SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.44 issue116S rRNA gene-based identification of microbiota associated with the parthenogenetic troglobiont sand fly Deanemyia maruaga (Diptera, Psychodidae) from central Amazon, BrazilHuman coronavirus ocurrence in different populations of Sao Paulo: a comprehensive nine-year study using a pancoronavirus RT-PCR assay author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Brazilian Journal of Microbiology

Print version ISSN 1517-8382

Braz. J. Microbiol. vol.44 no.1 São Paulo  2013

https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822013000100048 

ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY
SHORT COMMUNICATION

 

Diversity of the candidate phylum Poribacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva

 

 

C.C.P. HardoimI; C.J. CoxII; R.S. PeixotoIII; A.S. RosadoIII; R. CostaI; J.D. van ElsasIV

IMicrobial Ecology and Evolution Research Group, Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, Gambelas, Faro, Portugal
IIPlant Systematics and Bioinformatics, Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve, Gambelas, Faro, Portugal
IIILaboratório de Ecologia Microbiana Molecular, Instituto de Microbiologia Prof. Paulo de Góes, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundão, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
IVDepartment of Microbial Ecology, Centre for Ecological and Evolutionary Studies, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG, The Netherlands

Send correspondence to

 

 


ABSTRACT

Poribacterial clone libraries constructed for Aplysina fulva sponge specimens were analysed with respect to diversity and phylogeny. Results imply the coexistence of several, prevalently "intraspecific" poribacterial genotypes in a single sponge host, and suggest quantitative analysis as a desirable approach in studies of the diversity and distribution of poribacterial cohorts in marine sponges.

Key words: marine sponges, bacterial diversity, bacterial phylogeny, 16S rRNA gene.


 

 

The study of microbial communities based on 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene analysis has unveiled more than 25 recognized bacterial phyla associated with marine sponges (Hentschel et al., 2006; Taylor et al., 2007; Webster et al., 2011). The recently proposed candidate phylum Poribacteria (Fieseler et al., 2004) appears to be strictly associated with, or at least enriched in, marine sponges (Fieseler et al., 2004; Hentschel et al., 2006; Lafi et al., 2009; Webster et al., 2010). The analysis of the first Poribacteria genome fragment revealed a particular genomic similarity between this candidate phylum and Planctomycetes, i.e. the presence of a 16S rRNA locus that is physically separated from the other rRNA genes (i.e., an unlinked rrn operon) (Fieseler et al., 2006). These two phyla share the peculiar feature of intracellular compartmentalization and consequent presence of a membrane-bound nucleoid in their cells (Fieseler et al., 2004; Fuerst, 2005). However, only two of 27 poribacterial open reading frames shared significant homology with those of the planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica (Fieseler et al., 2006). These observations suggest that the two phyla may have shared a common evolutionary ancestor to the exclusion of other bacteria (Fuerst et al., 2005; Fieseler et al., 2006; Wagner and Horn, 2006), but have since become divergent at the primary sequence level. Recent advances made by single cell genomics revealed that the so far uncultured Poribacteria are likely mixotrophic organisms with a Gram-negative cell wall, possessing at least two polyketide biosynthesis gene clusters and several putative symbiosis factors such as adhesins and adhesin-related genes (Siegl et al., 2011). As a recent candidate phylum with no cultured representatives, still little is known about the diversity and distribution of the Poribacteria worldwide. In the present study, we generated 97 poribacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences retrieved from Aplysina fulva (Verongida, Demospongiae) on the Southeast Brazilian coast. We provide a quantitative assessment of their diversity, and report on their phylogenetic affiliation within the phylum. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first registration of the Poribacteria in the South Atlantic.

Aplysina fulva Pallas 1766 specimens were sampled at Caboclo Island (22º45'18.81" S, 41º53'23" W) and Tartaruga Beach (22º45'20.67" S, 41º54'13.53" W) in Búzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sponge sampling (triplicate specimens per site) and total community DNA (TC-DNA) extraction with the Fast DNA Spin Kit for Soil (MP Biomedicals, LLC, Illkirch, France) were performed as explained by Hardoim et al. (2009).

Amplification of Poribacteria-specific 16S rRNA gene fragments from sponge TC-DNA was carried out using the primer pair POR389f and POR1130r and procedures of Fieseler et al. (2004). Amplicons from the same sampling site were pooled and purified, and one clone library was generated for each site -i.e. Caboclo Island (PC) and Tartaruga beach (PT) -with the pGEM®-T easy vector cloning kit following the supplier's recommendations (Promega, Madison, WI, USA). Cloned fragments with right size were purified and sequenced with the chain termination method, as described by Hardoim et al. (2009), with the primer POR389f. Assessments of sequence quality and chimera checks were performed, after which 49 and 48 sequences from PC and PT, respectively, were selected for further analyses. Sequences were deposited in the EMBL database under the accession numbers FN356776 to FN356876.

Evolutionary distances calculated with the Kimura 2-parameter were applied to generate pairwise similarity matrices with the DNADIST software (http://cmgm.stanford.edu/phylip/dnadist.html). These were used as templates for the assignment of sequences to operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using the furthest-neighbour method as implemented in the DOTUR software (Schloss and Handelsman, 2005). The frequency data assigned to 'unique' OTUs - defined at 99, 97 and 95% levels of similarity were employed for the construction of rarefaction curves, estimation of theoretical richness using the Chao1 (Chao 1984; Chao and Lee 1992; modified by Colwell, R.K. - http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/estimates) and ACE (Chao and Lee 1992; Chao et al., 1993) estimators, and calculation of Shannon's diversity indices. In addition, to determine whether the two poribacterial libraries were significantly different in their composition, library shuffling analysis using the program mothur was performed (Shloss et al., 2009).

For phylogenetic inference, all sequences were aligned using the SINA web aligner (Pruesse et al., 2007) and imported into the SILVA 16S rRNA database version 102 using the parsimony tool as implemented in the ARB software (Ludwig et al., 2004). Alignments were manually refined using the ARB alignment tool. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of type strains and uncultured representatives of Poribacteria-related phyla, such as Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydia, Lentisphaerae and the candidate phylum OP3 (Fieseler et al., 2004; Wagner and Horn, 2006), were included in the alignment procedure. Poorly-aligned sites (where the assumption of homology could not be made with confidence) were identified and excluded from further analysis using PAUP* (ver. 4.0b10; Swofford 2003). An appropriate evolutionary model was then determined using MrModeltest (ver. 2.3; Nylander 2008) - and this was the general-time reversible model (GTR, Rodriguez et al., 1990) with a discrete gammadistribution of among-site rate variation (14) and a proportion of invariant sites (I). An optimal maximum likelihood tree was determined using RAxML (ver. 7.0.4-MPI; Stamatakis 2006) with 100 replicates, each starting from a random tree, with the GTR+Γ4+I model. Maximum likelihood bootstrap support was determined with the same software and model using 300 replicates with thorough final optimisation of the tree from each replicate (option "-f i"). A Bayesian MCMC analysis was conducted using MrBayes (ver. 3.2.1; Huelsenbeck and Ronquist, 2001; Ronquist and Huelsenbeck, 2003) each of 2 runs using 4 chains (Metropolis-coupling) for 2 million generations, sampling every 1000 generations, and using the GTR+Γ4+I model. All other options, including priors, were default values. The 'burn-in' period before the MCMC reached stationarity was determined by plotting the likelihood through time using the plotting programme GNUPlot (Williams et al., 2004); stationarity was assumed to have been reached when the curve plateaued. Tree sets from the posterior distribution of the two independent runs were concatenated to form the sample of trees assumed to be randomly sampled from the posterior probability distribution, and 50% majorityrule consensus trees were constructed in P4 (Foster 2004). The marginal likelihood of the MCMC analysis was estimated using the equation 16 of Newton et al. (1994) as implemented in P4.

All sequences retrieved in this study resembled poribacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences previously deposited in relevant databases. Rarefaction analysis revealed that, at 99 and 97% sequence similarity cut-offs, both the observed and estimated richnesses of the PC library were lower than those registered for the PT library (Table 1). No difference in richness between the libraries was observed at a 95% sequence similarity cut-off, whereby only two OTUs per library could be determined (Table 1). Library shuffling analysis revealed that, at 99% and 97% evolutionary distances, PT significantly covered the diversity found in PC (p = 0.0008), whereas the opposite was observed for PC in comparison with PT (p > 0.05). Indeed, of the 25 OTUs determined at 99% similarity cut-off for both libraries, 14 (OTUs 12 to 25) contained only sequences from the PT library, embracing 23 sequences in total. Conversely, 29 sequences from the PC library were assigned to a single OTU (OTU 2, representing the most frequent poribacterial sequence retrieved in this study). As expected, for PC+PT the observed richness at 99 and 97% was higher than that determined for each library separately. Richness estimates obtained for the PT library at both cut-off levels approached the values calculated for PC+PT, especially when the ACE estimator was used (Table 1). The same occurred for the calculated Shannon diversity indices (Table 1), reflecting the higher poribacterial 16S rRNA gene variability found in the PT library. Rarefaction curves generated at 99% similarity cut-off did not reach a plateau for PT and PC+PT libraries (data not shown), suggesting that, at this level, libraries of larger sizes would be required to successfully cover poribacterial 16S rRNA gene richness in a single sponge species. Coverage of poribacterial richness increased substantially in PC, PT and PC+PT libraries when analyses were performed with uniqueness threshold set at 97% sequence similarity. At this level, rarefaction curves revealed satisfactory sampling of poribacterial richness, with both Chao1 and ACE richness estimates reflecting very well the observed richness in each library (Table 1).

 

 

Phylogenetic analysis encompassed 157 "taxa": 77 non-redundant poribacterial sequences -74 from sponges and 3 from seawater -and 80 sequences from the "PVC superphylum". The data included 1103 sites, after removing ambiguously aligned sites, of which 594 were parsimony informative. In Figure 1 the maximum likelihood tree (-ln likelihood: 22887.766493) is presented, with bootstrap percentages indicated at nodes. The tree supports the monophyletic status of the candidate phylum Poribacteria as observed elsewhere (Fieseler et al., 2004; Lafi et al., 2009; Siegl et al., 2011; Simister et al., 2012). Accordingly, our analysis also supports the existence of poribacterial clades III and IV, determined by Lafi et al. (2009). Sequences previously assigned by these authors as members of poribacterial clades I and II belonged to a large and diversified cluster clearly distinct from groups III and IV, with bootstrap support (Fig. 1). Hereafter, we will refer to clades I and II of Lafi et al. (2009) as "clade I-II". Overall, tree topology inferred by maximum likelihood was well supported by Bayesian phylogenetic inference (Figure 1). All poribacterial sequences recovered from Caboclo Island and Tartaruga Beach fell into clade I-II. Twenty-five of these sequences are shown in Figure 1, and represent all OTUs determined by rarefaction analysis at 99% similarity cutoff. "Site" or "host-specific" poribacterial subgroups with phylogenetic support could be observed (Fig. 1). They were composed of highly similar sequences retrieved e.g. from Agelas sponges (clones AD_Pori 13, ACAP1 and AD_Pori15), Aplysina fulva (clones PT30, PT34 and PT49) and from the Great Barrier Reef (clones PCPO8, RGPO96, RGPO105). Also to note in Figure 1 is the positioning of two poribacterial sequences retrieved from seawater (clones HF770_17N21 and HF200_24O18; Pham et al., 2008), which did not affiliate with any of the groups I-II through IV. However, clone SWB-Pla-31, also obtained from seawater (Mohamed et al., 2010), fell into cluster IV (Fig. 1), which is dominated by sponge-derived sequences. Interestingly, whereas the former sequences derive from ocean water samples, the latter was retrieved from seawater collected near sponge species.

In 2004, the candidate phylum Poribacteria was proposed on the basis of < 75% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with all other known bacterial phyla, and of its association with different marine sponge species. The present study constitutes the first registration of the Poribacteria in the South Atlantic. It extends the known geographical range of occurrence of Poribacteria and supports the contention that they have a cosmopolitan distribution at a global scale (Lafi et al., 2009).

Overall, phylogenetic inference strengthens previous observations on the absence of clear relationships between geographic location, sponge host and poribacterial phylogenies (Lafi et al., 2009). The detection of specific poribacterial signatures, either related with a given sponge host or location, might very much depend on the level of genetic resolution applied in the analyses, with stringent levels favouring the observation of "specific" patterns, as exemplified by some poribacterial subgroups with phylogenetic support that could be detected in this study (Figure 1). It is, however, not possible to rule out the effects of low sampling sizes on such observations, and therefore conclusions on possible Poribacteria - sponge host - location specificities might be premature. Conversely, recently deposited poribacterial sequences from Ircinia strobilina (Mohamed et al., 2010) displayed substantial diversity as they were affiliated with clades I-II, III and IV (clones "IS-Pla" in Figure 1). This exemplifies the presence of varied poribacterial genotypes in one single host species, as previously observed for Aplysina aerophoba and Rhabdastrella globostellata (Lafi et al., 2009) and quantitatively assessed for Aplysina fulva in this study.

Recently, next generation sequencing (i.e. 454 pyrosequencing) revealed a sharp increase in the relative abundance of poribacterial 16S rRNA gene tags in sponge vs. seawater samples collected at the hosts' proximities (Webster et al., 2010). In as far as sponges did not affect the thus surveyed seawater samples, since these have been sampled at the time of sponge spawning, this outcome suggests environmental acquisition and accumulation of poribacterial cells by sponge hosts from seawater. Such a mode of transmission could well explain the observation of genetically similar poribacteria inhabiting diverse sponge hosts over wide geographical scales. However, it has been demonstrated that vertical transmission of poribacterial symbionts in sponges is also likely to occur. For instance, a poribacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence was reported in a Corticium sp. embryo (Sharp et al., 2007). Furthermore, Schmitt et al. (2008) detected poribacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences in both adult and embryo specimens of Agelas conifera, thus showing that these bacteria may effectively be vertically transmitted in sponges (Schmitt et al., 2008). Thus, the growing body of evidence points to the recognition of the Poribacteria as marine sponge symbionts that might exhibit both vertical and environmental modes of transmission in the association with their hosts. Poribacterial 16S rRNA genes have mostly been studied in a more qualitative approach, whereby sequence representatives are solely used in the inference of phylogenetic relationships. Although such an approach is efficient in demonstrating that similar poribacterial sequences occur across large geographic scales and in different sponge hosts, it does not enable assessments of diversity and structure within the group in a particular sample, or variations thereof across multiple samples. Here, the examination of the PC+PT clone library using 99% gene similarity cut-off resulted in a total of 25 observed poribacterial OTUs, delivering an estimated "OTU richness" of 36 and about 40 as determined by Chao1 and ACE richness estimators, respectively (Table 1). Such numbers drop to 9 observed and about 9-10 theoretical poribacterial OTUs in this library when the cut-off criterion used is 97%. We further observed that OTUs determined at both confidence thresholds displayed frequency abundance ranks typical of natural biological assemblages (see Fig. 1 for abundance ranks of OTUs at 99% cut-off). Taken together, these results imply the coexistence of several poribacterial genotypes in a single sponge host, and are indicative of a prevalently "intra-specific" poribacterial genotypic diversity in A. fulva on the basis of 16S rRNA gene diversity assessments. Interestingly, a recent next generation 454 pyrosequencing study ranked the Poribacteria as the third most diverse bacterial phylum retrieved from 32 marine sponges collected worldwide and, in accordance with this survey, several poribacterial OTUs at 97% similarity cut-off could be retrieved from a single host species (Schmitt et al., 2012).

Dedicated, quantitative approaches to poribacterial diversity and composition are required to and hold promise in increasing our understanding of the degrees of endemism and cosmopolitanism of these symbionts in marine sponges. It is thus far not known to what extent the poribacterial 16S rRNA gene diversity observed in a sponge host, such as addressed in this study, translates into diversified functional attributes of the corresponding symbionts. Future research aimed at unveiling the functional and genomic features of the Poribacteria will substantially improve current knowledge of their potential roles in marine sponges. In this context, addressing niche partitioning among genotypically distinct Poribacteria in marine sponges might constitute a rewarding challenge to be pursued.

 

Acknowledgments

R. Costa and C.C.P. Hardoim received support from the Foundation for Science & Technology (FCT), Portugal. A.S. Rosado and R. Peixoto were supported by Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) and Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (FAPERJ), Brazil. We acknowledge the work of excellence of all authors responsible for previous poribacterial 16S rRNA gene sequence depositions to Genebank, without which this study would not be possible.

 

References

Chao A (1984) Nonparametric-estimation of the number of classes in a population. Scand J Stat 11:265-270.         [ Links ]

Chao A, Lee SM (1992) Estimating the number of classes via sample coverage. J Am Stat Assoc 87:210-217.         [ Links ]

Chao A, Ma MC, Yang MCK (1993) Stopping rules and estimation for recapture debugging with unequal failure rates. Biometrika 80:193-201.         [ Links ]

Fieseler L, Horn M, Wagner M, Hentschel U (2004) Discovery of the novel candidate phylum "Poribacteria" in marine sponges. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:3724-3732.         [ Links ]

Fieseler L, Quaiser A, Schleper C, Hentschel U (2006) Analysis of the first genome fragment from the marine spongeassociated, novel candidate phylum Poribacteria by environmental genomics. Environ Microbiol 8:612-624.         [ Links ]

Foster PG (2004) Modeling compositional heterogeneity. Syst Biol 53:485-495.         [ Links ]

Fuerst JA (2005) Intracellular compartmentation in Planctomycetes. Ann Rev Microbiol 59:299-328.         [ Links ]

Hardoim CCP, Costa R, Araujo FV, Hajdu E, Peixoto R, Lins U, Rosado AS, van Elsas JD (2009) Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:3331-3343.         [ Links ]

Hentschel U, Usher KM, Taylor MW (2006) Marine sponges as microbial fermenters. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 55:167-177.         [ Links ]

Huelsenbeck JP, Ronquist F (2001) MrBayes: Bayesian inference of phylogenetic trees. Bioinformatics 17:754-755.         [ Links ]

Lafi FF, Fuerst JA, Fieseler L, Engels C, Goh WWL, Hentschel U (2009) Widespread Distribution of Poribacteria in Demospongiae. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:5695-5699.         [ Links ]

Ludwig W, Strunk O, Westram R, Richter L, Meier H, Yadhukumar AB, Lai T, Steppi S, Jobb G, Forster W, Brettske I, Gerber S, Ginhart AW, Gross O, Grumann S, Hermann S, Jost R, Konig A, Liss T, Lussmann R, May M, Nonhoff B, Reichel B, Strehlow R, Stamatakis A, Stuckmann N, Vilbig A, Lenke M, Ludwig T, Bode A, Schleifer KH (2004) ARB: A software environment for sequence data. Nucleic Acids Res 32:1363-1371.         [ Links ]

Mohamed NM, Saito K, Tal Y, Hill RT (2010) Diversity of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in marine sponges. ISME J 4:38-48.         [ Links ]

Newton MA, Raftery AE, Davison AC, Bacha M, Celeux G, Carlin BP, Clifford P, Lu C, Sherman M, Tanner MA, Gelfand AE, Mallick BK, Gelman A, Grieve AP, Kunsch HR, Leonard T, Hsu JSJ, Liu JS, Rubin DB, Lo AY, Louis TA, Neal RM, Owen AB, Tu DS, Gilks WR, Roberts G, Sweeting T, Bates D, Ritter G, Worton BJ, Barnard GA, Gibbens R, Silverman B (1994) Approximate bayesianinference with the weighted likelihood bootstrap. J Roy Stat Soc B Met 56:3-48.         [ Links ]

Nylander JAA (2008) MrModeltest ver. 2.3. Available at: http://www.abc.se/~nylander/mrmodeltest2/mrmodeltest2.html.         [ Links ]

Pham VD, Konstantinidis KT, Palden T, DeLong EF (2008) Phylogenetic analyses of ribosomal DNA-containing bacterioplankton genome fragments from a 4000 m vertical profile in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. Environ Microbiol 10:2313-2330.         [ Links ]

Pruesse E, Quast C, Knittel K, Fuchs BM, Ludwig WG, Peplies J, Glockner FO (2007) SILVA: A comprehensive online resource for quality checked and aligned ribosomal RNA sequence data compatible with ARB. Nucleic Acids Res 35:7188-7196.         [ Links ]

Rodriguez F, Oliver JL, Marin A, Medina JR (1990) The general stochastic-model of nucleotide substitution. J Theor Biol 142:485-501.         [ Links ]

Ronquist F, Huelsenbeck JP (2003) MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models. Bioinformatics 19:1572-1574.         [ Links ]

Schloss PD, Handelsman J (2005) Introducing DOTUR, a computer program for defining operational taxonomic units and estimating species richness. Appl Environ Microbiol 71:1501-1506.         [ Links ]

Schloss PD, Westcott SL, Ryabin T, Hall JR, Hartmann M, Hollister EB, Lesniewski RA, Oakley BB, Parks DH, Robinson CJ, Sahl JW, Stres B, Thallinger GG, van Horn DJ, Weber CF (2009) Introducing mothur: Open-source, platform-independent, community-supported software for describing and comparing microbial communities. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:7537-7541.         [ Links ]

Schmitt S, Angermeier H, Schiller R, Lindquist N, Hentschel U (2008) Molecular microbial diversity survey of sponge reproductive stages and mechanistic insights into vertical transmission of microbial symbionts. Appl Environ Microbiol 74:7694-7708.         [ Links ]

Schmitt S, Tsai P, Bell J, Fromont J, Ilan M, Londquist N, Perez T, Rodrigo A, Schupp PJ, Vacelet J, Webster N, Hentschel U, Taylor MW (2012) Assessing the complex sponge microbiota: Core, variable and species-specific bacterial communities in marine sponges. ISME J 6:564-576.         [ Links ]

Sharp KH, Eam B, Faulkner DJ, Haygood MG (2007) Vertical transmission of diverse microbes in the tropical sponge Corticium sp. Appl Environ Microbiol 73:622-629.         [ Links ]

Siegl A, Kamke J, Hochmuth T, Piel J, Richter M, Liang CG, Dandekar T, Hentschel U (2011) Single-cell genomics reveals the lifestyle of Poribacteria, a candidate phylum symbiotically associated with marine sponges. ISME J 5:61-70.         [ Links ]

Simister RL, Deines P, Botté ES, Webster NS, Taylor MW (2012) Sponge-specific clusters revisited: A comprehensive phylogeny of sponge-associated microorganisms. Environ Microbiol 14:517-524.         [ Links ]

Stamatakis A (2006) RAxML-VI-HPC: Maximum likelihoodbased phylogenetic analyses with thousands of taxa and mixed models. Bioinformatics 22:2688-2690.         [ Links ]

Swofford DL (2003) PAUP. Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (and Other Methods), ver. 4. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland. Available at: http://paup.csit.fsu.edu/downl.html.         [ Links ]

Taylor MW, Radax R, Steger D, Wagner M (2007) Spongeassociated microorganisms: Evolution, ecology, and biotechnological potential. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 71:295-347        [ Links ]

Wagner M, Horn M (2006) The Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Chlamydiae and sister phyla comprise a superphylum with biotechnological and medical relevance. Curr Opin Biotechnol 17:241-249.         [ Links ]

Webster NS, Cobb RE, Soo R, Anthony SL, Battershill CN, Whalan S, Evans-Illidge E (2011) Bacterial community dynamics in the marine sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile under in situ and ex situ cultivation. Mar Biotechnol 13:296-304.         [ Links ]

Webster NS, Taylor MW, Behnam F, Lucker S, Rattei T, Whalan S, Horn M, Wagner M (2010) Deep sequencing reveals exceptional diversity and modes of transmission for bacterial sponge symbionts. Environ Microbiol 12:2070-2082.         [ Links ]

Williams T, Kelley C (2004) GNU Plot ver. 4, software and documentation. Available at: http://sourceforge.net/projects/gnuplot.         [ Links ]

 

 

Send correspondence to:
R. Costa
Microbial Ecology and Evolution Research Group, Centre of Marine Sciences, University of Algarve
Gambelas, Faro, Portugal
E-mail: rscosta@ualg.pt

Submitted: December 27, 2011
Approved: July 02, 2012.

 

 

All the content of the journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons License CC BY-NC.

 

 

Supplementary Material

The supplementary material is available in pdf: [Supplementary Material]

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License