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Neotropical Entomology

versão impressa ISSN 1519-566Xversão On-line ISSN 1678-8052

Neotrop. Entomol. v.36 n.2 Londrina mar./abr. 2007

https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-566X2007000200023 

SCIENTIFIC NOTE

 

Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in citrus in the State of Paraná, Brazil

 

Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) em citros no Estado do Paraná

 

 

Ana M. Meneguim; Celso L. Hohmann

Área de Proteção de Plantas, Instituto Agronômico do Paraná - IAPAR, Rod. Celso Garcia Cid, km 375, 86001-970 Londrina, PR, meneguim@iapar.br, celuiz@iapar.br

 

 


ABSTRACT

Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick) is associated with various fruit species in South America. This tortricid was first detected in citrus, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck, in Brazil, in commercial groves in northern Paraná, during the 1994/95-crop season. The aim of this work was to study the biology of this lepidopteran under laboratory conditions (28 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% UR, 14h photofase) using the citrus cultivar Pêra. Larvae obtained from egg masses collected in a commercial citrus grove in Rolândia, PR, were individually placed on citrus terminal leaves inside glass shell vials (8.5 x 2.5 cm) until adulthood. A male and a female moth were then transferred to acrylic cages (13 x 10 cm) containing inside a bouquet made with new citrus flush to serve as oviposition substrate. Adults were fed daily with a 10% honey solution. The biological parameters evaluated were duration of development of egg, larval and pupal stages; pupae weight; duration of pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity and longevity. The length of the egg to adult stage was around 36 days. The pre-oviposition period was almost two days, the oviposition period approximately ten days and the embryonary period around six days. Adult longevity was almost 15 days for females and nine days for males, and the lifetime fecundity was slightly over 180 eggs.

key words: Occurrence, biology, Citrus sinensis


RESUMO

Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick) está associada a várias espécies de frutíferas na América do Sul. Esse tortricídeo foi detectado pela primeira vez em citros, Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck no Brasil em pomares comerciais no norte do Paraná, durante a safra de 1994/95. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a biologia do lepidóptero em condições de laboratório (28 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, 14h fotofase) utilizando a cultivar Pêra. Lagartas obtidas a partir de massas de ovos, coletadas em pomar comercial de citros, em Rolândia, PR, foram individualizadas em frascos de vidro (8,5 x 2,5 cm) dentro dos quais foram inseridas folhas dos ponteiros de ramos de citros até que atingissem o estágio de adulto. Casais foram transferidos para gaiolas de acrílico (13 x 10 cm) contendo um bouquet de folhas de citros que serviram como substrato para oviposição. Os adultos foram alimentados com solução de mel a 10%. A duração do período de ovo a adulto foi de cerca de 36 dias. A. sphaleropa apresentou período de pré-oviposição ao redor de dois dias, período de oviposição de aproximadamente dez dias e período embrionário de cerca de seis dias. A longevidade de machos e de fêmeas foi de aproximadamente 15 e nove dias, respectivamente e a fecundidade de cerca de 180 ovos.

Palavras-chave: Ocorrência, biologia, Citrus sinensis


 

 

Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick) is a common and widespread species in the new world (Trematerra & Brown 2004) causing damage on leaves and reproductive structures of numerous fruit, herbaceous and ornamental plant species in South America (Biezanko et al. 1957; Bentancourt & Scatoni 1986, 1995). In Brazil, the occurrence of A. sphaleropa has been reported in peaches (Botton et al. 2003), persimmons (Manfredi-Coimbra et al. 2005) and pears (Nora & Sugiura 2001 appud Botton et al. 2003). Argyrotaenia sp. was observed on citrus [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck.] in Brazil, during the 1994/95-crop season, in commercial groves of the cultivars Pêra and Valência in northern Paraná (not publ.). Dr. Vitor O. Becker, in 1996, identified the insect as being A. sphaleropa. Gravena (2005) lists the genus Argyrotaenia amongst the various lepidopterous insects damaging orange trees. This species has also been reported on citrus in Uruguay (Biezanko et al. 1957) and in Peru (Salazar Torres 1999).

The larvae of A. sphaleropa can cause damage by feeding on the new flush of citrus foliage as well as on newly formed or ripening fruits. Young larvae web terminal leaves or blossoms together feeding within them. Later on the larvae feed around the flower button or around the young fruit resulting in the drop of these structures. Large larvae feed among clusters of ripening fruits web together by silken threads, eating holes into the rind.

Citrus growers in northern Paraná can usually find this tortricid in their groves; occasionally, A. sphaleropa populations explode demanding control measures (A. Manjavick, pers. comm.). As no information on the biology of this lepidopteran on citrus is available, which is crucial for the development of an IPM program for this crop, we conducted laboratory studies to determine the basic insect life history parameters using citrus leaves as host.

The study was initiated with larvae obtained from egg masses collected in a commercial citrus (cv. Pêra) grove in Rolândia, PR. The eggs were maintained in moistened filter paper inside petri dishes until they hatched. The larvae were then individually placed in glass shell vials (8.5 x 2.5 cm) containing citrus terminal leaves (cv. Pêra) until adulthood. A male and a female moth were then transferred to acrylic cages (13 x 10 cm) inside of which it was placed a bouquet made with citrus foliage to serve as oviposition substrate. Adults were fed daily with a 10% honey solution. The biological parameters evaluated were duration of development of egg, larval and pupal stages; pupae weight; duration of pre-oviposition and oviposition periods, fecundity and longevity. In the determination of the length of the egg stage period, insects reared on a corn meal, yeast and wheat germ based artificial diet were used. The contamination of the egg masses laid on citrus foliage in laboratory with microorganisms did not allow the use of the natural host. The study was conducted under laboratory conditions (28 ± 2ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, 14h photofase).

The length of the egg stage period was approximately six days (Table 1), period similar to that obtained for A. sphaleropa reared on grape leaves (Bentancourt & Scatoni 1986, Bavaresco et al. 2005) and on apple, grape or persimmon leaves (Bavaresco et al. 2005). The duration of development from larvae to adult lasted ca. 30 days (Table 1), period slightly longer in comparison to that reported for larvae feeding on grape leaves (Bentancourt & Scatoni 1986, Bavaresco et al. 2005) or feeding on apple or persimmon leaves (Bavaresco et al. 2005). The increase in the life cycle of the insects reared on citrus leaves resulted from the slower larval development on this host. Female and male pupae weighed 11 mg and 9 mg, respectively; values much lower compared to the weight of pupae (male + female) reared on leaves of apple, grape or persimmon (Bavaresco et al. 2005). Such lower values, however, are due to a two-day delay on pupae weight determination. A. sphaleropa moths showed a pre-oviposition period of approximately two days (Table 1), which was lower than the duration reported by Bavaresco et al. (2005) on apple, grape or persimmon leaves (3-4 days). The oviposition period, ca. ten days (Table 1), was higher than that of insects reared on grape leaves, which was slightly over three days (Bentancourt & Scatoni 1986). However, a much higher oviposition period (14, 16 and 22 days, respectively) was showed for A. sphaleropa raised on apple, grape or persimmon leaves (Bavaresco et al. 2005). Adult longevity (Table 1) reached ca. 15 days for females and nine days for males. The longevity (male + female) was around 12 days, period comparable to that reported by Bavaresco et al. (2005) using apple leaves as host for A. sphaleropa. The lifetime fecundity of moths emerging from immatures reared on citrus terminals (Table 1) was ca. 180 eggs, fecundity similar compared to that of insects feeding on grape (Bentancourt & Scatoni 1986) and persimmon leaves (Bavaresco et al. 2005).

 

 

The fact that the main biological parameters of A. sphaleropa reared on citrus leaves were in general similar to those reported for larvae reared on apple, grape or persimmon leaves, combined to the establishment of the insect in commercial citrus groves in Brazil, is a strong indication that C. sinensis is a suitable host for this tortricid as well.

Taking into consideration the importance of the citrus industry in Brazilian economy, and the potential of A. sphaleropa occasionally reaching the status of pest in this commodity, we suggest that a sound IPM program should be developed to avoid the losses this insect may eventually cause.

 

Acknowledgments

Ademir Manjavachi, agronomist of the COROL - Cooperativa Agroindustrial, Rolândia, PR, who provided valuable information on A. sphaleropa status in commercial citrus groves in northern Paraná. Dr. Vitor O. Becker for identifying the tortricid species reported in this publication.

 

References

Bavaresco, A., M.S. Garcia, M. Botton & W.J. Morandi Filho. 2005. Biologia e reprodução de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick, 1909) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) em folhas de caquizeiro, macieira e videira. Arq. Inst. Biol. 72: 365-372.        [ Links ]

Bentancourt, C.M. & I.B. Scatoni. 1986. Biologia de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa Meyrick (1909) (Lep., Tortricidae) em condiciones de laboratório. Rev. Bras. Biol. 46: 209-216.        [ Links ]

Bentancourt, C.M. & I.B. Scatoni. 1995. Lepidopteros de importancia económica en el Uruguay (reconocimiento, biología y daños de las plagas agrícolas y forestales), v. I. Ed. Hemisferio Sur – Facultad de Agronomia. Uruguay, 121p.        [ Links ]

Biezanko, C.M., A. Rufinelli & C.S. Carbonell. 1957. Lepidoptera del Uruguay - Lista anotada de especies. Rev. Fac. Agron. 46: 3-152.        [ Links ]

Botton, M., A. Bavaresco & M.S. Garcia. 2003. Ocorrência de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) danificando pêssego na Serra Gaúcha, Rio Grande do Sul. Neotrop. Entomol. 32: 503-505.        [ Links ]

Gravena, S. 2005. Manual prático de manejo ecológico de pagas dos citros. Jaboticabal, Santa Terezinha. 372p.        [ Links ]

Manfredi-Coimbra, S., M.S. Garcia, A.E. Loeck, M. Botton & J. Foresti. 2005. Aspectos biológicos de Argyrotaenia sphaleropa (Meyrick 1909) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) em dietas artificiais com diferentes fontes protéicas. Cienc. Rural 35: 259-265.        [ Links ]

Salazar Torres, J. 1999. Control de plagas de los cítricos. Perú, Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria, 97p.        [ Links ]

Trematerra, P. & J.W. Brown. 2004. Argentine Argyrotaenia (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae): Synopsis and description of two new species. Zootaxa 574: 1-12.        [ Links ]

 

 

Received 17/V/06. Accepted 21/VII/06.

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