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Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura

Print version ISSN 0100-2945On-line version ISSN 1806-9967

Rev. Bras. Frutic. vol.25 no.1 Jaboticabal Apr. 2003

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-29452003000100056 

COMUNICAÇÃO CIENTÍFICA

 

Influence of the temperature in germination of seeds of jabuticaba tree1

 

Influência da temperatura na germinação de sementes de jabuticabeira

 

 

Renata Aparecida de AndradeI;Antonio Baldo Geraldo MartinsII

IEng. Agr., aluna de Pós-graduação em Agronomia – Produção Vegetal – UNESP – FCAV – Depto de Produção Vegetal. Via de acesso Prof. Paulo Donato Castellane, s/n. Cep: 14884-900. Jaboticabal/SP. Tel/Fax: (16)32092668. e-mail: reandrad@fcav.unesp.br
IIEng. Agr., Prof. Doutor – UNESP - FCAV – Depto de Produção Vegetal. e-mail: baldo@fcav.unesp.br

 

 


ABSTRACT

The jaboticaba tree (Myrciaria spp.) is originated from the center-south of Brazil and presents different types. It's a medium size tree, with tendency to form a crown with great number of branches. A characteristic considered as limitant for the commercial crop is the great juvenility, advicing producing good rootstocks of seedlings and graft wanted varieties, and other vegetative processes. With the purpose of evaluating the effect of temperature on germination of three clones of jaboticaba tree, was carried out a laboratorial research. It was observed influence of the temperature on germination. The highest percentage of germination was obtained at low temperature (15ºC and 20ºC). When it was used the temperature of 35ºC, two clones had only 8% of germination, while the other one was verified 35%. These values show the possibility of the ocurrence of variability among the clones of jaboticaba tree.

Index terms: Myrciaria spp.; seeds; germination.


RESUMO

A jabuticabeira (Myrciaria spp.) é uma fruteira originada do centro-Sul do Brasil e apresenta tipos diferentes. É uma árvore de tamanho médio, com tendência a formar copa com grande número de ramos desde pouco acima do solo. Uma característica considerada como limitante para a cultura comercial dessa frutífera é o grande período juvenil, aconselhando-se então produzir bons porta-enxertos de pés-francos e enxertar as variedades desejadas, ou ainda por outros processos vegetativos. Objetivando-se avaliar a influência da temperatura na germinação de sementes de três clones de jabuticabeira, realizou-se um experimento em condições de laboratório. Observou-se que há influência da temperatura na porcentagem de germinação, sendo que, nas mais baixas temperaturas (15ºC e 20ºC), foi verificada uma maior porcentagem de germinação para os três clones em estudo. Quando do uso da temperatura de 35ºC, dois clones tiveram apenas 8% de germinação, enquanto, para o outro, foi verificado 35%. Estes dados mostram a possibilidade de ocorrência de variabilidade entre clones de jabuticabeira.

Termos para indexação: Myrciaria spp.; sementes; germinação.


 

 

The jaboticaba tree (Myrciaria spp.) is originated from the center-south of Brazil and presents different types. It's a tree of medium size, with tendency to form crown with great number of branches (Andersen & Andersen, 1989). The leaves are red in the new buds; the flowers are white and located along the log and of the matured branches, of the which are formed fruits (Benza, 1993), that when ripe they present peel black, fine and fragile, being the pulp of white coloration, lightly acid and very sweet.

According to Andersen & Andersen (1989), for propagation of the jaboticaba tree is more used the seedlings, however, an grafting can result in more than 75% of cathing.

A characteristic considered as limitant for the commercial culture of the jaboticaba tree is the great juvenility period of the plant, being necessary to produce good rootstocks of seedlings and graft the wanted varieties, or still multiplying for other vegetative processes. For the rootstocks formation is necessary about 1 year and to obtain a seedling in production are necessary approximately 10 years. The value of a jaboticaba tree seedling, in production is nearly R$70,00.

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of the temperature in the germination of jaboticaba seeds.

The experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Seeds, located in the Department of Vegetable Production of "Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias - UNESP - Campus of Jaboticabal/SP".

The treatments were constituted by five temperatures: 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC, 30ºC and 35ºC, being used three jaboticaba clones, four repetitions and 10 seeds by repetition. The clones were chosen randomized in an orchard with about 157 jaboticaba trees, originated of seeds, located at "Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias". The differences among the selected plants were observed visually, such as: carry of the tree; format of the cup; size and aspect of the leaves; coloration of the new buds; size, forms and coloration of the fruits and size of the seeds.

The seeds were extracted of ripe fruits, washed and placed to drying in to the atmosphere for 24 hours; after this, they were placed in gerbox, having as substrate fine vermiculite and maintained at germinator. Was evaluated the number of seeds germinated for 3 months, and the values were later transformed in percentage for accomplishment of statistical analysis. For seed germination was considered the emition of the primary root. The obtained values were analyzed through the test of Tukey, to the 5% of probability.

When talk about tropical fruits, as the case of the jaboticaba tree, it's waited almost that instinctively, that the best temperatures for the germination of your seeds to be in a strip between 25 and 30ºC, once the production of fruits, for the local conditions, felt in October, in other words, in the middle of the summer. However, by the data analysis was observed that, in a general way, was at 15ºC where happened the largest germination percentages (Figure 1), not differing significantly, however, of the temperature of 20ºC; as was increased the temperatures a corresponding diminish was observed in the germination. When were used temperatures of 25 and 30ºC was verified that just about 50% of the seeds germinated and can considered that the worst results were the obtained for the seeds exposeds to the temperature of 35ºC.

 

 

The experiment allowed to also visualize differences with relationship to the different plants, once the largest germination percentage can be verified for the clone 3, although it hasn't differed significantly of the number 1 (Table 1), which presented a better behavior in relation to the germination in function of the temperature, getting to support higher values (Figure 2).

 

 

 

 

When was compared the values obtaineds to the related by Pereira & Andrade (1994), that studied which would be the best temperature for the germination of guava seeds, other representative of the family Myrtaceae, as well as the jaboticaba tree, is noticed conclusive differences, once the values obtaineds the 25 and 30º C were respectively of 40 and 34%, while for jaboticaba tree, in this strip was obtained a value near to 50% (Table 1).

Based on the obtained results was concluded that:

The temperature have influence on percentage of germination of seeds of jaboticaba tree, being the 15ºC the most adequate, and the worst of them were the 35ºC;

The values obtaineds show the great variability existent among the clones of jaboticaba tree.

 

REFERENCES

ANDERSEN, O.; ANDERSEN, V.U. As frutas silvestres brasileiras. 3. ed. São Paulo: Publ. Globo Rural, 1989. 203p. (Coleção do Agricultor)         [ Links ]

BENZA, J.C. 143 Frutales nativos. Local: Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, 1993. 366p.         [ Links ]

PEREIRA, T.S.; ANDRADE, A.C.S. Germinação de Psidium guajava L. e Passiflora edulis Sims – efeito da temperatura, substrato e morfologia do desenvolvimento pós-seminal. Revista Brasileira de Sementes. v.16. n 1. 1994. p.58-62.         [ Links ]

 

 

Recebido: 05/07/2002
Aceito para publicação:20/02/2003

 

 

1 (Trabalho 097/2002).

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