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Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas

Print version ISSN 1981-8122

Bol. Mus. Para. Emílio Goeldi. Ciênc. hum. vol.9 no.3 Belém Sept./Dec. 2014 



Charles Wagley's legacy of Interdisciplinary Graduate Research and Training Programs at the University of Florida


O legado de Charles Wagley nos Programas Interdisciplinares de Pós-Graduação, Pesquisa e Capacitação da Universidade da Flórida



Marianne Schmink

University of Florida. Gainesville, Florida, USA





When Charles Wagley moved from Columbia University to the University of Florida (UF) in 1972, he established the Tropical South America Program. In this program he began an enduring legacy at UF of interdisciplinarity, collaborative research and training focused on the problems and solutions of tropical development, and support for students as future leaders. Reaching out to agricultural researchers and other social science disciplines, Wagley later co-founded and directed the Amazon Research and Training Program (ARTP), and remained active even after his retirement in 1983. The ARTP built on Wagley's strategy of supporting student research and building collaboration with partners in Latin America, and innovated in bringing in visiting professors from different disciplines, developing new interdisciplinary courses, and networking among Amazonian scholars in different countries. Wagley's most lasting contribution is the Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD) program, which grew out of the ARTP to become an internationally-recognized interdisciplinary graduate program focused on the intersection between biodiversity conservation and the well-being of people in the tropical world. Drawing on participation from over 100 faculty affiliates in 27 academic units at UF, since 1980 the ARTP and TCD programs have trained over 400 graduate students from two dozen countries.

Keywords: Social development. Conservation of biodiversity. Interdisciplinarity. Graduation. International cooperation. Amazon.


Quando Charles Wagley se mudou da Universidade de Columbia para a Universidade da Flórida (UF) em 1972, ele estabeleceu o Programa sobre a América do Sul Tropical. Com este programa, ele iniciou um legado duradouro, na UF, de interdisciplinaridade, pesquisa colaborativa e capacitação direcionadas aos problemas e às soluções para o desenvolvimento tropical, e de apoio para alunos enquanto futuros líderes. Envolvendo a pesquisa agrícola e outras disciplinas das ciências sociais, Wagley ajudou a fundar e dirigiu o Programa de Pesquisa e Capacitação sobre a Amazônia (ARTP), e permaneceu na ativa mesmo após se aposentar, em 1983. O ARTP foi construído a partir da estratégia de Wagley de apoiar projetos de pesquisa elaborados por estudantes e fortalecer a colaboração com parceiros na América Latina, e inovou ao trazer professores visitantes de disciplinas variadas, desenvolver novos cursos interdisciplinares e criar uma rede de especialistas em Amazônia em diversos países. A contribuição mais duradoura de Wagley foi o Programa de Conservação e Desenvolvimento Tropical (TCD), o qual cresceu a partir do ARTP para tornar-se um programa de pós-graduação interdisciplinar internacionalmente reconhecido, focado na interseção entre a conservação da biodiversidade e o bem-estar humano no mundo tropical. Contando com a participação de mais de 100 professores de 27 unidades acadêmicas da UF, desde 1980, os programas ARTP e TCD já treinaram mais de 400 alunos de pós-graduação de 24 países.

Palavras-chave: Desenvolvimento social. Conservação da biodiversidade. Interdisciplinaridade. Pós-Graduação. Cooperação internacional. Amazônia.



Toward the end of his career, Charles Wagley left Columbia University to become Graduate Research Professor at the University of Florida (UF) in 1971. By then he already had an illustrious 25-year record of accomplishments as Franz Boas Professor of Anthropology at New York's Columbia University, and had contributed significantly to the development of the discipline of anthropology, in both the United States (U.S.) and in Brazil. The position as UF Graduate Research Professor allowed him time to teach, write and research as he saw fit, and he used that opportunity to plant the seeds of a major interdisciplinary research and training program at the University of Florida that can rightly be attributed to his leadership and example.

In this essay, I will highlight three dimensions of the Wagley legacy at the UF: interdisciplinary collaboration; networks and practice; and leadership development. I will show how all three are evident in the four decades of program development at UF that first led to the Tropical South America Program, followed by the Amazon Research and Training Program (ARTP), and, most recently, to the Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD) program.

Wagley's interdisciplinary leadership already had been demonstrated in his participation as one of the founders of the interdisciplinary Latin American Studies Association, and his commitment to collaborative projects in Brazil as well as other Latin American countries. Although he did not see himself as an applied anthropologist (Harris, 1990, p. 2), Wagley was committed to humanist analyses that produced practical solutions to social problems, especially in the development of tropical areas. He systematically tied his field research to current contexts and challenges, seeing the 'little community' within its regional and national setting. In the process, Wagley's generous commitment to mentoring and supporting students and colleagues, acting as both "sponsor and advocate" (Harris, 1990, p. 1), was nothing short of legendary.



Wagley's long-term interest in the Amazon region dated to World War II when he first served the U.S. government as a social analyst on bilateral rubber production and health commissions of the Institute of Inter-American Affairs; he was later awarded the Brazilian National Order of the Southern Cross for his 1942-1945 work in the Amazonian public health sector. After the war in 1948-1949 he worked as a member of The United Nations Organization for Education, Science and Culture (UNESCO) Hylean Amazon research team1. In the 1940s he carried out the research that led to his classic book "Amazon town: a study of man in the Tropics" (Wagley, 1953). In the 1960s, he was even considered by the White House for the post of Ambassador to Brazil, but may have been too sympathetic to those in opposition to the military dictatorship at that time (Figure 1)2.



At UF, Wagley helped to build a unique research and training philosophy that stressed interdisciplinarity, leadership development, and collaboration with colleagues across borders to address pressing problems in tropical regions. These principles would be refined, developed and applied over a period of several decades to create a uniquely successful program.

After coming to the UF in 1971, and with support from a small grant from the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH)3, Wagley began to develop an interdisciplinary research and training program focused on Tropical South America. With a firm grounding in the social sciences, the program sought out collaborators in the agricultural and biological sciences. A key event along the way was a trip Wagley took in 1972 to the Transamazon Highway (then under construction), along with graduate student Emilio Moran. What he saw on that trip, and his discussions with Brazilian colleagues, laid the groundwork for the 1973 UF conference entitled "Man in the Amazon", funded by the Center for Latin American Studies (CLAS) and the Center for Tropical Agricultural at UF, as well as the Brazilian government's Federal Council on Cultural Affairs4. This was the first of several interdisciplinary conferences on the tropics (1982, 2002, 2010) that brought together scholars from the fields of agronomy, sociology, history, political science, literature, and social anthropology. Wagley (1974) produced an edited volume by the same title containing the principal papers, including translations of papers by Brazilian authors.

Following this successful conference, Wagley marshaled university funds and donations from private sources to develop the Tropical South America Program. From 1972-1980,with only $75,000 to work with, the program supported over forty-five UF social science students and faculty with small grants to do coursework, carry out preliminary research, or attend Amazonian conferences5. The program philosophy and strategic funding mechanisms Wagley developed at the time provided the foundation for the subsequent creation of the ARTP and TCD programs.

Perhaps the most important contributions of this program were the travel awards and modest living stipends to graduate students early on in their graduate studies, enabling them to carry out preliminary field research visits. Students benefited hugely from this contact with their research site and key issues, which strengthened the research proposals they subsequently submitted for their longer-term thesis or dissertation projects6. The idea of investing modest amounts of funding to develop the research and leadership abilities of students at the beginning of their graduate training proved to be the backbone of future UF programs. Returns on these investments were immediate. Of the fifteen students who received summer research grants (averaging $1,800) from 1974-1977, eleven successfully competed for research grants awarded by the Inter-American Foundation, the Fulbright-Hays program, and other sources7.

A second important emphasis of Wagley's work was his commitment to working with colleagues in Brazil and other Amazonian countries, and helping to train the next generation of researchers, professors and practitioners in the Amazon region8. His concern with humanist perspectives applied to real-world problems (such as his involvement in the Amazonian public health programs in World War II), and the practice of collaboration with colleagues overseas (including his close relationship with former student Eduardo Galvão of Brazil's Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi - MPEG), were key elements that would endure in future programs at UF.

Up to 1980, the Tropical South America Program provided modest fellowship support to four Brazilian and one Ecuadorian student (George Zarur, Mércio Gomes, Samuel Sá, Nássero Nasser and Manola Andrea) who all went on to teach in universities or work with indigenous agencies of the Brazilian government9. Also by 1980, UF's CLAS had signed formal cooperative agreements with the Núcleo de Altos Estudos Amazônicos (NAEA) of the Universidade Federal do Pará (UFPA)10 and with the MPEG (both in Belém), and with the Centro de Desenvolvimento e Planejamento Regional (CEDEPLAR) of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) in Belo Horizonte, and informal collaboration was underway with the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) in Manaus11. In 1978, INPA awarded Wagley its annual "Medal for Science in the Amazon" in recognition of his thirty years of Amazonian research. This strategy of collaboration with Amazonian institutions, as well as strengthening collaborative networks and making research publications more widely available, would continue as a strong focus of UF activities over the following decades.



In the late 1970s several new social science researchers with Amazonian experience - Nigel Smith, Charles Wood and I - arrived at UF and began working with Wagley. In 1979 I had just completed my Ph.D. in anthropology at the University of Texas. At UF on a post-doctoral fellowship from the Tinker Foundation working with Charles Wagley, I took the lead on program development activities for the group. Even before receiving funding, we began to widen UF's network of collaboration with colleagues overseas, through visiting scholar invitations as well as the launch of a new Amazon Research Newsletter, first sent out in October of 1979 to 200 Amazonian scholars around the world. The typed and mimeographed newsletter's aim was to disseminate current research news and to build a roster of scholars and scientists with Amazonian research and development experience, both in the social sciences and humanities and in the biological and physical sciences (including public health and agronomy)12. Initially sent to about eighty Amazon researchers from the ARTP professional network, by 1989 the newsletter mailing list grew to more than 700. In this pre-internet era, many Amazonian researchers worked in isolation, and the newsletter and roster provided one means, however primitive, of keeping in touch. Minutes from a meeting in 1984 mentioned our bold plan to purchase a computer for ARTP business, possibly a 'new Macintosh Apple' to upgrade the newsletter, roster, and other publications. In response to overwhelming demand, the ARTP continued to publish and distribute 15 issues of the newsletters and rosters through the decade of 1979-1989 (Figures 2 and 3).





When the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation presented a funding opportunity in 1980, this group, along with visiting scholar Joe Foweraker worked together to prepare and submit a proposal to fund a new Amazon Research and Training Program (ARTP) that would build on Wagley's Tropical South America Program, which had run out of funding. The successful proposal brought five years of funding to establish the new ARTP, continuing with Wagley's strong emphasis on interdisciplinary collaboration, student support and leadership, and collaborative networks to address complex practical problems of Amazonian development.

The ARTP's goals were to: (1) expand and focus existing knowledge on key theoretical and policy-related problems of Amazon development; (2) provide an institutional framework to stimulate interdisciplinary training and research initiatives; (3) improve opportunities for interchange and communication between UF and other institutions; and (4) develop documentation and dissemination mechanisms to make research results more widely available to scholars and policy makers concerned with the development of lowland tropical areas in South America13. These goals would be pursued through six activities: (1) a graduate seminar on the Amazon; (2) visiting scholars program; (3) a seed money competition for interdisciplinary student and faculty research projects; (4) documentation and dissemination; (5) Amazon colloquium series; and (6) a major Amazon conference. The ARTP program proposal document outlined the analytical perspective to promote an integrated approach and coordinate work: interdisciplinary; multi-level; and focused on the man-land relationship14 in Amazonia as a way to bring different disciplinary specialties together15. The program complemented and reinforced interdisciplinary initiatives advanced by other colleagues in UF: the Farming Systems Research/Extension program, under the leadership of Peter Hildebrand and others, which became a major United States Agency for International Development (USAID) - funded program in the 1990s16; programs on Women in Agriculture (WIA), which evolved to Gender, Environment, Agriculture and Participation (GEAP); and, in the 1990s, a five-year collaborative program in Brazil, Ecuador and Peru called Managing Ecosystems and Resources with Gender Emphasis (MERGE)17. One of the enduring strengths of the ARTP and related programs was its role in strengthening and nurturing these various platforms for interdisciplinary research and training.

Officially beginning on September 1, 1980, the ARTP started small, with an initial 1980-1981 budget of $36,300 that grew to $75,000 in 1981-1982, including $20,000 for a second international conference held in 1982. Wagley served as Director and Chair of the Executive Committee, which included Smith, Wood, and myself along with Terry McCoy. I served as part-time Executive Director, working closely with Wagley as a junior colleague.

A contemporary and friend of Wagley's graduate students at UF, I was not myself a Wagley student. We first met in 1976 at a meeting of the Brazilian Anthropology Association (ABA) in Salvador, Bahia. Wagley was a keynote speaker, addressing a large auditorium of Brazilian listeners. Afterwards when I approached him to talk about the new research I was undertaking in southern Pará with CEDEPLAR, he was generous with his time and supportive of my work. In 1979 his sponsorship of my post-doc application gave me the immense privilege of working closely under his mentorship until the time of his death in 1991. From him I observed and learned untold insights that enabled me to continue to develop strong research and training programs at UF, continuing and expanding his legacy. The depth of insight and the lasting impact of his example as a mentor are partially captured in the words I faxed from Rio Branco, Brazil, to his widow, Cecilia Wagley, at the time of his death in 1991:

Charles Wagley was a giant who stood small. His greatness lay in his humility and unfailing sense of proportion. He was a very intelligent man, but his gift was far more than intelligence. His insights came from the whole man, from his heart as well as his mind. His work has stood the test of time because of the sensitivity and humanity that informed his analyses. He brought out the best in everyone, and until the end of his life, claimed no credit for doing so.

One of the first new activities of the ARTP was the development of an interdisciplinary graduate seminar on the Amazon to serve as a core element of the research and training program18. The course, open to students from both biological and social sciences, served as a forum to discuss theoretical frameworks and methods relevant to multi-level analysis of the man-land relationship in the Amazon, and was co-instructed by ARTP faculty and visiting researchers from the UF and beyond. Moreover, students in the course were expected to develop research projects on Amazon-related topics, working either together or individually, thus serving as a "catalyst for the formulation of interdisciplinary research and training projects relevant to the Amazon". The seminar proved to be a "valuable mechanism for producing student research proposals"19 which subsequently could be submitted for funding through the new annual ARTP seed money competition (Figure 4).



The Amazon seminar provided the beginnings of an interdisciplinary core curriculum that later expanded with the TCD program in the 1990s. Among the visiting scholars who participated in the seminar during the ARTP were sociologists Donald Sawyer and José de Souza Martins, biostatistician Diana Sawyer, journalist Lúcio Flávio Pinto, agronomist Paulo de Tarso Alvim, and political scientist Geraldo Muller from Brazil, as well as anthropologist Carlos Aramburú from Peru and Colombian geographer Camilo Dominguez. An unpublished 1986 report stated that "The seminar is the program's core activity, drawing on invited speakers and providing the mechanism through which students develop research proposals"20. The Amazon seminar was taught continuously from 1981-1993, when it was discontinued because of the emergence of several other interdisciplinary seminars within the TCD curriculum. The seminar was revived in 2009 and has been taught in 2011 and 2013 in the same format as the original seminar: combining biological and social science graduate students; focusing on the evolution of conceptual and methodological debates in the region. As before, guest lecturers participate in the course, and students prepare individual research papers or projects, many of which are later submitted for funding in the TCD field research competition. The deliberate combination of social and biological science topics and expertise, often through co-instructors and guest lecturers, still characterizes TCD core courses. Likewise, the successful formula of working with students on draft research proposals as class projects continues to be a central strategy of many TCD courses.

Given the high cost of research in Amazonia, the ARTP recognized the impossibility of covering full research expenses for faculty and students. Under Wagley's ingenious strategy, the program opted to allocate small seed money grants to leverage funding from other sources21, as had been pioneered very successfully in the Tropical South America Program. Four to six grants were allocated competitively each year to students, faculty and visitors involved in the ARTP program. Preference was given to projects that promised to contribute to the analytical focus and interdisciplinary goals of the ARTP, and to collaboration across disciplines and borders. By 1986, over twenty students had been supported in the ARTP, and ARTP faculty, students and visitors had produced over thirty research proposals, most of which had received at least partial outside funding22.

The ARTP and the CLAS sponsored a major conference on February 8-11, 1982, providing an international scholarly forum to discuss current issues of land use and development in the region. In preparation for the conference in 1981 Wagley and I traveled together to Colombia and Venezuela, while Wood and McCoy visited Peru and Ecuador, contacting Amazonian researchers through our networks.

With financial support from UF and the Andrew Mellon Foundation, the Inter-American Foundation, and the U.S. Department of Education, the 1982 Conference on Frontier Expansion in Amazonia was attended by two hundred people from eight Amazonian countries, including forty-eight speakers invited by the ARTP (Figures 5 and 6). A follow-up to the 1973 "Man in the Amazon" conference, this second event also produced a volume, "Frontier expansion in the Amazon", edited by Schmink and Wood (1984)23.



Even after his retirement in 1983, Charles Wagley continued to serve as Chair of the ARTP Executive Committee for a number of years. In a letter written in support for his award as UF's Faculty Teacher-Scholar for 1983, I summarized his many contributions to building the remarkable interdisciplinary, collaborative, student-oriented programs at UF:

It is in his relationships with students, colleagues, and the academic profession in general, that Professor Wagley's humanism is most visible. He is uncompromising in his tolerance for pluralism, and possesses a truly remarkable capacity to work with people in a supportive non-confrontational manner. His accessibility and dedication to students are legendary. It was his example that made the training of students the central thrust of our ARTP. His treatment of his junior colleagues is also characterized by humility and support. He is generous in encouraging opportunities for younger scholars, modest about his own contributions, and committed to a work situation dominated by a spirit of equality.



Over time, the ARTP became an important platform for interdisciplinary discussion at UF. In addition to the growing collaboration between social scientists and agricultural scientists at UF in the 1980s, the ARTP also worked closely with an independent like-minded program, the Program of Studies in Tropical Conservation (PSTC), directed by biologist John Robinson in the Florida Museum of Natural History, which pursued similar goals in training biological scientists from Latin America to address the challenges of tropical conservation and development. Robinson and his students began to attend the interdisciplinary Amazon seminar, providing a mechanism for interdisciplinary interactions among both faculty and students. PSTC Assistant Director (and later Director) biologist Kent Redford also worked closely with the ARTP, co-teaching interdisciplinary courses, and in 1985 both Robinson and Redford joined the ARTP Executive Committee, cementing the ties between the two programs in what would evolve into the TCD program, thoroughly integrating biological and social sciences to address the interface of tropical conservation and development. An important step in building collaborative relationships among faculty during this period was an informal monthly faculty discussion group called Tropical Resources and Development (TRAD) that met regularly for a year or two; TRAD provided an important opportunity for a small group of core faculty from these programs to discuss their own emerging interdisciplinary work and to learn about one another's perspectives and approaches, helping to give us the confidence to stretch our own thinking and the competence to argue key issues across disciplines.

The name TCD first appeared in 1985 to refer to a new interdisciplinary specialization created within UF's existing Master's degree in Latin American Studies. In 1988, TCD became an umbrella mechanism to coordinate the efforts of the TCD concentration, ARTP, PSTC, and "like-minded persons as yet lacking acronyms"24. Under the leadership of Steven Sanderson and John Robinson the program secured major grants in 1988 and 1989 from the Ford Foundation and the MacArthur Foundation, to support fellowships and research grants for students from Latin America and the Caribbean. The result was an integrated interdisciplinary program that combined training in biological and social sciences, as well as applied, problem-focused research. Students were encouraged to think across disciplines in their research, with social scientists explicitly working on conservation issues, and biologists adding social components to their research on specific species or habitats.

TCD's "novel model of interdisciplinary activity" - drawing directly on the Wagley legacy of interdisciplinarity, collaboration, and student leadership support - attracted significant international attention and top students to UF25, as well as multiple sources of funding for the rapidly-expanding program over the next two decades. Throughout the history of ARTP and TCD, faculty leaders actively procured major complementary funding from a variety of sources (Ford Foundation, Hewlett Foundation, National Science Foundation, MacArthur Foundation, Moore Foundation, USAID, among others). These grants enabled the program to build and maintain strong long-term research programs, especially in the Brazilian Amazon region. The TCD program was consolidated and formalized at UF in 2000, after a successful campaign to raise an endowment fund from the Ford Foundation and the State of Florida to support TCD in perpetuity. Establishment of an interdisciplinary graduate certificate and concentration formalized and institutionalized the TCD program at UF, staffed by a core faculty based at the Center for Latin American Studies (University of Florida, 2014a). In keeping with the Wagley tradition, 90% of these funds continue to be earmarked for student support.

According to the 1993 external evaluators of the TCD program, over the years it emerged as the premier interdisciplinary tropical program in U.S. graduate institutions - "truly a jewel" - as evidenced by the quality and number of excellent international and domestic graduate students and their placement, substantial scholarly contributions, and the volume and nature of external grants received26. Its major impact on Latin American conservation and development had been through its graduates, who now occupied key positions in conservation and development organizations throughout the world27. TCD also helped lay the groundwork for the creation of a new virtual College (later School) of Natural Resources and the Environment at UF28. During the 1990s and 2000s, the TCD program expanded with the addition of faculty in African Studies and new collaborative agreements in China, and spawned a new Master's degree program, the Master's in Sustainable Development Practice (University of Florida, 2014b).

The TCD framework (Kainer et al., 2006, figure 1, p. 6), depicted below and in Figure 7, "builds on traditional disciplinary foundations in the biophysical and social sciences, integrates past and present student experiences, and embraces collaborative learning and action for tropical conservation and development" and draws directly on the Wagley legacy of interdisciplinarity, collaboration on applied research, and support for student leadership.




In the 1990s the ARTP undertook several initiatives to preserve Wagley's important legacy. A collection of his field notes, photographs and papers from 1937-1965 was created in the Latin American Collection of the UF Libraries (University of Florida Smathers Libraries, 2004), including materials from his 1938 fieldwork in Guatemala, research in Brazil among the Tapirapé, 1939-1940, and in the town Gurupá in 1948, including field notes by Charles and Cecilia Wagley and Eduardo and Clara Galvão. A traveling photo exhibit called "Índios e caboclos: Charles Wagley's Amazon Portrait" displayed a selection from over 700 of his photos; in 1991-1992 the exhibit traveled throughout the U.S. and Brazil to, among other venues: Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro); Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi (Belém); Universidade Federal do Acre (Rio Branco); Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo); American Museum of Natural History (New York); Western Georgia College (Waco); Lowie Museum of Anthropology (Berkeley); Frank McClung Museum (Knoxville); University of Pennsylvania Museum (Philadelphia); and the Cleveland Museum of Natural History (Cleveland). In the years before his death, I worked with Chuck and Cecilia to develop plans for an endowment in his name, to continue his legacy of support for students. Funded by continuing donations from Charles Wagley's many admirers (University of Florida, 2014c), and a matching contribution from the State of Florida, the endowment supports an annual graduate student small grants competition for social science research in Brazil. Since 1994, nearly $60,000 of funding from the Wagley Endowment has supported thirty-three students from six different departments at UF, nearly half of them anthropologists (see list in Appendix).

By 2012, the TCD program had more than 100 faculty affiliates in 27 academic units across the UF campus, and had supported over 400 UF graduate students through provision of graduate fellowships, field research grants, field-based training programs, practitioner experiences, and extracurricular events to enhance student education. The Wagley legacy in the TCD program can be traced directly in the words of 1993 TCD program external evaluators: "The non-threatening, intentionally non-exclusive approach of TCD created the proper climate at the UF for cooperative, truly interdisciplinary work"29. Wagley's legacy at UF's TCD program come from his humanism, his courage to cross disciplinary boundaries, to develop long-term collaborative relationships and, above all, his support and mentorships for student leaders to address the immense and complex challenges of tropical conservation and development.



BURG, Mary Ann; MCCARTHY, Kevin; MEEK, Phyllis; SHEHAN, Constance; SPRING, Anita; STOYAN-ROSENZWEIG, Nina; TAYLOR, Betty. Women at the University of Florida. Gainesville: University of Florida, 2003.         [ Links ]

GRUPO DE PESQUISA E EXTENSÃO EM SISTEMAS AGROFLORESTAIS DO ACRE (PESACRE). Rio Branco, 2010. Available at: <>. Accessed on: 21 November 2014.         [ Links ]

HARRIS, Marvin. Charles Wagley's contribution to anthropology. Florida Journal of Anthropology, Special Publication, n. 6, p. 1-4, 1990.         [ Links ]

KAINER, Karen A.; SCHMINK, Marianne; COVERT, Hannah; STEPP, John Richard; BRUNA, Emilio M.; DAIN, Jonathan L.; ESPINOSA, Santiago; HUMPHRIES, Shoana. A graduate education framework for tropical conservation and development. Conservation Biology, v. 20, n. 1, p. 3-13, 2006.         [ Links ]

ROMERO, Claudia; ATHAYDE, Simone; COLLOMB, Jaen-Gaell E.; DIGIANO, Maria; SCHMINK, Marianne; SCHRAMSKI, Sam; SEALES, Lisa. Conservation and development in Latin America and Southern Africa: setting the stage. Ecology and Society, v. 17, n. 2, p. 1-13, 2012.         [ Links ]

ROMERO, Claudia; SEALES, Lisa. Bridging conservation and development in Latin America and Africa: changing contexts, changing strategies. Ecology and Society, Special Features, June 2014. Available at: <>. Accessed on: 21 November 2014.         [ Links ]

SCHMINK, Marianne; WOOD, Charles H. (Eds.). Frontier expansion in Amazonia. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1984.         [ Links ]

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD). Gainesville, 2014a. Available at: <>. Accessed on: 21 November 2014.         [ Links ]

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. Master of Sustainable Development Practice. Center for Latin American Studies; Center for African Studies. Gainesville, 2014b. Available at: <>. Accessed on: 21 November 2014.         [ Links ]

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. Center for Latin American Studies: Opportunities for giving. Gainesville, 2014c. Available at: <>. Accessed on: 21 November 2014.         [ Links ]

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA. Research - MERGE. Gainesville: University of Florida, 2013. Available at: <>. Accessed on: 21 November 2014.         [ Links ]

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA SMATHERS LIBRARIES. A guide to the Charles Wagley papers. Gainesville: August 2004. Available at: <>. Accessed on: 21 November 2014.         [ Links ]

WAGLEY, Charles (Ed.). Man in the Amazon. Gainesville: University of Florida Press, 1974.         [ Links ]

WAGLEY, Charles. Amazon town: a study of man in the tropics. New York: Macmillan, 1953.         [ Links ]



Marianne Schmink
Center for Latin American Studies
301 Grinter Hall. P.O. Box 115530
Gainesville, FL, USA. 32611-5530

Recebido em 30/12/2012
Aprovado em 30/11/2013



1 CENTER FOR LATIN AMERICAN STUDIES (CLAS), University of Florida. Amazon Research and Training Program, unpublished proposal submitted to The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, January 1980 (hereinafter CLAS, 1980). p. 10-11.
2 Adolf Augustus Berle letter from 1966 included in "The Adolf A. Berle diary, 1937-1971" (reel 8 of 8), microfilm edited in 1978 by the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration, New York. Thanks to UF Latin American Collection Operations Librarian Paul Losch for locating this diary entry by Adolf Berle, "a New Deal economist, wartime assistant to Nelson Rockefeller, Ambassador to Brazil, 1945-1946, and advisor on Latin American Affairs to Kennedy and Johnson" (Paul Losch, personal communication).
3 CLAS, 1980, p. 10.
4 CLAS, 1980, p. 11.
5 CLAS, 1980, p. 11-12.
6 CLAS, 1980, p. 12.
7 Students associated with the program who completed their degrees up to 1980 included Carmen Maria Arué (anthropology), Steven B. Burkhalter (anthropology), Curtis Glick (Latin American Studies), Mércio Gomes (anthropology), Arlene Kelly (history), James Jones (anthropology), Judith Lisansky (anthropology), Darrel Miller (anthropology), Emilio Moran (anthropology), Debra Picchi (anthropology), Susan Poats (anthropology), and Anthony Stocks (anthropology) (CLAS, 1980, p. 12).
8 CLAS, 1980, p. 12-13.
9 CLAS, 1980, p. 13.
10 A cooperative agreement between UF and UFPA still was active in 2014.
11 CLAS, 1980, p. 15.
12 CLAS, 1980, p. 18-19.
13 CLAS, 1980, p. 45.
14 A footnote here in the ARTP proposal read "The word 'man' in this relationship is used here in the generic sense and is therefore not in any way intended to excluded from the analysis the role of women. The term 'man-land relationship' is retained to avoid potential confusion that adheres to alternative formulations" (CLAS, 1980, p. 48).
15 CLAS, 1980, p. 46-50.
16 This project was carried out in collaboration with Pesquisa e Extensão em Sistemas Agroflorestais do Acre (PESACRE), which was founded with UF support in 1990; see PESACRE (2010).
17 For more information on WIA, GEAP, and MERGE, see Burg et al. (2003, p. 177; 228-231). For MERGE publications in English, Portuguese and Spanish, see University of Florida (2013).
18 CLAS, 1980, p. 50-52.
19 AMAZON RESEARCH AND TRAINING PROGRAM (ARTP). Unpublished planning report, June, 1982. p. 4.
20 AMAZON RESEARCH AND TRAINING PROGRAM (ARTP). Unpublished report, 1986. p. 1.
21 CLAS, 1980, p. 52-54.
22 ARTP, 1986, p. 1.
23 TCD sponsored two later interdisciplinary, international conferences inviting alumni and partners to reflect on future priorities: "New horizons, new challenges in tropical conservation and development" (2002), and "Bridging conservation and development in Latin America and Africa: changing contexts, changing strategies" (2009). The 2009 conference produced papers later revised (Romero et al., 2012) for a special issue of Ecology & Society (Romero and Seales, 2014).
24 SACKS, Arthur B.; FEINSINGER, Peter. Evaluation of the Tropical Conservation and Development (TCD) Program at the University of Florida. Unpublished report, 1993. p. 5. (hereinafter Sacks and Feinsinger, 1993).
25 Sacks and Feinsinger, 1993, p. 5.
26 Sacks and Feinsinger, 1993, p. 16.
27 Sacks and Feinsinger, 1993, p. 7.
28 Sacks and Feinsinger, 1993, p. 8.
29 Sacks and Feinsinger, 1993, p. 8.




Wagley fellowship recipients at UF. Legends: LAS = Latin American Studies; SNRE = School of Natural Resources and the Environment; SFRC = School of Forest Resources and Conservation.


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