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Revista Árvore

On-line version ISSN 1806-9088

Rev. Árvore vol.40 no.3 Viçosa May/June 2016 




Yorleny Badilla2  * 

Aloisio Xavier3 

Olman Murillo2 

Haroldo Nogueira de Paiva3 

2Instituto Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingenería Forestal, Cartago - Costa Rica. E-mail: <> and <>.

3Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Viçosa, MG - Brasil. E-mail: <> and <>.


This study aimed to evaluate IBA efficiency in mini-cuttings rooting based on four Tectona grandis clones. Vegetative samples were collected in a hydroponic mini-clonal hedge in Verde Novo reforestation company at Colider, Mato Grosso. A factorial arrangement (4 x 6) was utilized, based on Carapá, Ipê, GU5 and TB7 clones vs six IBA dosages (0, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 and 16000 mg L-1), in a randomized block design based on three repetitions and 16 mini-cuttings per experimental unit. Cutting evaluations were based on survival and rooting rates after greenhouse conditions, after shadow-house, and at sun exposure, besides, total height, collar diameter, aerial and root biomass were also analyzed. Results registered a 95,4% average survivance rate as well as a 91,8% rooting rate, considered as very high for this tree species. IBA dosages utilization did not produce a significative effect on rooting mini-cuttings from these investigated clones. However, there were different responses among clones, which suggests a genotypic effect.

Keywords: Vegetative propagation; Clonal forestry; Mini-cutting technique


Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência do ácido indol-butirico (AIB) no enraizamento de miniestacas de quatro clones de Tectona grandis. As miniestacas foram coletadas em minijardim clonal conduzido em sistema de hidroponia. Adotou-se arranjo fatorial (4 x 6), considerando quatro clones (Carapá, Ipê, GU5 e TB7) e seis dosagens de AIB (0, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 e 16000 mg L-1), disposto no delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, em três repetições e parcelas compostas de 16 miniestacas. Foram realizadas avaliações de sobrevivência e de enraizamento na saída de casa de vegetação, de sobrevivência na saída da casa de sombra e a pleno sol foram avaliadas a altura, diâmetro de colo, biomassa da parte aérea e do sistema radicial. De acordo com os resultados encontrados, observou-se que as miniestacas dos clones avaliados apresentaram em média um percentual de sobrevivência de 95,4% e um índice de enraizamento de 91,8%, considerados altos para a espécie. A utilização de doses de AIB não teve efeito significativo no enraizamento das miniestacas dos clones avaliados, contudo foi observada resposta diferenciada entre os quatro clones, o que sugere efeito genotípico.

Palavras-chave: Propagação vegetativa; Silvicultura clonal; Miniestaquia


Teak (Tectona grandis Linn f.), which belongs to the Lamiaceae family, is from India, Thailand, Laos, Burma, Cambodia, Vietnam and Java (LAMPRECHT, 1990), and it is nowadays one of the most valued tree species in the forest market in countries from the different continents. The main features of the teak wood are concerning durability, stability, pre-treatment facility, natural resistance to fungi, insects, pests, drill bugs, attack, allied to drawing and color considered important qualitative aspects in the timber market this species (GOH; GALIANA, 2000).

According to Oliveira (2003), the commercial forestation with this species has been made in high scale for more than one hundred years, especially in Asia. However, most of teak traditional plantations in the world are made with seedlings obtained in front of sexed propagation (via seminiferous). Recently, programs of genetic improvement have concentrated in the development of trees clones of superior genotype (KAOSA-ARD, 1998; MURILLO; BADILLA, 2004a); and, at the same time, some work aiming to evaluate the capacity of this species regarding vegetative propagation by cuttings, by grafting and by micro-propagation has already been tested (MASCARENHAS; MARALIDHARAM, 1993; MONTEUUIS et al., 1995; MONTEUUIS et al., 1998; GATTI, 2002; MURILLO; BADILLA, 2004b; HUSEN, 2011).

The mass vegetative propagation of the forest species has improved with the rooting cuttings increase, which was got, especially, with the development of micro-cuttings and mini-cuttings techniques that enabled considerable due gains, mainly, in the rooting index increase and time reduction for seedling formation (XAVIER; WENDLING, 1998; WENDLING, 1999; WENDLING et al., 2000). The mini-cutting used is justified when there is availability of highly productive genotype, seed shortage or difficulty in the propagation via seminal (XAVIER et al., 2003).d

The formation of adventitious roots is the first and most important cutting step, bearing in mind that, most of losses occur due to low root quality (DE KLERK et al., 1999), which may be consequence of the genotype, age and nutrition of the plant that provides propagating material, environmental conditions, hormonal balance, cuttings collect seasons (HARTMANN et al., 2011), besides crop treatments, such as irrigations and diseases control. In part, these obstacles can be solved by using phytoregulators, especially those of the auxin group, that beside stimulating cutting rooting, the increasing percentage of root formation, enhance the number and root formed quality, improve the rooting uniformity and reduce the cuttings permanence in case of rooting. (ONO; RODRIGUES, 1996; ZUFFELLATO-RIBAS; RODRIGUES, 2001).

Among the most used growth regulators in the cuttings rooting, is the IBA, because of its efficiency, its stability and lower toxicity in large concentration range (ALVARENGA; CARVALHO, 1983; IRITANI et al., 1986). Its action is related to the synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins, cell wall alterations and enzymatic activities increase (FIGUEIREDO et al., 1995). On the other hand, the cutting behavior concerning phytoregulators varies according to the species, the clone (CHUNG, LEE, 1994), the propagating material maturation state, the cutting type, time of year, concentration and application method (BASTOS, 2006).

Considering the mini-cutting importance in the teak cloning, the present work aimed to evaluate the application of IBA (0, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 e 16000 mg L-1) in the survival and in the mini-cutting rooting and growth in height and in collar diameter and the biomass air part and the seedling root system of four Tectona grandis clones.


This study was carried out from October to December in 2013, in the forest nursery of Agrícola Verde Novo Ltda. company, located in the Colíder, Mato Grosso, Brasil. In according with Köppen1's classification, the North region of Mato Grosso presents Awi clime, that is to say, rainy tropical with two-month dry clear season; annual average temperature about 25 ºC, with annual average rain 2.200 mm; with latitude of 10º57'21" S, longitude 55º32'55" and average altitude of 256 m (MATO GROSSO, 2008).

It was used mini-cuttigs of four Tectona grandis clones (Carapá, Ipê, GU5 and TB7), which were collected in mini-stumps established in mini-clonal hedge on hydroponic system, with management and nutrition according to the procedures used by the Agrícola Verde Novo Ltda company.

2.1 Clonal Minigarden management

According the teak propagation technique by mini-cutting adopted by the Agrícola Verde Novo company Ltda., the clonal mini-garden was installed in heated greenhouse, covered with transparent polyethylene and shade cloth of 60% reduction in brightness, on the walls and ceiling in order to maintain temperature lower than 35 ° C and relative humidity above 85%. It is consisted of mini-stumps obtained by rooting cuttings, implemented in spacing of 10x10 cm in channels of fiber cement without asbestos, with RCSS (Reinforced Cement with Synthetic Strings), filled with crushed stone at the bottom and washed sand.

The mineral fertilization of clonal mini-garden was performed with a nutrient solution composed of calcium nitrate (0.5 g L-1), potassium nitrate (0.5 g L-1), monoammonium phosphate (0.15 g L-1 ), boric acid (2.5 mg L-1), sodium molybdate (2.5 mg L-1) copper chelate (0.0015 mL L-1), zinc chelator (0.0005 mL L- 1), manganese chelate (0.005 mL L-1), chelate of iron (0.0075 mL L-1) applied with an automated drip fertigation, activated once a day in the evening. Excess nutrient solution was drained by the channel bottom and was discarded. Irrigation was carried out by a sprinkler system, triggered from two to five times a day, to maintain the temperature lower than 35 ° C and relative humidity above 85% within the greenhouse.

2.2 Obtaining, preparation and mini-cuttings staking

The mini-cuttings were collected in the established mini-stumps in the clonal mini-garden, prepared with dimensions of 4-6 cm in length, keeping two pairs of leaves reduced to 1/4 its original dimension. To maintain turgidity conditions of vegetative material, the mini-cuttings were packaged in Styrofoam boxes, performing spraying with water by hand sprayer at time intervals of less than five minutes to the treatments. The period between the mini-cutting collection, the preparation and subsequent staking, was always less than 20 minutes.

For the assessment of the IBA effect on rooting, the treatments were 0, 1000, 2000, 4000, 8000 and 16000 mg L-1, diving approximately 1 cm from the base of the mini-cuttings in the solution for about 10 seconds. Then, the cuttings were planted in ellepotes (dimensions: 6 cm and diameter 3.5 cm) filled with commercial substrate CAROLINA II BR (composition: peat sphagno (40.5%), expanded vermiculite (34.5 %), carbonized rice husk (24%), dolomite (1%), gypsum (0.5%), NPK fertilizer (strokes), pH 5.5 and electrical conductivity (mS cm-1) 0.7 ).

The cuttings, after staking, were taken to a greenhouse for rooting, which is covered with transparent polyethylene and shade cloth of 60% reduction in brightness, on the walls and ceiling, trying to keep the temperature less than 35 º C and air relative humidity above 95% with a irrigation frequency of 30 seconds every 20 minutes, where they remained for 15 days. Afterwards, they were transferred to acclimatization in a greenhouse with similar infrastructure characteristics but with a frequency of irrigation of 30 seconds every 60 minutes, remaining for 15 days. Later, they were transferred to the shade house with polyethylene and shade cloth of 70% reduction in light, where they stayed for 10 days and finally were transferred to the growth patio in full sun for the final evaluations carried out at 55 after staking.

It was adopted a factorial arrangement (4 x 6), considering the four clones studied and six doses of IBA in statistical design of random blocks, with three replications and 16 installments of mini-cuttings.

2.3 Experimental evaluations

The evaluations were performed about the survival percentage and mini-cuttings rooting out of the greenhouse (after 30 days of staking) and survival out of the shade house (40 days after staking). The rooting was evaluated when it was observed the appearance of the roots that grew in the ellepot walls.

In full sun area (55 days after staking), it was evaluated survival, height (h), the stem diameter (sd) and the dry mass weight of aerial part (WAP) and root system (RS) of obtained seedlings. The height measurement was made with graduated ruler in mm and a neck diameter using digital caliper. For the determination of WAP and RS, four mini-cuttings / repetition were sampled, considering average values of height growth of seedlings in full sun area, and the obtained plant material, led to the forced circulation greenhouse of air at 60 º C to the weight constant.

From the data found for the evaluated characteristics, the analysis of variance and Tukey test at 95% probability were performed using the SAS System for Windows program (Statistical Analysis System), version 6.12.


The analysis results of the survival characteristics (GO) and roots (ENR) evaluated in the greenhouse output and survival in the shade house output (SHO) (Table 1) revealed a significant difference (P> 0.95) between the clones used in the experiment, which suggests genetic variability among these materials concerning the adventitious rooting capacity of mini-cuttings. However, there was no significant difference in the use of IBA concentrations, as well as significant interaction was not found "clone x dose" (P> 0.95) by F test about the characteristics evaluated.

Table 1 Summary of variance analyses on survival (SCV) and rooting from greenhouse (ENR), as well as survival from shadowhouse (SCS), as a result of six IBA application dosages in four Tectona grandis clones

Tabela 1 Resumo da análise de variância de sobrevivência (SCV) e de enraizamento na saída da casa de vegetação (ENR) e de sobrevivência na saída da casa de sombra (SCS), em função da aplicação de seis doses de AIB, em quatro clones de Tectona grandis

Source of variation df SCV (%) ENR (%) SCS (%)
F P Mean
F P Mean
Clone (C ) 3 318,93 8,92 0,0012** 566,81 10,87 0,0005*** 363,612 5,59 0,0089**
Dosage (D) 5 22,38 0,63 0,6827ns 26,43 0,51 0,7668ns 57,29 0,88 0,5171ns
(C ) * (D) 15 35,75 0,82 0,6537ns 52,15 0,67 0,8032ns 65,01 0,85 0,6203ns
Mean 95,37 91,78 89,93
CVexp(%) 6,93 9,64 9,72

ns, *, **, e***non-significant to 0,05; significant to 0,05; 0,01 and 0,001 de probability (P), respectively, by de F test.

The experimental variation coefficients found ranges from 6.93% to 9.72%, showing good levels of experimental precision in relation to the characteristics studied, according the literature review (XAVIER; COMÉRIO, 1996; RIBAS, 1997; WENDLING et al., 2000; TITON 2001;. WEDLING, 2002).

The clone that showed the highest percentage for the characteristics evaluated, was the clone Ipê, followed by Carapá, Gu5 and TB7. Survival percentages in the greenhouse output of Ipê , Carapá and GUS clones showed values above 90%, while the clone TB7 showed values in the range of 80-90% (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Mini-cutting survival (SCV) and rooting percentage (ENR) from greenhouse, as well as survival percentage (SCS) from shadow house, on four Tectona grandis clones. Mean values under same letter are significantly similar based on Tukey´s test at p > 0.95. 

Figura 1 Porcentual de sobrevivência (SCV) e de enraizamento (ENR) de miniestacas na saída da casa de vegetação, e sobrevivência (SCS) na saída da casa de sombra, dos quatro clones de Tectona grandis. Médias seguidas da mesma letra não diferem entre si, pelo teste de Tukey, a 95% de probabilidade. 

A reduction in the cuttings survival in the shade house output was observed in relation to the greenhouse, however, maintaining the same trend. Concerning the survival at 55 days (full sun), changes were not observed with respect to the record made in the shade house output.

With the results of the characteristics evaluated in full sun for 55 days after staking is possible to observe statistical differences between clones for height (h) and diameter (dc), and with average of 11.77 cm and 3.79 mm respectively. Nonetheless, statistical differences were not observed when different concentrations of IBA to the interaction "Clone x Dose" are applied (P> 0.95) by F-test (Table 2).

Table 2 Summary of variance analyses on height (h) and collar diameter (dc) as a result of six IBA application dosages in four Tectona grandis clones, 55 days after sowing. 

Tabela 2 Resumo da análise de variância da altura (h) e do diâmetro de colo (dc), em função da aplicação de seis doses de AIB em quatro clones de Tectona grandis, aos 55 dias após estaqueamento. 

Source of variation h (cm) dc (mm)
df Mean
F P Mean
Clone (C ) 3 81,041 29,29 <,0001*** 1,107 17,02 <,0001***
Dosage (D) 5 8,609 3,11 0,0401* 0,089 1,37 0,2886ns
(C) * (D) 15 2,767 0,97 0,4988ns 0,065 0,46 0,9480ns
Mean 11,77 3,79
CVexp(%) 14,33 9,89

ns, *, **, e***non-significant to 0,05; significant to 0,05; 0,01 and 0,001 de probability (P), respectively, by de F test.

In respect of the growth in height and stem diameter of seedlings 55 days after staking, it was found that the Carapá clones, GU5 and Ipe showed similar responses, differing from TB7 clone that showed the lowest value (Figure 2a). For the characteristics stem diameter, the clone with the highest value was TB7, followed by GU5, Ipê and Carapá (Figure 2b).

Figure 2 Total height (cm) and collar diameter (mm) mean values in mini-cuttings from four Tectona grandis clones, in relation to IBA treatments, 55 days after sowing at sun exposure conditions. Mean values under same letter are significantly similar based on Tukey's test at p > 0.95. 

Figure 2 Valores médios de altura total (cm) e diâmetro de colo (mm) de mudas de quatro clones Tectona grandis, em função dos tratamentos de AIB, após 55 dias do estaqueamento a pleno sol. Médias seguidas da mesma letra não diferem entre si, em nível de 95% de probabilidade, pelo teste Tukey. 

Regarding the results obtained for dry biomass of the aerial part (AP) and biomass of the roots system (RS), 55 days after staking, a significant difference between the clones was found (Table 3). However, significance in the use of different concentrations of IBA and interaction "Clone x Dose" was not found (P <0.95) by F test.

Table 3 Summary of variance analyses on aerial biomass (PPA) and rot system biomass (PSR), as a result of six IBA application dosages in four Tectona grandis clones, 55 days after sowing. 

Tabela 3 Resumo da análise de variância da biomassa parte aérea (PPA) e biomassa do sistema radicial (PSR) em função da aplicação de seis doses de AIB em quatro clones de Tectona grandis, aos 55 dias após de estaqueamento. 

Source of Variation df PPA (g) PSR (g)
Mean square F P Mean square F P
Clone (C ) 2 0,162 5,86 0,0074* 0,025 3,82 0,0623ns
Dosage (D) 3 0,071 2,60 0,0693ns 0,016 2,44 0,0831ns
(C) * (D) 5 0,027 0,65 0,8193ns 0,006 0,36 0,9829ns
Mean 15 1,00 1,02
CVexp(%) 10,56 9,30

ns, *, **, e***non-significant to 0,05; significant to 0,05; 0,01 and 0,001 de probability (P), respectively, by de F test.

The experimental variation coefficients for the variables studied in full sun, height, stem diameter, aerial part biomass and root biomass varied from 9.30% to 14.33%, indicating good levels of experimental precision, agreeing with values found in the literature review (RIBAS, 1997; WENDLING et al., 2000; TITON, 2001).


Overall, it was not found significant difference in survival and rooting in the greenhouse output, in survival in the shade house output, in height and stem diameter, dry biomass weight of aerial part and root system, in vegetative propagation of teak by mini-cuttings rooting due to the application of IBA doses. However, behavior characteristics demonstrated statistically significant differences with respect to the tested clones, which corroborate the statements of Hartmann et al. (2011), which highlight that it is common that each genetic material responds differently to vegetative propagation.

In the greenhouse output a high percentage of survival was obtained, demonstrating adequate control of environmental conditions (temperature and humidity), which were favorable to maintaining the propagating material survival (TITON, 2001; WEDLING; XAVIER, 2005).

The undifferentiated response of teak mini-cuttings due to the IBA application may be related to good nutrition mini-stumps in clonal garden, the degree of juvenility / reinvigoration of materials and good management of greenhouse environmental conditions. According to Paiva and Gomes (2005), the mini-cutting rooting is directly linked to weather conditions and the carbohydrate content stored in the matrix; the higher the reserves level and the higher the carbon / nitrogen ratio, the greater favoring the formation of roots on cuttings. Other authors mention that the response of clones compared to the use of IBA may be associated with material aging conditions, the shading, the presence of leaves and buds; the mother plant age, differences in the genetic material, environmental conditions such as water availability, light incidence and substrate, among other factors (CHUNG; Lee, 1994; Wilson, 1994; Kamlesh et al., 1995;. HARTMANN et al., 2011). However, the use of mini-cutting technique, compared to the traditional technique of cutting, has led to use of lower concentrations of IBA and in some cases even its suppression (ASSIS et al., 1992; XAVIER; COMÉRIO, 1996; ASSIS, 1997).

The literature review has reported to non-influence the IBA on rooting of young propagating material, for example, to Ilex paraguariensis (WENDLING; SOUZA JUNIOR, 2003), Cedrella fissilis (XAVIER et al., 2003), Grevillea robusta (SOUZA JUNIOR et al. , 2008) and loblolly pine (ALCANTARA et al., 2008). Also in studies by Pereira et al. (2005), different concentrations of IBA (0; 1000; 2000; 4000 and 6000 mg L-1) did not affect the rooting percentage of Brazilian grape tree apical cuttings (Myrciaria jabuticaba). The same result was obtained by Pio et al. (2006), for the rooting of apical cuttings Ficus carica L, 0 and 2000 mg L-1 IBA.

During the time in the shade house, it was observed mortality only of mini-cuttings that did not have root system or those in which it was very little developed in the acclimatization house output (4 weeks after staking), which could be a result of transfer to an environment with less control of environmental conditions (Ferreira et al., 2004; FREITAS et al, 2006;. MELO et al., 2011.). The clones' different behavior regarding survival in the greenhouse output and in the shade house output was also verified by Wendling et al. (2000) when he worked with the propagation Eucalytus spp. Clones.

The height and stem diameter are characteristics that have been used to estimate the standard of quality of seedlings in the forest nurseries, with the advantage of these evaluations are not destructive and easy to measure. For teak, it has not yet set a criterion to standardize these characteristics. About the clones studied, they showed different growth in height and stem diameter. However, within each clone, differences were not observed between IBA doses. These results demonstrate that the IBA doses used did not have influence on seedlings growth, with the reservation that this characteristic, in according with Carneiro (1995), can be easily modified according to management of seedling production.

In the evaluation of dry biomass of aerial part and the root system differences in dosages applied were not found. Titon et al. (2003) did not find difference in the IBA application (0, 1000, 2000 and 4000 mg L-1) in four clones of Eucalyptus grandis, on height and stem diameter of seedlings at 50 days old. Lana et al. (2008), in the evaluation of IBA different concentrations effects in rooting of cuttings and growth of Eucalyptus urophylla seedlings, they found that the dry mass of roots was not influenced by the application of growth regulato


The use of different doses of IBA did not show effect on the survival, on rooting, on height, on diameter, on the aerial part biomass and root system of the evaluated clones, but a differential response among the four clones was observed, suggesting effect genotypic.


For The Ministry of Science and Technology (MICIT-CONICIT) and Costa Rica Technological Institute (TEC), for the scholarships grating and the Agricultural company Verde Novo Ltda., for the financial support and infrastructure.


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Received: August 04, 2014; Accepted: March 23, 2016

*Corresponding author.

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