SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.16 issue1Floristic and phytosociology inventory in two areas of "Cerrado" stricto sensu in the Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, GoiásBryopsida from the cerrado and gallery forest of the Sete Cidades National Park, in the State of Piauí, Brazil author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Acta Botanica Brasilica

Print version ISSN 0102-3306On-line version ISSN 1677-941X

Acta Bot. Bras. vol.16 no.1 São Paulo Jan. 2002

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-33062002000100007 

RHIZOPOGON (RHIZOPOGONACEAE): HYPOGEOUS FUNGI IN EXOTIC PLANTATIONS FROM THE STATE OF SÃO PAULO, BRAZIL1

 

Iuri Goulart Baseia2
Adauto Ivo Milanez3

 

Recebido em 12/12/00. Aceito em 25/07/01.

 

 

RESUMO ¾ (Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae): fungos hipógeos em plantações exóticas no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil). Um estudo sobre o gênero Rhizopogon, associado com raízes de árvores exóticas no Estado de São Paulo (Brasil), foi realizado de Janeiro/1999 até Setembro/2000. Três espécies foram identificadas: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith e R. rubescens Tul. Este é o primeiro registro de R.. luteolus e R.. roseolus para o Brasil.

Palavras-chave ¾ Gasteromycetes, falsas trufas, taxonomia, ectomicorríza

 

ABSTRACT ¾ (Rhizopogon (Rhizopogonaceae): hypogeous fungi in exotic plantations from the State of São Paulo, Brazil). A survey on the genus Rhizopogon, associated with roots of exotic trees in State of São Paulo (Brazil), was undertaken from January /1999 to September/2000. Three species were identified: R. luteolus Fr., R. roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith and R. rubescens Tul. This is the first report of R. luteolus and R. roseolus from Brazil.

Key words ¾ Gasteromycetes, false truffles, taxonomy, ectomycorrhiza

 

 

Introduction

The Brazilian hypogeous gasteroid fungi have received scant attention from collectors in the past and have not been adequately collected. Few specimens in the herbaria have been sufficiently studied or even not.

Rhizopogon Fr. & Nordh. is an ectomycorrhizal genus (Mikola, 1969; Zak, 1971; Miller, 1986; Molina & Trappe, 1994) characterized by basidiomata whose gleba have small irregular and sinuous chambers that are and far from a bolete in appearance. However, Bruns et al. (1989) and Martin et al. (1998) presented the bolete genus Suillus and suggested that a change in a few developmental genes with strong selection pressure of a hypogeous habitat would lead to rapid morphological divergence.

From Brazil Rhizopogon is represented by R. fuscorubens, R. nigrescens, R. rubescens, R. vulgaris and R. zelleri (Giachini et al., 2000). The objetive of this study was to expand the knowledge of Basidiomycetes in Brazil, particularty the gasteroid forms.

 

Materials and methods

In the rainy seasons of 1999 and 2000 specimens of Rhizopogon were collected from plantations of Pinus, at the following areas: "Estação Ecológica de Itirapina" (2,300.00 ha, 22o28'-22o30S and 48o17'-48o19'W); "Reserva Ecológica de Jataí" (4,532.18 ha, 21033'-21037'S and 47045'-46051'W); "Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu" (343, 42 ha, 22015'-22016'S and 47008'-470-12'W), all in the State of São Paulo. Tree species composition of the plantations include Pinus radiata D. Don and Pinus taeda L. Climatic conditions are of the AW type according to the Köppen System.

Hand-cut sections of fresh and dried material were mounted in Melzer's reagent, 3% KOH, water or cotton blue for microscopical examination (Singer, 1986). Permanent slides were made using PVL resin (Alcohol Polyvinilic and Lactophenol), according to Trappe & Schenck (1982).

The mycorrhizal observations were accomplished by using the methods mentioned by Zak (1971) and Zak & Bryan (1963). Color terms in parenthesis are those of Kornerup & Wanscher (1978). The material is preserved at the Herbario do Estado Maria Eneyda P. K. Fidalgo (SP), abbreviated according to the Index Herbariorum (Holmgren et al., 1990).

 

Results and discussion

Descriptions of the species

Rhizopogon luteolus Fries & Nordholm, Symbolae Gasteromycetum 1: 5, 1815, emended Tulasne, Giornal Botanica Italiana 2, 57, 1844. Fig. 1. Basidiomata up to 5-6 cm broad, subglobose, surface fibrilose with lateral rhizomorphs, peridium brownish yellow (KW 5F7); gleba white to olive, columella absent, paraphyses about 9-10 x 3-4 µm; basidia 6-spored 18-20 x 5-6 µm, basidiospores elliptic to pyriform, smooth, 5-6 x 3 µm, light brown, containing two guttulae inside.

 

 

Habitat: Hypogeous under exotic forests trees, aggregated with roots.of Pinus radiata.

Material examined: BRAZIL, São Paulo: Município de Luís Antônio, Estação Ecológica de Jataí, 17/III/1999, I. G. Baseia 365 (SP307523); Município de Moji Guaçu, Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu, 04/II/2000, I. G. Baseia 419 (SP307524); Município de Itirapina, Estação Ecológica de Itirapina, 08/IX/2000, I. G. Baseia 673 (SP307525).

Additional material examined: (donated to SP Herbarium): SCOTLAND: det. Dring, D. M., 09/IX/1963, (SP107411).

Distribution: USA (Coker & Couch, 1928; Smith & Zeller, 1966), Australia (Cleland, 1935; Cunningham, 1944), South Africa (Bottomley, 1948), United Kingdom (Hawker, 1954), Finland (Schulmann, 1961), Canary Islands (Eckblad, 1975), China (Liu, 1984), Chile (Garrido, 1986), Iran (Saber, 1997), Belgique (Moyersoen & Demoulin, 1996)

Remarks: Rhizopogon luteolus is characterized by the color and size of the basidiomata, as well as the fibrilose surface with lateral rhizomorphs. It differs from R. rubescens mainly by its lateral rhizomorphs and the size of basidiospores and paraphyses.

The basidiomata of this species were found aggregated with roots of Pinus radiata exhibiting ectomycorrhizal association observed through the microscopic analysis and the presence of the mantle and Hartig net. This evidence was also mentioned by Mikola (1969), who found the same association between these species from New Zealand. In Brazil, large scale reforestation is being carried out with both softwood and hardwood species, including Pinus radiata, a tree native from the California coast (Garrido, 1986), probably R. luteolus had the same origin. This is the first record of R. luteolus from Brazil.

Rhizopogon roseolus Corda sensu A. H. Smith, Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 14(2), p. 90, 1966.

Fig. 2 Basidiomata up to 2-3 cm broad, globose, subglobose or irregular, surface rugose with scattered lateral rhizomorphs, peridium greyish orange (KW 5B3); gleba white to olive, columella absent, paraphyses about 12-18 x 5-9 µm; basidia 6-spored 15-20 x 6-8 µm, basidiospores oblong to elliptic, smooth, 6-8 x 3-4 µm, hyaline, often containing 2 guttulae inside and falsely septate.

Habitat: Hypogeous under exotic tree where it was found aggregated with roots.of Pinus taeda.

Material examined: BRAZIL, São Paulo: Município de Moji Guaçu, Reserva Biológica de Moji Guaçu, 31/I/1999, I. G. Baseia 312 (SP307526).

Additional material examined: (donated to SP Herbarium): ESTONIA: det. Parmasto E., 07/VII/1960 (SP61313)

Distribution: USA (Coker & Couch, 1928; Zeller, 1939; Smith & Zeller, 1966; Harrison & Smith, 1968), Finland (Schulmann, 1955), Chile (Garrido, 1986).

Remarks: This species is close to R. rubescens in several morphological characters; some authors (Moyersoen & Demoulin, 1996) lists R. rubescens as a synonym of R. roseolus. However, in our opinion and following Smith & Zeller (1966), there are sufficient characters to segregate these taxa. The color of the reddish brown peridium surface and small size of basidiomata are some peculiar characteristics of the Brazilian specimens.

The basidiomata of this species grow solitary, and aggregated with roots of Pinus taeda, an exotic conifer having North American origin introduced in cerrado biome. Probably R. roseolus had the same origin. This symbiotic relationship was confirmed by rhizomorphs aggregated with the conifer roots and through microscopic analysis with the presence of the mantle and Hartig net. Mikola (1969) also found the ectomycorrhizal association between R. roseolus with Pinus radiata and another undetermined species of Pinus from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Nigeria and Trinidad. This is the first report of R. roseolus from Brazil. Rhizopogon rubescens Tulasne, Giornal Botanica Italiana 2, 58, 1844. Fig. 3. Basidiomata up to 3-4 cm broad, globose to subglobose, surface fibrilose with basal rhizomorphs, peridium brownish yellow (KW 5F7); gleba white to olive brown, columella absent, paraphyses about 15-20 x 2-3 µm; basidia 6-spored 10-15 x 5-6 µm, basidiospores elliptic to ovate, smooth, 9-10 x 3-3.5 µm, hyaline to yellowish, containing two guttulae inside, and often falsely septate.

 

 

Habitat: Hypogeous under exotic forest trees, aggregated with roots.of Pinus radiata.

Material examined: BRAZIL, São Paulo: Município de Luís Antônio, Estação Ecológica de Jataí, 02/III/1999, I. G. Baseia 621 (SP307527).

Additional material examined: (donated to SP Herbarium): FRANCE, Briançonnais: det. Kofler L., 21/VII/1958(SP61508).

Distribution: USA (Coker & Couch, 1928; Smith & Zeller, 1966; Harrison & Smith, 1968), Australia (Cleland, 1935; Cunningham, 1944), United Kingdom (Hawker, 1955), Chile (Garrido, 1986), Finland (Eckblad & Lange, 1992), Belgique (Moyersoen & Demoulin, 1996), Brazil (Giachini et al., 2000).

Remarks: This species can be characterized by the size of basidiomata, basidiospores and paraphyses. It differ from R. luteolus and R. roseolus mainly by the rhizomorphs in these cited species, whereas in R. rubescens the rhizomorphs have a basal localization.

Basidiomata of R. rubescens were found aggregated with roots of Pinus radiata exhibiting ectomycorrhizal association with the presence of the mantle. Both, mantle and Hartig net were observed.

This is a common and widespread hypogeous conifer associate (Garrido, 1986; Miller, 1986; Molina & Trappe, 1994, Giachini et al., 2000), found not only with Pinus, but also with Abies, Picea, Pseudotsuga, Tsuga and Quercus (Molina & Trappe, 1994). Ectomycorrhizae were synthesized in vitro on Pinus radiata and P. sylvestris (Molina & Trappe, 1994) and Larix laricina (Sampson & Fortin, 1988).

 

Acknowledgments

We acknowledge the financial support from the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Ensino Superior (CAPES). Thanks to the Instituto de Biociências (USP) and Instituto de Botânica (IBt) for the laboratory facilities.

 

References

Bottomley, A. M. 1948. Gasteromycetes of South Africa. Bothalia 4: 473-810.         [ Links ]

Bruns, T.; Fogel, R.; White T. J. & Palmer, J. 1989. Accelerated Evolution of a False Truffle from a Mushroom Ancestor. Nature 339: 140-142.         [ Links ]

Cleland, J. B. 1935. Toadstools and Mushrooms and other larger fungi of South Australia. Part II. Adelaide.         [ Links ]

Coker, W. C. & Couch, J. N. 1928. The Gasteromycetes of the Eastern United States and Canada, Chapel Hill.         [ Links ]

Cunningham, G. H. 1944. The Gasteromycetes of Australia and New Zealand. Dunedin.         [ Links ]

Eckblad, F. E. 1975. Additions and corrections to the Gasteromycetes of the Canary Islands. Norw. J. Bot. 22: 243-248.         [ Links ]

Eckblad, F. E. & Lange, M. 1992. Rhizopogonaceae Gäumann & Dodge. In: Hansen, L. & Knudsen, H. (eds.), Nordic macromycetes 2: 67-68.         [ Links ]

Garrido, N. 1986. Survey of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with exotic trees in Chile. Nova Hedwigia 43: 423-442.         [ Links ]

Giachini, , A. J.; Oliveira, V. L.; Castellano, M. A. & Trappe, J. M. 2000. Ectomycorrhizal fungi in Eucalyptus and Pinus plantations in southern Brazil. Mycologia 92(6): 1166-1177.         [ Links ]

Harrison, K. A. & Smith, A. H. 1968. Some new species and distribution records of Rhizopogon in North America. Can. J. Bot. 46: 881-899.         [ Links ]

Hawker, L. E. 1954. British Hypogeous Fungi. Phil. Trans. Brit. 237: 429-546.         [ Links ]

Hawker, L. E. 1955. Hypogeous Fungi IV and V. Trans. Brit. Myc. Soc. 38: 73-77.         [ Links ]

Holmgren, P. K.; Holmgren, N. H. & Barnett, L. C. 1990. Index Herbariorum, part I, The Herbaria of the world, 8th edn. Reg. Veg., New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.         [ Links ]

Kornerup, A. & Wanscher, J. E. 1978. Methuen Handbook of Colour, 3th edn., Methuen, London.         [ Links ]

Liu, B. 1984. The Gasteromycetes of China. Beiheftezur, Nova Hedwigia 74: 1-235.         [ Links ]

Martín, M; Hogberg, N. & Nylund, J. E. 1998. Molecular analysis confirms morphological reclassification of Rhizopogon. Mycol. Res. 102: 855-858.         [ Links ]

Mikola, P. 1969. Mycorrhizal fungi of exotic forest plantations. Karstenia 10: 169-175.         [ Links ]

Miller, S. L. 1986. Hypogeus fungi from the Southeastern United States I. The genus Rhizopogon. Mycotaxon 27: 193-218.         [ Links ]

Molina, R. & Trappe, J. M. 1994. Biology of the ectomycorrhizal genus, Rhizopogon I. Host associations, host-specificity and pure culture syntheses. New Phytol. 126: 653-675.         [ Links ]

Moyersoen, B. & Demoulin, V. 1996. Les Gastéromycètes de Corse: Taxonomie, Écologie, Chorologie. Lejeunia 152: 1-130.         [ Links ]

Saber, M. 1997. Rhizopogon luteolus, a new record for Iran. Iranian J. Pl. Pathol. 33: 73-74.         [ Links ]

Sampson, J. and Fortin, J. A. 1988. Structural characterization of Fuscoboletinus and Suillus ectomycorrhizae synthesized on Larix laricina. Mycologia 80: 382-392.         [ Links ]

Schulmann, O. von. 1955. Pilzstudien in Finnland. Karstenia 3: 17-68.         [ Links ]

Schulmann, O. von. 1961. Zur Kenntnis der Basidiomyceten Finnlands. Karstenia 5: 5-99.         [ Links ]

Singer R. 1986. The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy. 4th Edn. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koenigstein.         [ Links ]

Smith, A. H. & Zeller, S. M. 1966. A preliminary account of the North American species of Rhizopogon. Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 14(2): 1-178.         [ Links ]

Trappe, J. M. & Schenck, N. C. 1982. Taxonomy of the fungi forming endomycorrhizae. In: Methods and Principles of Micorrhizal Research (N. C. Schenck, ed.), The American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, p. 1-9.         [ Links ]

Zak, B. & Bryan, W. C. 1963. Isolation of fungal symbiontes from pine mycorrhizae. For. Sci. 9: 270-278.         [ Links ]

Zak, B. 1971. Characterization and classification of mycorrhizae of Douglas-fir. II. Pseudopsuga menziesii + Rhizopogon vinicolor. Can. J. Bot 49: 1079-1084.         [ Links ]

Zeller S. M. 1939. New and noteworthy Gasteromycetes. Mycologia 31(1): 1-31.         [ Links ]

 

 

1 Parte da Tese de Doutorado do primeiro autor. Bolsista da CAPES.

2 Aluno de Doutorado do Instituto de Biociências da USP. E-mail: ibaseia@bol.com.br

3 Instituto de Botânica, C. Postal 4005, 01061-970, São Paulo, SP, Brasil.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License