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vol.75 issue3  suppl.1Occurrence of Macrophytes species in the lower basin of the Xingu RiverEffect of waterfalls and the flood pulse on the structure of fish assemblages of the middle Xingu River in the eastern Amazon basin author indexsubject indexarticles search
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Brazilian Journal of Biology

Print version ISSN 1519-6984On-line version ISSN 1678-4375

Braz. J. Biol. vol.75 no.3 supl.1 São Carlos Aug. 2015 


Additional list of species of aquatic macrophytes in the lower basin of the Xingu River

Lista adicional de macrófitas aquáticas do baixo Rio Xingu

DS Abea  * 

C. Sidagis-Gallia 

T Matsumura-Tundisia 

JEM Tundisia 

FP Blancoa 

CRL Fariaa 

JG Tundisia 

aInstituto Internacional de Ecologia e Gerenciamento Ambiental – IIEGA, Rua Bento Carlos, 750, Centro, CEP 13560-660, São Carlos, SP, Brazil


In this paper the authors present an additional list of aquatic macrophytes in the lower basin of the Xingu River.

Keywords:  macrophytes; lower Xingu River


Neste trabalho os autores apresentam uma lista adicional de macrófitas aquáticas no baixo Rio Xingu.

Palavras-chave:  macrófitas; baixo Rio Xingu

1 Introduction

The lower stretch of the Xingu River is characterized by a diversity of habitats, with large uneven rapids, a series of anastomosing channels, oxbow lakes and high amount of tributaries. This heterogeneity generates hydrological and limnological conditions that allow the occurrence of a variety of aquatic macrophytes.

In the article by Medeiros et al. (2015) presented in this special issue, the authors also conducted a survey of the species of aquatic weeds that occur in the same region. However, in this study the authors gave greater emphasis on closely related species to water bodies, since the main objective was to evaluate the species with great potential for infestation and that could cause problems in areas of the reservoirs under construction in the Xingu River.

In the present study, the sampling efforts were directed to a wider area including wetlands, parafluvial zone of the Xingu River, as well as the edges of islands and stretches of the Xingu river rapids. Therefore, it is a complement of the previous survey conducted by Medeiros et al. (2015).

2 Methods

This survey is part of the monitoring program that is being conducted in the influence areas of the Belo Monte hydroelectric dam. Sampling of aquatic macrophytes was carried out in four campaigns, considering one full hydrological cycle: October of 2014 (dry), January (flood), April (full) and July of 2015 (ebb) (Figure 1).

Figure 1 Map of the lower basin of the Xingu River showing the sampling stations of aquatic macrophytes in the period between December 2011 and April 2015. 

The species list followed the classification of families proposed by APG III (2009) for angiosperms, by Smith et al. (2006) for pteridophytes, and Buck and Goffinet (2000) for bryophytes. Plant names and respective authors were checked at the data bank of the Botanical Garden o Rio de Janeiro (Reflora, 2015).

A total of 189 species of aquatic macrophytes were observed (Table 1). The most represented families were Fabaceae (27 species), Cyperaceae (26 species), Poaceae (22 species) and Rubiaceae (10 species) (Figure 2). Amphibious forms were dominant (60%), followed by emergent plant species (26%), while free-floating were represented by 3% and rooted-floating by 3%. Considering the plant families, Moura Júnior et al. (2015) also found Poaceae, Cyperaceae and Fabaceae as the most representative families in a checklist of aquatic macrophytes carried out for the Northern region of Brazil. These authors also observed an unprecedent richness of Podostemaceae due to their efforts on favorable habitats, a procedure not performed in the present study. Nevertheless, five species of Podostemaceae were observed in stretches of rapids in the Xingu River in the present study, most belonging to the genus Mourera, and the species Mourera fluviatilis appears in the list of endangered species of flora (Brasil, 2008) (Figure 2).

Table 1 List of families, species, life forms and habitats of aquatic macrophytes in riverine landscapes of the middle Xingu River recorded from October 2014 to July 2015. 

Family/Species Life form Habitat
Chara sp. Rooted submerged AF
Ricciocarpos natans (L.) Corda Free floating LA
Pteridium arachnoideum (Kaulf.) Maxon Amphibious XR
Thelipteris serrata (Cav.) Alston Emergent LA, AF
Azolla filiculoides Lam. Free floating LA
Salvinia auriculata Aubl. Free floating LA, AF
Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth) Micheli subsp. Scaber Emergent LA
Alternanthera brasiliana (L.) Kuntze Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Alternanthera tenella Colla Amphibious AF
Amaranthus viridis L. Amphibious XR
Chamissoa altissima (Jacq.) Kunth Amphibious XR
Gomphrena celosioides Mart. Amphibious TR
Tapirira guianensis Aubl. Amphibious TR
Oxandra riedeliana R. E. Fr. Amphibious LA
Cynanchum montevidense Spreng. Amphibious LA, XR
Rhabdadenia biflora (Jacq.) Müll. Arg. Amphibious XR
Montrichardia linifera (Arruda) Schott Emergent LA, XR
Pistia stratiotes L. Free floating LA, XR
Bactris maraja Mart. Amphibious LA, XR, TR
Acanthospermum australe (Loefl.) Kuntze Amphibious XR, AF
Eclypta prostrata (L.) L. Emergent LA, XR, AF
Emilia sonchifolia (L.) DC. ex Wight Amphibious AF
Mikania cordifolia (L. f.) Wild. Emergent LA, XR, AF
Sphagneticola trilobata (L.) Pruski Amphibious AF
Trichospira verticillata (L.) S. F. Blake Amphibious LA, XR
Wedelia calycina Rich. Amphibious LA, XR
Bignonia sp. Amphibious XR
Tanaecium pyramidatum (Rich.) L. G. Lohmann Amphibious XR, TR
Euploca procumbens (Mill.) Diane & Hilger Emergent LA, XR
Heliotropium indicum (L.) Emergent LA, XR
Cabomba aquatica Aubl. Rooted submerged AF
Commelina bengalensis L. Amphibious LA, XR
Trema micrantha (L.) Blume Amphibious AF
Iseia luxurians (Moric.) O'Donnell Amphibious LA, XR
Ipomoea setifera Poir Emergent or Amphibious XR
Luffa operculata (L.) Cogn. Amphibious XR, AF
Cyperus aggregatus (Wild.) Endl. Amphibious LA
Cyperus articulatus L. Amphibious XR
Cyperus digitatus Roxb. Amphibious LA, AF
Cyperus distans L. Amphibious LA, AF
Cyperus esculentus L. Amphibious AF
Cyperus exaltatus Retz. Amphibious LA
Cyperus giganteus Vahl Amphibious LA, XR
Cyperus iria L. Amphibious AF
Cyperus luzulae (L.) Rottb. ex Retz. Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Cyperus odoratus L. Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Cyperus sphacelatus Rottb. Amphibious XR, AF
Cyperus surinamensis Rottb. Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl) Roem. & Schult. Amphibious LA
Eleocharis minima Kunth Emergent/Amphibious LA
Fimbristylis dichotoma (L.) Vahl Amphibious AF
Fimbristylis miliacea (L.) Vahl. Amphibious LA, AF
Fuirena umbellata Rottb. Amphibious LA, AF
Kyllinga vaginata Lam. Amphibious AF
Oxycarium cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Lye Emergent LA, XR, AF
Pycreus aff. polystachyos (Rottb.) P. Beauv. Amphibious XR
Pycreus lanceolatus Poir. C.B. Clarke Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Rhynchospora nervosa (Vahl) Boeckeler) T. Koyama Emergent AF
Scleria gartneri Rad. Amphibious XR
Scleria microcarpa Nees ex Kunth Amphibious LA
Scleria mitis P.J. Bergius Amphibious AF
Scleria secans (L.) Urb. Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Caperonia castaneifolia (L.) A. St.-Hill. Emergent LA, XR, AF
Croton trinitatis Millsp. Amphibious LA, AF
Euphorbia hyssopifolia L. Emergent XR
Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong Emergent XR, AF
Acacia plumosa Martius ex Colla Amphibious AF
Aeschynomene brasiliana DC. Emergent AF
Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. Amphibious AF
Campsiandra angustifolia Spruce ex Benth. Emergent XR, AF
Chamaecrista diphylla L. Greene Amphibious LA
Chamaecrista nictitans (L.) Moench Amphibious XR, AF
Clitoria laurifolia Poir. Amphibious/epiphyta LA, XR, AF
Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. Amphibious AF
Crotalaria lanceolata E. Mey. Amphibious AF
Crotalaria micans Link Amphibious AF
Crotalaria palida Aiton Amphibious AF
Crotalaria spectabilis Roth Amphibious AF
Cymbosema roseum Benth. Amphibious XR
Desmodium barbatum (L.) Benth. Amphibious AF
Indigofera lespedezioides Kunth Amphibious LA, AF
Macrolobium acaciifolium (Benth.) Benth. Amphibious XR
Macroptilium gracile (Poepp). ex Willd. Amphibious AF
Mimosa pigra L. Amphibious XR
Mimosa pudica L. Emergent LA, XR, AF
Senna obtusifolia (L.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby Emergent AF
Senna reticulata Wild.) H. S. Irwin & Barneby Amphibious AF
Sesbania exasperata Kunth Amphibious XR
Stylosanthes viscosa (L.) Sw. Amphibious AF
Teramnus volubilis Sw. Amphibious AF
Vigna lasiocarpa (Mart. Ex Benth.) Verdc. Amphibious LA
Vigna longifolia (Benth.) Verdc. Amphibious LA
Zornia latifolia Sm. Amphibious LA
Coutoubea spicata Aubl. Amphibious AF
Hydrolea spinosa L. Emergent LA
Hypericum brasiliense Choisy Emergent LA AF
Vismia sp. Amphibious XR, AF
Cantinoa mutabilis (Rich.) Harley & J.F.B. Pastore Amphibious XI, AF
Hyptis atrorubens Poit. Emergent LA, XR, AF
Hyptis brevipes Poit. Emergent AF
Lindernia crustacea (L.) F. Muell. Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Cuphea fruticosa Spreng. Amphibious XR
Byttneria genistella Tr. et. Pl. Emergent XR
Hibiscus furcellatus Desr. Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Malachra radiata (L.) L. Emergent AF
Sida acuta Burm. f. Amphibious AF
Sida rhombifolia L. Amphibious LA
Sida santaremensis H. Monteiro Emergent AF
Urena lobata L. Emergent LA, AF
Thalia geniculata L. Emergent LA
Miconia sp. Emergent AF
Rhynchanthera dichotoma (Desr.) DC. Amphibious AF
Glinus radiatus (Ruiz & Pav.) Rohrb. Emergent XR
Mollugo verticillata L. Emergent XR
Myrcia guianensis (Aubl.) DC. Amphibious LA
Myrcia splendens (SW.) DC. Amphibious AF
Psidium acutangulum DC. Amphibious XR
Nymphaea amazonum Mart. & Zucc. ssp amazonum Rooted floating AF
Nymphaea gardneriana Planch. Rooted floating LA, AF
Ludwigia affinis (DC.) H. Hara Amphibious LA, AF
Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G.Don) Excell Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Ludwigia leptocarpa (Nutt.) Hara Emergent LA, XR, AF
Ludwigia nervosa (Poir.) Emergent or Amphibious AF
Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P.H. Raven Amphibious LA, AF
Oxalis barrelieri L. Amphibious XR
Ceratopteris pteridoides (Hook.) Free floating LA, AF
Phyllanthus niruri L. Amphibious XR
Peperomia pellucida L. Emergent LA, XR
Bacopa rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst. Rooted floating AF
Scoparia dulcis L. Amphibious LA, AF
Acroceras zizanioides (H.B.K.) Dandy Emergent or Amphibious LA
Andropogon bicornis L. Emergent LA, AF
Digitaria ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler Amphibious XR
Echinochloa colona (L.) Link Emergent XR, AF
Echinochloa crusgalii (L.) P. Beauv. Emergent XR, AF
Echinochloa polystachya (H.B.K.) Hitchc. Amphibious XR
Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin. Amphibious XR, AF
Homolepsis aturensis (Kunth) Chase Amphibious AF
Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge) Nees Emergent LA, XR, AF
Luziola subintegra Swallen Emergent or Amphibious XR
Megathyrsus massimus (Jacq.) BK Simon & SWL Jacobs Emergent XR, AF
Olyra ecaudata Döll. Amphibious LA
Oryza glumaepatula Steud. Emergent XR
Panicum aquaticum Poir. Emergent AF
Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. Emergent AF
Panicum elephantipes Nees ex Trin. Emergent AF
Panicum repens L. Emergent LA
Paspalum conjugatum P.J. Bergius Emergent AF
Paspalum conspersum Schrad. Emergent LA, XR, AF
Paspalum repens P. J. Bergius Emergent LA, XR, AF
Paspalum virgatum L. Emergent LA, XR
Stephostachys mertensii(Roth) Zuloaga & Morrone Emergent LA, AF
Castelnavia princeps Tul. &Wedd. Emergent/rooted submerged XR
Mourera alcicornis(Tul.) P.Royen Emergent/rooted submerged XR
Mourera elegans (Tul.) Baill. Emergent/rooted submerged XR
Mourera fluviatilisAubl. Emergent/rooted submerged XR
Tristicha trifaria (Bory ex Willd.) Spreng. Emergent/rooted submerged XR
Polygala paniculata L. Emergent or Amphibious XR
Polygonum acuminatum Kunth Amphibious LA
Polygonum punctatum Elliott Emergent or Amphibious LA, AF
Polygonum sp. Emergent LA, XR, AF
Symmeria paniculata Benth. Amphibious AF
Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth Rooted floating LA, AF
Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms Free floating LA, XR
Eichhornia diversiflora (Vahl) Urb. Rooted floating AF
Pontederia subovata (Seub.) Lowden Rooted floating LA
Alibertia latifolia (Benth.) K. Schum. Amphibious LA
Borreria capitata Ruiz & Pav. Emergent XR
Borreria latifolia (Aubl.) K.Schum. Amphibious AF
Borreria ocymoides (Burm.f) DC. Amphibious LA, AF
Borreria venticillata L. Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Diodia kuntzei K. Schum. Amphibious LA, XR
Mitracarpus hirtus (L.) DC. Emergent XR
Oldenlandiatenuis (K. Schum.) DC. Amphibious AF
Sipanea pratensis Aubl. Amphibious LA, XR, AF
Staelia reflexa DC. Amphibious XR
Esenbeckia grandiflora Mart. Amphibious XR
Cupania latifolia Kunth. Amphibious AF
Paullinia pinnata L. Amphibious XR, AF
Physalis angulata L. Amphibious XR
Solanum crinitum Lam. Amphibious AF
Solanum jamaicense Mill. Amphibious XR, AF
Solanum viarum Dunal Amphibious AF
Piriqueta cistoides (L.) Griseb. Amphibious LA, XR
Piriqueta cistoides subsp. caroliniana(Walt.) Arbo Amphibious XR
Lantana canescens Kunth Amphibious LA
Stachytharpeta angustifolia (Mill.) Vahl. Amphibious LA, AF
Cissus erosa Rich. Amphibious LA, XR, AF

LA: lagoons; XR: Xingu River; AF: affluents.

Figure 2 Life forms and proportion of families of aquatic macrophytes in the riverine landscapes of the Xingu River. 

3 Results

Table 1 shows the additional list of species of macrophytes found in the lower basin of the Xingu River.

4 Discussion

Although the number of species observed in the present study was higher than that observed by Medeiros et al. (2015), who registered 106 species over two years of monitoring, the proportion of life forms was similar. The high number of amphibian species observed in this study is due to greater efforts directed to the characterization of plants living in the fllodplains and in the parafluvial zone of the Xingu River and tributaries. These results show the importance of these areas as habitats for aquatic macrophytes in the Xingu River basin.


The authors wish to express their thanks to Norte Energia S. A. for support and funding of the project, and Lisbeth Podanoschi Faria and Haren Santos for helping during the field campaigns.

(With 2 figures)


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Received: July 10, 2015; Accepted: August 10, 2015

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