those with altered conicity index ( Table 1 ).

Table 1 Distribution of laboratory test results for cardiovascular risk indicators according to anthropometric variables, by sex, in adults of Rio Branco, Acre. Brazil, 2014. 

ADULTS HDL LDL TC TG GLI
A SE Md A SE Md A SE Md A SE Md A SE Md
Men
BMI (kg/m 2 )
25 49.2 1.44 48.0 98.4 2.85 95.0 168.1 4.27 163.0 109.7 9.90 73.0 91.9 5.67 81.0
25–29.9 45.3 1.30 45.0 124.1 5.19 121.0 195.2 4.82 196.0 177.8 20.0 138.0 91.2 2.74 84.0
≥ 30 43.8 1.82 44.0 115.0 4.81 116.0 203.9 5.30 200.0 233.2 19.3 211.0 99.6 7.06 93.0
CC (cm)
< 102 47.0 1.10 46.0 109.7 2.05 101.0 181.4 3.28 174.0 145.8 9.80 112.0 91.7 3.26 82.0
≥ 102 46.5 3.23 45.0 114.3 4.59 116.0 207.0 5.61 205.0 246.0 24.9 215.0 104.4 7.71 97.0
RCQ
< 0.90 45.9 1.11 47.0 102.0 2.46 96.0 169.3 3.08 165.0 108.5 7.18 87.0 86.5 4.60 82.0
≥ 0.90 48.4 2.02 45.0 121.6 4.31 118.0 203.8 4.68 202.0 220.0 16.9 158.0 101.7 4.60 88.0
RCE
< 0.5 46.1 1.09 96.0 98.0 2.77 94.0 163.8 3.51 160.0 100.5 7.93 76.0 86.8 5.25 81.0
≥ 0.5 47.7 1.83 113.0 121.3 3.61 118.0 201.9 3.69 202.0 204.6 14.4 153.0 98.4 3.86 87.0
IC
< 1.25 45.6 1.03 44.0 104.2 2.00 99.0 175.0 2.79 170.0 127.5 8.76 108.0 87.8 3.66 82.0
≥ 1.25 50.4 2.86 47.0 125.6 5.29 117.0 200.8 4.70 205.0 225.5 24.6 153.0 105.9 5.71 91.0
Women
BMI (kg/m 2 )
< 25 51.8 0.87 50.0 105.0 2.61 98.0 176.3 3.24 169.0 104.5 5.95 80.0 81.3 0.93 80.0
25–29.9 51.5 0.90 50.0 112.4 2.66 109.0 191.9 3.35 188.0 145.8 9.63 118.0 86.9 3.84 83.0
≥ 30 49.3 0.90 49.0 114.4 3.18 113.0 192.6 3.73 190.0 151.2 8.44 131.0 90.8 2.29 85.0
CC (cm)
< 88 51.6 0.54 50.0 107.6 1.84 102.0 181.6 2.24 175.0 114.2 3.98 95.0 81.8 0.85 80.0
≥ 88 50.1 1.13 49.0 115.9 3.36 113.0 196.7 4.53 192.0 171.2 13.5 138.0 94.6 4.91 86.0
RCQ
< 0.85 51.2 0.63 50.0 107.2 2.13 82.0 180.8 2.73 175.0 113.0 4.69 99.0 82.3 0.89 81.0
≥ 0.85 51.1 1.11 49.0 117.3 3.35 91.0 199.0 4.66 192.0 175.5 14.6 138.0 93.6 5.06 84.0
RCE
< 0.5 51.6 0.79 50.0 101.4 2.08 96.0 172.9 2.79 168.0 99.2 4.74 83.0 81.2 0.88 80.0
≥ 0.5 50.8 0.71 50.0 117.1 2.32 113.0 196.6 3.05 192.0 156.1 8.19 129.0 88.9 2.69 84.0
IC
< 1.18 50.8 0.60 49.0 105.7 1.81 102.0 175.0 2.79 173.0 109.5 3.49 95.0 81.9 0.94 80.0
≥ 1.18 51.9 1.00 51.0 118.5 3.43 113.0 206.2 5.75 192.0 171.6 12.99 138.0 92.3 4.26 85.0

BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference; WHR: waist-hip ratio; WSR: waist-to-stature ratio; CI: conicity index; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; TG: triglycerides; TC: total cholesterol; GLI: glycemia; SE: Standard Error; A: average; Md: median

Among older adults, triglyceride levels were elevated in individuals with BMI, WC, WHR, WSR and both sexes showed altered CI. Among the women, higher TC mean values were observed in all altered indicators ( Table 2 ).

Table 2 Distribution of laboratory test results for cardiovascular risk indicators according to anthropometric variables, by sex, in older adults of Rio Branco, Acre. Brazil, 2014. 

OLDER ADULTS HDL LDL TC TG GLI
A SE Md A SE Md A SE Md A SE Md A SE Md
Men
BMI (kg/m 2 )
< 22 49.5 1.28 51.0 109.3 3.63 109.0 180.3 5.04 175.0 108.1 9.01 85.0 96.4 6.41 83.0
22–27 49.0 0.86 48.0 120.1 2.88 115.0 197.1 3.56 193.0 147.8 7.58 116.0 95.7 3.92 84.0
> 27 46.8 1.55 44.0 116.0 3.31 118.0 197.6 3.27 195.0 196.7 10.6 165.0 101.4 3.02 91.0
CC (cm)
< 102 48.2 0.69 47.0 116.4 2.18 115.0 194.4 2.75 191.0 157.3 7.03 125.0 97.8 2.87 86.0
≥ 102 47.6 3.29 43.0 119.7 5.75 119.0 199.2 4.98 204.0 197.2 12.0 184.0 100.4 2.30 96.0
RCQ
< 1.0 51.3 1.40 51.0 118.7 5.84 119.0 193.6 6.70 193.0 122.0 9.93 92.0 102.4 6.30 86.0
≥ 1.0 47.6 1.02 46.0 117.0 2.07 115.0 195.7 2.48 192.0 171.0 7.97 140.0 98.0 2.79 87.0
RCE
< 0.5 50.7 1.41 51.0 109.1 4.03 109.0 181.9 5.62 179.0 111.4 9.50 94.0 101.2 6.26 84.0
≥ 0.5 47.7 0.92 46.0 118.2 2.08 117.0 197.1 2.41 195.0 171.5 7.58 140.0 97.9 2.80 87.0
IC
< 1.25 49.7 1.12 48.0 115.4 3.45 117.0 191.4 4.38 187.0 134.5 8.61 110.0 98.9 3.80 86.0
≥ 1.25 47.5 1.04 46.0 117.5 2.23 115.0 196.7 2.58 194.0 175.2 8.48 143.0 98.0 2.92 97.0
Women
BMI (kg/m 2 )
< 22 56.9 1.62 57.0 123.3 4.09 122.0 205.7 5.53 210.0 131.5 7.13 116.0 96.8 8.08 86.0
22–27 58.0 1.26 56.0 131.1 3.28 127.0 221.0 4.52 218.0 161.2 6.57 136.0 104.7 4.20 88.0
> 27 54.3 0.88 53.0 124.1 2.56 121.0 212.8 3.07 205.0 179.2 5.68 158.0 104.6 3.00 92.0
CC (cm)
< 88 57.3 0.88 56.0 129.7 2.79 127.0 216.8 3.60 213.0 154.3 4.78 134.0 101.2 3.70 87.0
≥ 88 54.5 0.95 53.0 123.0 2.26 119.0 212.6 2.84 205.0 179.7 6.00 158.0 105.7 3.45 92.0
RCQ
< 0.85 58.2 1.26 57.0 125.9 3.45 121.0 213.1 4.61 205.0 149.6 6.46 135.0 98.9 4.50 87.0
≥ 0.85 55.0 0.77 54.0 126.6 2.04 124.0 215.2 2.45 211.0 173.4 4.66 154.0 105.1 2.94 90.0
RCE
< 0.5 57.8 1.94 57.0 125.6 5.39 122.0 211.1 6.75 210.0 135.0 6.45 120.0 103.3 9.84 87.0
≥ 0.5 55.6 0.67 55.0 126.5 1.88 123.0 215.2 2.35 210.0 171.5 4.39 151.0 103.4 2.45 90.0
IC
< 1.18 57.9 1.09 55.0 129.1 3.91 123.0 216.6 5.49 211.0 155.0 8.50 135.0 101.9 6.54 87.0
≥ 1.18 55.4 0.72 55.0 125.7 2.01 122.0 214.2 2.40 210.0 169.8 3.93 150.0 103.8 2.57 90.0

BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference; WHR: waist-hip ratio; WSR: waist-to-stature ratio; CI: conicity index; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; TG: triglycerides; TC: total cholesterol; GLI: glycemia; SE: Standard Error; A: average; Md: median

The highest frequencies of overweight and obesity in adults, according to BMI, were observed in the age group from 40 to 59 years: 39.5% and 22.6% for men and 44.4% and 31.5% for women. Regarding central obesity, verified by WC, WHR, and WSR indices, higher rates were also identified in the age group from 40 to 59 years, in both sexes ( Table 3 ).

Table 3 Distribution of anthropometric variables, according to age and sex, in adults and older adults of Rio Branco, Acre. Brazil, 2014. 

ADULTS OLDER ADULTS
18–39 years old 40–59 years old 60–79 years old 80 years old or older
n N % n N % n N % n N %
BMI (kg/m 2 ) BMI (kg/m 2 )
Men Men
< 25 48 36,327 51.6 38 11,821 37.9 < 22 31 879 9.4 19 401 26.0
25–29.9 37 25,405 36.0 38 12,318 39.5 22–27 148 4,256 45.5 33 695 45.0
≥ 30 13 8,711 12.4 22 7,041 22.6 > 27 140 4,216 45.1 21 448 29.0
Women Women
< 25 119 37,247 49.0 51 8,248 24.1 < 22 49 1,128 10.5 28 542 30.3
25–29.9 80 25,094 33.0 88 15,221 44.4 22–27 160 3,588 33.5 27 523 29.2
≥ 30 44 13,663 18.0 63 10,805 31.5 > 27 263 6,013 56.0 38 726 40.5
WC (cm) WC (cm)
Men Men
< 102 93 67,384 95.7 80 25,280 81.1 < 102 254 7,411 79.6 61 1,291 84.8
≥102 05 3,059 4.3 18 5,901 18.9 ≥102 64 1,899 20.4 11 232 15.2
Women Women
< 88 190 59,501 78.6 114 19,190 56.0 < 88 213 4,851 45.4 52 1,003 56.0
≥ 88 52 16,197 21.4 88 15,084 44.0 ≥ 88 257 5,832 54.6 41 788 44.0
WHR WHR
Men Men
< 0.90 66 49,096 69.7 31 9,865 31.6 < 0.90 38 1,098 11.9 10 216 14.2
≥ 0.90 32 21,347 30.3 67 21,316 68.4 ≥ 0.90 278 8,155 88.1 62 1,307 85.8
Women Women
< 0.85 199 62,699 82.3 100 17,697 51.6 < 0.85 136 3,131 29.4 19 363 20.5
≥ 0.85 43 13,399 17.7 102 16,577 48.4 ≥ 0.85 333 7,528 70.6 73 1,406 79.5
WSR WSR
Men Men
< 0.5 56 42,657 60.6 19 5,946 19.1 < 0.5 38 1,108 11.9 07 150 9.9
< 0.5 42 27,786 39.4 79 25,235 80.9 < 0.5 280 8,202 88.1 65 1,372 90.1
Women Women
< 0.5 134 42,082 55.6 47 8,108 23.7 < 0.5 56 1,292 12.1 10 190 10.6
≥ 0.5 108 33,616 44.4 155 26,166 76.3 > 0.5 414 9,391 87.9 83 1,601 89.4
CI CI
Men Men
< 1.25 81 59,007 83.8 44 14,493 46.5 < 1.25 87 2,614 28.1 11 238 15.7
≥ 1.25 17 11,436 16.2 54 16,688 53.5 ≥ 1.25 231 6,696 71.9 61 1,284 84.3
Women Women
< 1.18 191 59,715 78.9 80 13,892 40.5 < 1.18 96 2,224 20.8 7 134 7.5
≥ 1.18 51 15,983 21.1 122 20,382 59.5 ≥ 1.18 374 8,459 79.2 86 1,657 92.5

BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference; WHR: waist-hip ratio; WSR: waist-to-stature ratio; CI: Conicity index; N:n expanded to the population.

Among older adults, the highest frequencies of overweight due to BMI were observed in the age group from 60 to 79 years (45.1% for men and 56.0% for women). In women aged 80 years or older, a high frequency of overweight was also observed. When analyzing central obesity in this same population according to WHR and WSR, frequencies above 70% were obtained in both age groups in both sexes ( Table 3 ).

Anthropometric variables showed statistically significant correlations with lipid profile variables and glycemia; however, they were moderate correlations, and the most expressive were in men with WHR, WC, and WSR correlation coefficients with triglyceride (r = 0.484, r = 0.438, and r = 0.448, respectively) and with total cholesterol (r = 0.486, r = 0.445, and r = 0.475, respectively). In adult women, the highest correlations observed were WHR with total cholesterol (r = 0.350) and triglycerides (r = 0.345), and WSR with SBP (r = 0.369). For older adults, the highest statistically significant correlation was observed in men, between triglycerides and BMI (r = 0.251), as shown in Table 4 .

Table 4 Correlation matrix between anthropometric variables, lipid profile, glycemia, and blood pressure according to sex in adults and in older adults of Rio Branco, Acre. Brazil, 2014. 

HDL LDL TG TC GLI SBP DBP
ADULTS
Women
BMI -0.112 a 0.100 a 0.259 a 0.147 a 0.161 a 0.288 a 0.252 a
WC -0.079 a 0.141 a 0.33 6 a 0.204 a 0.210 a 0.321 a 0.275 a
WHR -0.040 a 0.115 a 0.345 a 0.35 0 a 0.246 a 0.337 a 0.316 a
WSR -0.043 b 0.149 b 0.336 0.226 b 0.196 b 0.369 b 0.321 a
CI -0.026 a 0.005 -0.022 a -0.010 a -0.007 b -0.003 0.031 a
Men
BMI -0.145 a 0.241 a 0.37 7 a 0.36 8 a -0.022 a 0.243 a 0.203 a
WC -0.026 a 0.269 a 0.43 8 a 0.44 5 a 0.047 a 0.401 a 0.350 a
WHR 0.027 a 0.286 a 0.48 4 a 0.48 6 a 0.142 a 0.340 a 0.371 b
WSR -0.036 a 0.300 a 0.448 a 0.475 a 0.096 a 0.377 a 0.351 a
CI 0.135 a 0.201 a 0.324 a 0.369 a 0.161 a 0.422 a 0.404 a
OLDER ADULTS
Women
BMI -0.110 a -0.044 a 0.102 a -0.021 b 0.034 a 0.051 a 0.140 a
WC -0.039 a -0.037 a -0.038 a -0.055 a 0.051 a 0.064 a -0.010
WHR -0.149 a -0.024 a 0.174 a 0.077 a 0.077 a 0.124 a 0.151 a
WSR -0.129 b -0.079 a 0.114 b -0.044 a 0.053 a 0.109 a 0.176 a
CI -0.038 a -0.037 a -0.039 a -0.055 a 0.051 a 0.064 a -0.010
Men
BMI -0.088 a 0.056 a 0.251 a -0.110 a 0.052 a 0.174 a 0.162 a
WC 0.056 a 0.028 a -0.051 a 0.020 a -0.029 a -0.014 -0.025 a
WHR -0.063 a 0.005 0.073 a -0.007 0.000 0.130 a 0.068 a
WSR -0.082 a 0.050 ba 0.219 a 0.089 a 0.034 a 0.148 a 0.156 a
CI 0.056 a 0.027 a -0.052 a 0.019 b -0.029 a -0.014 -0.025 a

BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference; WHR: waist-hip ratio; WSR: waist-to-stature ratio; CI: conicity index; HDL: high-density lipoprotein; LDL: low-density lipoprotein; TG: triglycerides; TC: total cholesterol; GLI: glycemia; SBP: systolic blood pressure; DBP: diastolic blood pressure

a p<0.01

b p<0.05

The prevalence of hypertension was higher in obese men according to all analyzed indicators. Also, the highest prevalence of diabetes was observed in men, the highest being the CI anthropometric indicator (16.3%). In adults of both sexes, the prevalence above 78% of dyslipidemia in obese individuals was highlighted according to all analyzed indicators ( Table 5 ).

Table 5 Association between anthropometric variables and cardiovascular risk factors according to sex, in adults of Rio Branco, Acre. Brazil, 2014. 

ADULTS HYPERTENSION DIABETES DYSLIPIDEMIA
Prevalence (%) PR (95%CI) Prevalence (%) PR (95%CI) Prevalence (%) PR (95%CI)
Women
BMI (kg/m 2 )
25–29.9 14.6 2.32 (2.22–2.43) 2.2 2.34 (2.09–2.63) 78.7 1.16 (1.14–1.18)
≥ 30 15.4 2.46 (2.34–2.58) 6.1 6.50 (5.84–7.24) 82.5 1.22 (1.20–1.24)
WC (cm) ≥ 88 19.8 2.51 (2.42–2.60) 6.6 7.10 (6.52–7.72) 81.8 1.13 (1.11–1.15)
WHR ≥ 0.85 20.6 2.65 (2.56–2.74) 6.8 7.53 (6.92–8.20) 84.1 1.17 (1.15–1.19)
WSR > 0.5 15.5 2.51 (2.41–2.62) 3.9 4.63 (4.17–5.13) 80.8 1.18 (1.16–1.20)
CI ≥ 1.18 20.3 2.96 (2.85–3.07) 6.0 7.39 (6.75–8.10) 81.1 1.12 (1.11–1.14)
Men
BMI (kg/m 2 ) 25–29.9 14.8 2.19 (2.09–2.29) 8.1 1.47 (1.40–1.55) 78.1 2.04 (2.01–2.08)
≥ 30 44.8 6.61 (6.34–6.89) 10.6 1.92 (1.81–2.04) 82.3 2.15 (2.11–2.20)
WC (cm) ≥ 102 63.3 5.74 (5.56–5.93) 8.9 1.27 (1.17–1.36) 80.9 1.39 (1.36–1.43)
WHR ≥ 0.90 30.7 6.08 (5.84–6.32) 15.3 9.79 (9.14–10.49) 80.7 1.78 (1.75–1.81)
WSR > 0.5 28.1 13.42 (12.58–14.31) 12.2 6.41 (5.98–6.87) 79.4 2.03 (1.99–2.06)
CI ≥ 1.25 37.3 5.10 (4.93–5.27) 16.3 4.32 (4.12–4.53) 80.0 1.52 (1.49–1.54)
Total
BMI (kg/m 2 ) 25–29.9 14.7 2.25 (2.18–2.32) 5.1 1.55 (1.47–1.62) 78.4 1.49 (1.47–1.51)
≥ 30 27.0 4.14 (4.01–4.27) 7.9 2.40 (2.28–2.52) 82.4 1.57 (1.54–1.59)
WC (cm) ≥ 88 ≥ 102 29.5 3.01 (3.01–3.15) 7.1 1.67 (1.60–1.74) 81.6 1.26 (1.25–1.28)
WHR ≥ 0.85 ≥ 0.90 26.5 4.00 (3.90–4.10) 11.8 9.92 (9.41–10.46) 82.1 1.36 (1.34–1.37)
WSR > 0.5 21.4 5.13 (4.96–5.30) 7.8 5.71 (5.39–6.04) 80.1 1.48 (1.47–1.50)
CI ≥ 1.18 ≥ 1.25 27.8 3.92 (3.82–4.01) 10.5 4.57 (4.38–4.76) 80.6 1.29 (1.28–1.31)
Women
BMI (kg/m 2 ) > 27 71.5 1.65 (1.61–1.69) 20.8 1.15 (1.06–1.09) 87.3 1.05 (1.03–1.07)
WC (cm) ≥ 88 70.6 1.15 (1.13–1.66) 20.1 1.08 (1.06–1.09) 87.8 1.05 (1.03–1.06)
WHR ≥ 0.85 68.3 1.16 (1.14–1.18) 18.2 1.06 (1.05–1.08) 88.7 1.12 (1.01–1.13)
WSR > 0.5 66.5 1.21 (1.18–1.24) 17.4 1.07 (1.05–1.09) 86.0 1.02 (1.00–1.04)
CI ≥ 1.18 65.4 1.07 (1.04–1.09) 17.5 1.05 (1.03–1.07) 86.8 1.06 (1.04–1.07)
Men
BMI (kg/m 2 ) > 27 77.8 1.57 (1.53–1.61) 19.2 1.12 (1.10–1.15) 83.0 1.42 (1.38–1.46)
WC (cm) ≥ 102 72.1 1.09 (1.06–1.11) 22.6 1.11 (1.09–1.13) 89.1 1.23 (1.20–1.25)
WHR ≥ 0.90 67.7 1.18 (1.15–1.21) 14.2 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 75.7 1.23 (1.20–1.26)
WSR > 0.5 67.4 1.18 (1.15–1.21) 14.5 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 75.9 1.32 (1.28–1.35)
CI ≥ 1.25 67.7 1.08 (1.06–1.11) 14.2 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 77.0 1.18 (1.16–1.20)
Total
BMI (kg/m 2 ) > 27 74.1 1.30 (1.59–1.64) 20.2 1.14 (1.12–1.15) 85.5 1.13 (1.12–1.15)
WC (cm) ≥ 88 ≥ 102 70.9 1.10 (1.09–1.12) 20.7 1.09 (1.08–1.10) 88.1 1.15 (1.13–1.16)
WHR ≥ 0.85 ≥ 0.90 68.0 1.16 (1.15–1.18) 16.2 1.03 (1.02–1.04) 82.0 1.11 (1.10–1.13)
WSR > 0.5 64.8 1.20 (1.17–1.22) 16.1 1.05 (1.03–1.06) 81.3 1.15 (1.13–1.16)
CI ≥ 1.18 ≥ 1.25 66.4 1.07 (1.06–1.09) 16.1 1.03 (1.01–1.04) 82.5 1.20 (1.18–1.22)

BMI: body mass index; WC: waist circumference; WHR: waist-hip ratio; WSR: waist-to-stature ratio; CI: conicity index; PR: prevalence ratio; 95%CI: 95% confidence interval

When analyzing the associations, a higher strength of association was found between hypertension and WSR (PR = 13.42; 95%CI 12.58–14.31) and with BMI > 30 (PR = 6.61; 95%CI 6.34–6.89) in adult men. In the analysis of diabetes, the WHR presented greater robustness in the association for women (PR = 7.53; 95%CI 6.92–8.20) and men (PR = 9.79; 95%CI 9.14–10.49), as shown in Table 5 .

Among the older adults, the prevalence of hypertension and obesity was higher than that found in the adult group. The prevalence of hypertension was above 65% for men and women. For diabetes, the highest prevalence was 20.8% among those with BMI > 27 in women and 22.6% for altered WC in men. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was similar to that observed in adults ( Table 5 ).

In the bivariate analysis, among the older adults, there were lower effects of association between anthropometric indicators and outcomes than among adults. The highest association observed was between BMI and hypertension (PR = 1.65; 95%CI 1.61–1.69) in older men, although the prevalence ratios remained similar in both sexes in this age group ( Table 5 ).

DISCUSSION

Among the main findings of this study, the correlations between WHR, WC, and WSR with TG and TC in adult men are highlighted. The highest frequencies of general obesity were found in adults aged 40 to 59 years and in older adults aged 60 to 69 years. The lipid profile markers were elevated in adults of both sexes with BMI, WC, WHR, WSR, and altered CI.

Epidemiological studies have shown a clear correlation between obesity and cardiovascular risk factors 22 , 23 . In this analysis, according to anthropometric classification indices, overweight and obesity were frequent. The Surveillance System for Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey showed that 53.8% of the Brazilian population over 18 years of age had some degree of overweight, with Rio Branco being the capital with the highest prevalence (60.6%) 24 .

International 2 , 25 and Brazilian 23 , 24 studies showed a high prevalence of overweight, a worldwide phenomenon known as a nutritional transition that has changes in the dietary pattern and physical activity as determining factors 2 , 4 . Currently it is a worldwide epidemic, which affects all age groups, different socioeconomic groups, and countries, causing numerous injuries and making this nutritional disorder harmful to public health 4 .

In this investigation, the total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were more correlated with WC, WHR, and WSR in men. Similar results were found in an Iranian study, which found correlations of TC and TG with most anthropometric indices, especially in men 22 .

Although BMI is usually used in obesity screening, abdominal measurements are being widely employed in predicting risk factors for CVD 12 . In part, this stems from the observation that abdominal fat is related to various metabolic abnormalities, including adversities of the lipid profile 12 .

In this study, the prevalence of dyslipidemia was above 75%, regardless of sex, age, and anthropometric indicator analyzed. In a population-based study performed in São Paulo, the prevalence of dyslipidemias was 73.1% and 69.9% in adults and in older adults, respectively, overweight, according to BMI, and 70.4% and 64.2% according to the increased WC 26 . Another population-based study with older adults from southern Brazil showed that 70% of obese women had hypercholesterolemia and 64%, hypertriglyceridemia; on the other hand, in men, the prevalence was 38.9% and 50.0%, respectively 23 .

Obese individuals are more susceptible to develop diabetes and, especially when obesity is centered in the abdominal region, negative repercussions are more expressive 10 , both metabolic and cardiovascular. Since visceral fat is pro-inflammatory, it can be infiltrated by macrophages that can lead to endothelial dysfunction and subsequent insulin resistance 7 .

A study with the older population in São Paulo identified a prevalence of 21.3% of diabetes among those with BMI > 27, similar to that observed in this study: 20.2% in the older population 27 . Although older adults had higher prevalence regarding that observed among adults, the probability ratios were stronger among adults. A possible explanation would rest on the survival bias, since those more vulnerable to complications caused by the disease would be more likely to die prematurely 28 .

In adults, the WHR indicator had the strongest association with diabetes in both sexes. A review study identified WHR and WC as the best predictors of risk factors for cardiovascular disease 10 .

In this study, the highest frequencies of general and central obesity in older adults were observed in the range of 60 to 79 years in both sexes. Current tendencies indicate the prevalence in this range will increase, even among older groups. In the Scottish Health Survey, performed between 1998 and 2008, the obesity verified by BMI continued to increase even among individuals aged 60 to 70 years. In the same period, an increase of 5 to 10 cm of WC in both sexes in the range of 50 to 70 years was observed 25 .

Overweight is associated with arterial hypertension 20 , 29 . This fact can be explained by physiological alterations such as activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, insulin resistance, and renal and endothelial dysfunction 30 .

In this study, the higher prevalence of hypertension was observed more in obese men (44.8%) than in obese women (15.4%) according to BMI. Similar data were found in a population-based study conducted in São Luís (MA), in which 32.1% of men and 24.2% of women were hypertensive 29 . The VI Brazilian Guidelines for Hypertension indicate that the overall prevalence of hypertension among men is higher in men up to 50 years of age, reversing after the fifth decade 20 .

Obesity was a risk factor for arterial hypertension, because obese individuals of both sexes, according to BMI and WSR, had an increase of 6 to 13 times the risk of having hypertension, respectively. A proportional relationship was also observed between the prevalence of hypertension and the increase in WC and WHR, especially in men. In a study with individuals over 18 years of age, BMI and WC indicators were considered good predictors of the risk for developing hypertension 29 .

In older adults, the prevalence of hypertension above 65% was found in men and women with overweight and obesity. Aging was associated with an increase in the prevalence of systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) 29 due to the distensibility of the aorta (complacency), reduction in the systolic volume of the left ventricle, and the ejection velocity of the left ventricle 31 .

Some limitations can be recognized in this study. In the analysis of the results of the older adults, caution is necessary due to survival bias, considering that risk factors for cardiovascular diseases lead to early death in the older adults affected by them. Other longitudinal analyses are needed to provide stronger evidence of the relationships obtained in this study.

It is also important to highlight that the collection of biological samples was performed at a single moment in time to define morbidities. However, all analyses were performed in the same laboratory to minimize errors, and it is important to use these results to obtain greater reliability in the definitions of cardiovascular risk factors. Furthermore, possible errors in the verification of anthropometric measurements were minimized by duplicity in the verification and use of means. It is also highlighted as one of the strengths of this study the fact of working with a population-based sample representative of adults and older adults in the Rio Branco.

The obtained results show the relevance of these indicators in the identification of CVD risk factors and the importance of adopting them in clinical practice and epidemiological studies with adults and older adults, considering that they are simple, low-cost, and noninvasive methods. These indicators can contribute to the early identification of risk factors, enabling actions and strategies to prevent and control cardiovascular diseases.

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FundingConselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq Process 401081/2013-3) e Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Acre (FAPAC - Process 6068-14-0000029).

Received: July 22, 2018; Accepted: July 07, 2019

Correspondence: Thatiana Lameira Maciel Amaral Campus Universitário Centro de Ciências da Saúde e do Desporto BR 364 km 4 Distrito Industrial - Caixa postal: 500 69920-900. Rio Branco, AC, Brasil E-mail: nathalia.enf@outlook.com

Authors’ contributions: Study conception and planning: TLMA, CAA, GTRM. Data collection, analysis, and interpretation: NSLL, T LMA, CAA, GTRM, MTLV, MJLV. Study development or review: NSLL, TL MA, CAA, GTRM, M TLV, MJLV. All the authors approved the final version and are publicly responsible for the contents of the article.

Conflict of Interests: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

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