SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.14 issue2Diversity and abundance of litter frogs at altitudinal sites at Serra do Japi, southeastern BrazilBreadth and overlap niches of the portunid crabs (Decapoda, Brachyura), in Fortaleza Bay, Ubatuba, São Paulo, Brazil author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links


Revista Brasileira de Zoologia

Print version ISSN 0101-8175

Rev. Bras. Zool. vol.14 no.2 Curitiba  1997 

Estudo anatômico comparativo da região cefálica pré-branquial de Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith) e Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes) (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhiniformes) relacionados com a presença do cefalofólio em Sphyrna Rafinesque


Anatomical study on the pre branchial region of Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith) and Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes) (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhiniformes) related with the cephalofoil in Sphyrna Rafinesque



Maisa da Cruz Lima; Ulisses Leite Gomes; Wallace de Souza-Lima; Cristina Paragó

Departamento de Biologia Animal e Vegetal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, Pavilhão Haroldo Lisboa da Cunha sala 520, 20559-900 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil




A comparative study on the pre-branchial cranial anatomy of the scalloped hammerhead sharks [Sphyrna lewini (Griffith & Smith, 1834)] and the Brazilian sharpnose shark [Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839)] was carried out to check the modification in the musculature, inervation and optic stalk related to the appearance of the cephalofoil in Sphyrna Rafinesque, 1810. A total of seven adults and one juvenile of R. lalandii and eight juveniles of S. lewini were examined. In S. lewini the levator palaliquadrati and the levator labii superioris were the most modified cephalic muscles, as they became dorsalventrally attached and laterally developed. Among the oculomotor muscles, the recti followed the lateral expansion of the head constituting the rectal stalk associated with the nerves II, III, IV and VI and the optic stalk. It was observed that the oculomolorius branch "a" does not inervate the adductor mandibulae as it was mentioned in a previous paper. The myological structures and the inervation pattern presented diagnostic characters. Despite the shared characters between Carcharhinidae and the Sphyrnidae, the cephalofoil represents an autapomorphy which includes all the hammerhead sharks in the family Sphyrnidae.

Key words: Carcharhiniformes, Sphyrna, Rhizoprionodon, muscles, inervation



Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.



AGRADECIMENTOS: Aos Professores doutores Ricardo S. Rosa e Gustavo W. Nunan, aos Professores Francisco J. Figueiredo, Otto B.F. Gadig e Hugo R.S. Santos pelas críticas e sugestões. À Sub-Reitoria de Pós-Graduação e Pesquisa/SR-2 da UERJ pelas bolsas de Iniciação Científica-UERJ/CNPq (M.C. Lima e C. Paragó), à FAPERJ pela bolsa de Iniciação Científica (W. Souza-Lima) e ao CNPq pela bolsa de pesquisador (U.L. Gomes). Aos consultores científicos desta Revista pelas preciosas sugestões.



Adams, L.A. 1915. A memoir on the phylogeny of the jaw muscles in recent and fossil vertebrates. Annals N.Y. Acad. Sci. 38:51-166.         [ Links ]

Aleev, Y.G. 1969. Function and gross morphology in fish. Jerusalem, Israel Program for Scientific Translation, 268 p.         [ Links ]

Allis, E.P. 1923. The cranial anatomy of Chlamydoselachus anguineus. Act. Zool. 4:123-221.         [ Links ]

Andrés, A.M.; J.M.G. Guzman & R. Muñoz-Chápuli. 1987. Ventral cephalic musculature in Elasmobranchii: some functional and phylogenetic implications. Proc. V. Congr. Europ. Ichthyol., Stockholm:57-63.         [ Links ]

Compagno, L.J.V. 1970. Systematics of the genus Hemitriakis (Selachii: Carcharhinidae) and related genera. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci., ser. 4, 38:63-98.         [ Links ]

______. 1984. FAO species catalogue. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of sharks species known to date. 2. Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 4 (125):251-655.         [ Links ]

______. 1988. Sharks of the Order Carcharhiniformes. New Jersey, Princeton Univ. Press, 467 p.         [ Links ]

Cousteau, J.Y. & P. Cousteau. 1970. The shark: Splendid savage of the sea. London, Cassell, 182 p.         [ Links ]

Daniel, J.F. 1924. The elasmobranch fishes. Berkeley, California Univ. Press. 332p.         [ Links ]

Eaton, T.M. 1935. Evolution of the upper jaw mechanism in teleost fishes. Jour. Morph. 58:157-172.         [ Links ]

Edgeworth, F.H. 1935. The cranial muscles of vertebrates. London, Cambridge University Press, VIII+493 p.         [ Links ]

Figueiredo, J.L. 1977. Manual de peixes do sudeste do Brasil. I. Introdução. Cações, Raias e Quimeras. São Paulo, Mus. Zool. Univ. São Paulo, 104 p.         [ Links ]

Frazzeta, T.H. & CD. Prange. 1987. Movements of cephalic components during feeding in some requiem sharks (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae) Copeia 4:979-993.         [ Links ]

Gilbert, C.R. 1967. A revision of the hammerhead sharks (family Sphyrnidae). Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 119:1-88.         [ Links ]

Gilbert, S. 1973. Pictorial anatomy of the dogfish. Washington, Univ. Washington Press, 59 p.         [ Links ]

Gomes, U.L. & A.E. Siqueira. 1995. Estudo comparativo do condroneurocrânio de Rhizoprionodon lalandii (Valenciennes, 1839) e Rhizoprionodon porosus (Poey, 1861) (Elasmobranchii, Carcharhinidae) Rev. Brasil. Biol. 55 (1):49-60.         [ Links ]

Googrich, S.E. 1958. Studies on the estruture and development of vertebrates. New York, Dover, 837 p.         [ Links ]

Goto, T.; K. Nakaya & K. Amaoka. 1994. Morphology of throat barbeis of Cirrhoscyllium japonicum (Elasmobranchii, Paracyliidae), with comments on function and homology. Japan Jour. Ichthyol. 41 (2):167-172.         [ Links ]

Graf, W. & W.J. Brunken. 1984. Elasmobranch oculomotor organization: anatomical and theoretical aspects of the phylogenetic development of vestibulo - oculomotor connectivity. Journal of Comp. Neur. 227:569-581.         [ Links ]

Greenwood, P.H. 1968. The osteology and relationships of the Denticipitidae, a family of clupeomorph fishes. Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History) Zoology 16 (6):215-273.         [ Links ]

Hasler, A.D. 1957. The sense organs: olfatory and gustatory senses of fishes, p. 187-209. In: M.F. Brown (Ed.). The physiology of fishes. New York, Academic Press, vol. 2,323 p.         [ Links ]

Kestevens, H.L. 1942. The evolution of the skull and the cephalic muscles. A comparative study of their development and adult morphology. Part 1: The Fishes. Mem. Aust. Mus. Sydney 8:1-63.         [ Links ]

Lauder, G.V. 1980. On the evolution of the jaw adductor musculature in primitive gnathostome fishes. Breviora Mus. Comp. Zool. 460:1-10.         [ Links ]

Lightoller, G.H.S. 1939. Problable homologues. A study of the comparative anatomy of the mandibular and hyoid arches and their musculature. Trans. Zool. Soc. London. 24:349-444.         [ Links ]

Lloyd, J.H. & E.M. Sheppard. 1922. a contribution to the anatomy of a hammerhead shark (Zygaena malleus). Proc. Zool. Soc. London:971-981.         [ Links ]

Luther, A. 1913. Über die von N. trigeminus versorgte muskulatur der Ganoiden und Dipneusten. Acta. Soc. Scient. Fenn. 41:1-72.         [ Links ]

Macias, F.S. 1984. Estudio taxonomico y biologico del gênero Rhizoprionodon en el Atlantico y Pacifico de Mexico. Tesis, não publicada, Universidad Nacional de Mexico, 79 p.         [ Links ]

Maisey, J.G. 1980. An evolution of jaw suspension in sharks. Amer. Mus. Nov. 2706:1-17.         [ Links ]

Martin, A.P.; G.J.P. Naylor & S.R. Palumbi. 1992. Rates of mitochondrial DNA evolution in sharks are slow compared with mamals. Nature 357:153-155.         [ Links ]

Miyake, T.; J.D. McEachran & B.K. Hall. 1992. Edgeworth's legacy of cranial muscle development with an analisys of muscles in the gill ventral arch region of batoid fishes (Chondrichthyes: Batoidea). Jour. Morph. 212:213-256.         [ Links ]

Moss, S.A. 1972. The feeding mechanisms of the sharks of the family Carcharhinidae. Jour. Zool. N. 167:423-436.         [ Links ]

______. 1977. Feeding mechanisms in sharks. Amer. Zool. 17:355-364.         [ Links ]

______. 1981. Shark feeding mechanisms. Oceanus 24 (4):23-29.         [ Links ]

______. 1984. Sharks. An introduetion for the amateur naturalist. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 246 p.         [ Links ]

Nakaya, K. 1975. Taxonomy, comparative anatomy and phylogeny of Japanese catsharks, Scyliorhinidae. Mem. Fac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ. 23:1-94.         [ Links ]

______. 1978. Classification and evolution of hammerhead sharks. Mar. Sci. Mon. 10 (3):171-177.         [ Links ]

______. 1995. Hydrodinamic function of the head in the hammerhead sharks (Elasmobranchii: Sphyrnidae). Copeia 2:330-336.         [ Links ]

Neal, H.V. 1918. The history of eye muscles. Jour. Morph. 30:433-453.         [ Links ]

Nelson, J.S. 1994. Fishes of the World. New York, Willy & Sons. Inc., 3rd ed., 600 p.         [ Links ]

Nishida, K. 1990. Philogeny of the suborder Myliobatidoidei. Mem. Fac. Fish. Hokkaido Univ. 37 (1/2):1-108.         [ Links ]

Oliva, O. 1967. On topography of eye muscles of several elasmobranchs with regard to their life habits. Acta. Soc. Zool. Bohemosl. 31 (1):51-67.         [ Links ]

Rafinesque, CS. 1810. Caratteri di alguni nuovi generi e nuove spece di animali e piante delia Sicilia. Palermo, 1 -69, part 1, 1809; 71-105, part 2, 1810.         [ Links ]

Regan, T. 1906. A classification of the selachian fishes. Proc. Zool. Soc. London:772-758.         [ Links ]

Shirai, S. 1992. Squalean Phylogeny a new framework of "Squaloid" sharks and related taxa. Hokkaido, Hokkaido University Press, 139 p.         [ Links ]

Smith, B.G. 1937. The anatomy of the frilled shark Chlamydoselachus anguineus Garman. Bashford Dean Mem. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.:333-506.         [ Links ]

Springer, S. 1967. Social organization of shark populations, p. 149-174. In: P.W. Gilbert; R.F. Mathewson & D.P. Rall (Eds). Sharks, Skates and Rays. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press.         [ Links ]

Springer, V.G. 1964. A revision of the carcharhinid shark genera Scoliodon, Loxodon and Rhizoprionodon. Proc. U.S. Natn. Mus. 115:559-632.         [ Links ]

Springer, V.G. & J.P. Gold. 1989. Sharks in question. The Smithsonian answer book. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press.         [ Links ]

Strong Jr., W.R.; F.F. Snelson & S.H. Gruber. 1990. Hammerhead shark predation on stingrays: an observation of prey handling by Sphyrna mokarran. Copeia:836-840.         [ Links ]

Tester, A.L. 1963. Olfaction, gustation and the common chemical sense in shark, p. 255-282. In: P.W. Gilbert (Ed). Sharks and survival. Boston, D.C Haelth and Company, 255 p.         [ Links ]

Testud, L. 1925. Tratado de Anatomía Humana. Tomo III. Sistema nervioso periferico-órganos de los sentidos aparato de la respiracíon y de la fonación. Barcelona, Salvat Editores S.A., 1040 p.         [ Links ]

Tortonese, E. 1949. Studi sui plagiostomi I - Allune considerazioni biomorfologiche sulla famiglia Sphyrnidae. Boll. Ins. Mus. Zool. Torino. 87:21-27.         [ Links ]

______. 1950. Studi sui plagiostomi. II - Evoluzione, corologia e sistematica della famiglia Sphyrnidae. Boll. Ist. Mus. Zool. Torino. 2 (2):1-39.         [ Links ]

Tricas, T.C. & J.E. McCosker. 1984. Predatory behaviour of the white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) with notes on its biology. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci. 43 (14):221-238.         [ Links ]

Tronson, K.S. & D.E. Simanek. 1977. Body form and locomotion in sharks. Am. Zool. 17:343-354.         [ Links ]

Vetter, B. 1874. Untursuchungen zur vergleichenden Anatomie der Hiemen - und Kiefermusculatur der Fische. Jen. Zeitschs. f. Naturw. 8:405-458.         [ Links ]

Von Bonde, C. 1933. Contributions to the morphology of the Elasmobranchii. I. The craniology and neurology of a hammerhead shark, Sphyrna (Cestracion) zygaena (Linnaeus). Jour. Comp. Neur. 58 (2):377-403        [ Links ]

Waller, G. N. & A. Baranes. 1991, Chondrocranium morphology of the northern Red Sea Triakid sharks and relationships to the feeding habits. Jour. Fish. Biol. 38 (3):715-730.         [ Links ]

White, E.G. 1937. Interrelationships of the elasmobranchs with a key to the Order Galea. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 74:25-138.         [ Links ]

Winterbotton, R. 1974. A descriptive synonimy of the striated muscles of the Teleostei. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 125:225-317.         [ Links ]



Recebido em 08.V.1996; aceito em 18.VI.1997.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License