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Zoologia (Curitiba)

Print version ISSN 1984-4670On-line version ISSN 1984-4689

Zoologia (Curitiba) vol.33 no.6 Curitiba  2016  Epub Nov 24, 2016

https://doi.org/10.1590/s1984-4689zool-20160054 

TAXONOMY AND NOMENCLATURE

A key and checklist to the Neotropical forensically important "Little House Flies" (Diptera: Fanniidae)

Diana Grisales1  * 

Melise C. Lecheta3 

Fernando H. Aballay2 

Claudio J.B. de Carvalho3 

1Grupo de Entomologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.

2Laboratorio de Entomologia, IADIZA, CCT, CONICET. Avenida Adrian Ruiz Leal, CP 5500, Mendoza, Argentina.

3Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Federal do Paraná. Caixa Postal 19020, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR, Brazil.


ABSTRACT

Fanniidae (Insecta: Diptera) is a relatively small family (ca. 350 spp.) with five genera, of which Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 and Euryomma Stein, 1899 have Neotropical distributions. Some of these species are almost always found in forensic studies. Forensically relevant species have been neglected, despite recent forensic studies that suggest their importance for estimating post-mortem interval (PMI). Thus, current and updated keys to identify adults or larvae on carcasses are unavailable for the most important species. While immature stages are important in estimating PMI, evidence suggests that adults (Fanniidae as well as other families) may also be useful for this purpose. Here we provide a key to males of the species of Fanniidae (found on corpses and other decomposing organic matter) with a checklist of species that have been used in forensics in the Neotropical region. The key comprises all 38 species of Fannia and Euryomma that have already been successfully used in forensics, and species that are potentially useful for estimating PMI. These records were found after reviews of the literature and data from entomological collections. Photographs and illustrations of the main characters in the key are provided.

KEY WORDS: Fannia; Euryomma; forensic entomology; PMI

Fanniidae (Diptera: Calyptratae) is a small family comprising five genera, two of which (Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 and Euryomma Stein, 1899) are found in the Neotropical region. In this region Fannia comprises ca 90 species (Carvalho et al. 2003, Couri 2004, 2005, Couri & Winagraski 2005, Domínguez 2007, Domínguez & Aballay 2008, Wendt & Carvalho 2009, Wendt 2010, Quiroga & Domínguez 2010, Grisales et al. 2012b) and Euryomma has 17 species (Wendt & Carvalho 2007, Grisales et al. 2012a). Some of these species may be useful in forensic studies, especially to estimate the post-mortem interval (PMI) (Quiroga & Domínguez 2010, Grisales et al. 2012a, 2012b).

Other families of flies (Calliphoridae and Sarcophagidae) are most commonly used to indicate PMI. However, while the Fanniidae are less often used, many species are prevalent in decomposing carcasses and corpses (Matuszewski et al. 2010, 2011, Aballay et al. 2012a). Because they are less abundant in corpses than other families, identification of forensically relevant species in the Fanniidae has been neglected. A recent key to the most common forensic South American flies includes Fannia but with only six species: Fannia obscurinervis (Stein, 1900), Fannia trimaculata (Stein, 1898), Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830), Fannia femoralis (Stein, 1898), F. punctipennis Albuquerque, 1954, and F. canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761) (Carvalho & Mello-Patiu 2008). Yet, many new species of Fannia and Euryomma found on carcasses have been described (Grisales et al. 2012a, 2012b, Domínguez & Aballay 2008, Quiroga & Domínguez 2010). Also, another key to newly described species of Euryomma from Colombia is the first to mention their potential for forensic importance, yet all species were collected on decomposing animal flesh (Grisales et al. 2012a). An additional key to species on decomposing flesh included 13 new species of Fannia (Grisales et al. 2012b). Thus, clearly these two genera may provide useful forensic information (Wolff et al. 2001, Centeno et al. 2002, Iannacone 2003, Pérez et al. 2005, Aballay et al. 2008, 2012a, 2012b, Battán Horenstein et al. 2010, Patitucci et al. 2011).

Immature stages of insects are commonly used in the forensic study of PMI, while adults of some species may also provide useful complementary information. In most necrophagous species, adults tend to arrive at carcasses after a predictable PMI (Matuszewski et al. 2010, Michaud & Moreau 2009), hence their potential usefulness. These adults also avoid the confusion that may arise due to predation of some fly larvae on others, which may obfuscate the exact time that the first eggs were laid (Andrade et al. 2002, Shiao & Yeh 2008). In South America, during most of the forensic work involving Fanniidae, adults are collected with little attention given to the larvae. Perhaps this is not surprising, as among the newly described species of Fanniidae associated with decomposing flesh, only the third instar larvae of Fannia yunguensis has been described (Quiroga & Domínguez 2010).

We begin to fill this gap in the forensic use of adult necrophagous Fanniidae in South America with this key as a tool that will permit identification using the sometimes difficult diagnostic characters of adult males. The male terminalia are very important because they allow the identification of species when the external structures are morphologically conserved and thus uninformative, especially among Euryomma and some Fannia . In addition to the key to identify adult males we provide a checklist of species with updated distributions.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Diagnostic characters used in the key were based on original descriptions and examination of specimens from the following collections: DZUP - Coleção de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure, Curitiba, Brazil (Claudio J.B. de Carvalho), CEUA - Colección Entomológica Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia (Marta Wolff), IADIZA - Coleccion Entomológica, Instituto Argentino de Investigaciones de Zonas Áridas, Mendoza, Argentina (Sergio A. Roig).

In the key we followed the morphological terminology of McAlpine (1981), Stuckenberg (1999), Wendt & Carvalho (2009) and Grisales et al. (2012a, 2012b).

We include in this study all species reported as associated to decomposing bodies (human or pig), and traps baited with organic decomposing matter (fish, chicken viscera, beef and pork) from available literature as well as from collected material. Forensic references and geographical distributions of the species on the checklist were also obtained from available literature and revision of collections.

We use the following abbreviations: Head: (fr) frontal setae, (orb) orbital setae. Thorax: (acr) serial acrostichal setae, (dc) serial dorsocentral setae, (pra) pre-alar seta. Wings: (C): costal vein. Legs: (ad) anterodorsal seta, (av) anteroventral seta, (p) posterior seta, (pv) posteroventral seta, (v) ventral seta.

A Leica DFC 500 camera was mounted on a Leica MZ16 stereomicroscope from the Rede Paranaense de Coleções Biológicas (Taxonline) to take the photographs, which were assembled using the program Auto-Montage Pro (Syncroscopy). Some of the illustrations presented here appeared previously in Grisales et al. (2012a, 2012b).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Six species of Fanniidae were identified by Carvalho & Mello-Patiu (2008) as the most common forensic species in South America: F. obscurinervis , F. trimaculata , F. pusio , F. femoralis , F. punctipennis , and F. canicularis . Based on our review of the literature and insect collections, we list a total of 38 species of Fanniidae of actual or potential forensic importance (that may be associated with carcasses or with decomposing organic matter) in South America, of which 29 are in Fannia and nine in Euryomma (see Checklist).

The Fanniidae included here were collected as adults because it is rare to find larval stages in collections, although a few were found. Immature stages were described or illustrated for only eight species (Table 1). Biological cycles and immature stages are unknown for the remaining South American species. Thus, further study of larvae is encouraged.

Table 1 Information on immature stages of Fanniidae of forensic importance in South America. 

Species Described or illustrated stages References
Euryomma peregrinum (Meigen, 1826) Larva III Domínguez & Pont 2014
Fannia albitarsis Stein, 1911 Egg, larva* Albuquerque et al. 1981, Domínguez & Pont 2014
Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761) Egg, larva III Roback 1951, Chillcott 1961, Domínguez & Pont 2014
Fannia femoralis (Stein, 1898) Larva III Chillcott 1961
Fannia pusio (Wiedemann, 1830) Egg, Larva I, II, III, puparium Chillcott 1961, Couri 1992
Fannia scalaris (Fabricius, 1794) Larva III Chillcott 1961
Fannia trimaculata (Stein, 1898) Egg, larva III, puparium Albuquerque 19451, Couri & Carvalho 2005
Fannia yunguensis Quiroga & Dominguez, 2010 Larva III Quiroga & Domínguez 2010

*Instar not specified. 1Here we treat the posterior leg as from F. pusio ; however, Couri (1992) showed that some material in Albuquerque (1945) pertains to F. pusio and some to F. trimaculata .

Identification key to Neotropical genera of Fanniidae (adult males)

1. Vein A2 slightly curved, (Fig. 1). Upper orbital setae usually present (Fig. 3). First presutural dorsocentral setae less than half the length of second. Bacilliform process absent (Fig. 5). Dichoptic (Fig. 3) .................... Euryomma Stein

1'. Vein A2 strongly curved, (Fig. 2). Orbital setae absent (except in F. canicularis (Fig. 4). First presutural dorsocentral seta developed, longer than half the length of the second setae. Bacilliform process usually present (Fig. 6). Usually holoptic (Fig. 4) .................... Fannia Robineau-Desvoidy

Figures 1-6 Euryomma and Fannia: (1) E. muisca , wing, dorsal view; (2) Fannia sp., wing, dorsal view; (3) E. cornuatum , head, male, frontal view; (4) Fannia sp., head, male, frontal view; (5) E . uwa , epandrium, male, dorsal view; (6) F. grandis , epandrium, male, dorsal view. Scale bars: 1-4 = 1.0 mm, 5-6 = 0.1 mm. 

Identification key to species of Euryomma (males)

1. Scutum with vittae (Fig. 7) .................... 2

1'. Scutum without vittae (Fig. 8) .................... E. peregrinum (Meigen, 1826)

2. Scutum with five vittae following acr and dc (Fig. 7) .................... 3

2'. Scutum with three vittae following acr and dc (Fig. 9) .................... 5

3. Wing brownish, darkened in apical third between C and apical half of R2+3 (Fig. 10), haltere yellowish (dark basally or not), frontal vitta dark brown .................... 4

3'. Wing yellowish, haltere yellowish, frontal vitta orange-red with apical margins reddish (Fig. 11) .................... E. cornuatum Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

4. Length of postpedicel 2.5 times the length of pedicel. Terminalia: epandrium has few, long setae, surstylus narrows apically, with few short setae on apical half, cercal plate setulose and acute apically (Fig. 13)......... .................... E. uwa Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

4'. Length of postpedicel 3.5 times the length of pedicel. Terminalia: epandrium has short setae, particularly on basal half, surstylus triangular, short, with few short setae on apex and inner surface, cercal plate slightly setulose and round apically (Fig. 14) .................... E. guane Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

5. Scape and pedicel dark brown with silvery pilosity .................... E. carioca Albuquerque

5'. Scape and pedicel yellow .................... 6

6. Hind tibia brown on apical half, yellow basally with a brown ring (Fig. 12), arista brown with basal third yellow. Terminalia: surstylus triangular (Fig. 15) .................... 7

6'. Hind tibia yellow, arista brown. Terminalia: surstylus long and narrow (Fig. 16) .................... 8

7. Dorsocentral vittae on scutum conspicuous and complete, middle vitta well defined, length of postpedicel 3.6 times length of pedicel. Terminalia: surstylus fused with epandrium, cercal plate strongly concave, pointed apically, with long curved setae (Fig. 15) .................... E. tahami Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

7'. Dorsocentral vittae on scutum relatively inconspicuous, well defined posteriorly to postsutural dc , length of postpedicel twice the length of pedicel. Terminalia: surstylus articulated with epandrium, cercal plate elongate, concave, slightly pointed apically, with short setae and apex strongly setose (Fig. 16) .................... E. aburrae Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

8. Frontal vitta dark brown with apical margin yellowish, scape and pedicel brown with suture and apical margin yellowish, length of postpedicel 2.4 times the length of pedicel. Terminalia: surstylus straight with curved apex (Fig. 17), cercal plate fused on apical third (V-shaped), apex round (Fig. 17) .................... E. chitarera Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

8'. Frontal vitta dark brown, scape and generally pedicel yellow, occasionally brownish, length of postpedicel 1.5 times the length of pedicel. Terminalia: surstylus curved (Fig. 18), cercal plate fused on apical half (V-shaped), apex square (Fig. 18) .................... E. muisca Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

Figures 7-12 Euryomma , male: (7) E. cornuatum , dorsal view; (8) E. peregrinum , thorax, dorsal view; (9) E. tahami , dorsal view; (10) E. guane , wing, dorsal view; (11) E. cornuatum , head, frontal view; (12) E. aburrae , lateral view. Scale bars: 1.0 mm. 

Figures 13-18 Euryomma , male, epandrium, cercal plate and surstyli, dorsal view: (13) E. uwa ; (14) E. guane ; (15) E. tahami ; (16) E. aburrae ; (17) E. chitarera ; (18) E. muisca . Scale bars: 0.1 mm. 

Identification key to species Fannia (males)

1. Hind coxa bare on posterior surface (Fig. 19) .................... 2

1'. Hind coxa with setae on posterior surface (Fig. 20) .................... 6

2. Acr and dc following pattern common in Fannia , acr 2:3 or 3:3, dc 2:3 .................... 3

2'. Acr and dc with different pattern, acr 0:0, dc 0:1 or 0:2 (Figs. 22, 23) .................... 5

3. Hind femur on ventral surface with preapical protuberance and large tuft of dense setae, forming a strong hook (Figs. 19, 21) .................... F. grandis Malloch

3'. Hind femur on ventral surface with or without preapical protuberance, if protuberance present, tuft of setae not as described above .................... 4

4. Large, black, metallic blue background colour. Palpus dark brown, slightly clavate, fore tarsus with tarsomere 1 flat and wide, partially yellowish-white with broad leaf-like spine (Fig. 24), hind femur on ventral surface with strong protuberance with differentiated setae that form a tuft (Fig. 25) .................... F. albitarsis Stein, 1911

4'. Small, greyish background color. Palpus orange-yellow, slightly spatulate, fore tarsus with tarsomere 1 brown and normal in size, hind femur on ventral surface without protuberance and weak tuft of setae on posteroventral surface (Figs. 26, 27) .................... F. fusconotata (Rondani)

5. Dc 0:1 (Fig. 23), hind femur on anteroventral surface without protuberance on apical half, ventral surface with a set of differentiated setae on the median third (Fig. 28) .................... F. quimbaya Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

5'. Dc 0:2 (Fig. 22), hind femur on anteroventral surface with slight protuberance on apical half, ventral surface with setae forming slight tuft with the av setae (Fig. 29) .................... F. pijao Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

6. Mid coxa with strong hooked setae (Fig. 30), mid tibia with conspicuous preapical protuberance (Fig. 31) .................... F. scalaris (Fabricius, 1794)

6'. Mid coxa without strong hooked setae .................... 7

7. Abdomen black with lateral margins of tergites lighter in color, or abdomen grey and trimaculate (Fig. 32) .................... 8

7'. Abdomen with translucent-yellow tergites (Figs. 33, 34) .................... 19

8. Wing brownish with upper third darker and cross veins darker (Fig. 35), abdomen black, not trimaculate, parafacial bare .................... F. obscurinervis (Stein)

8'. Wing yellowish, abdomen grey trimaculate, parafacial with short setae, sometimes inconspicuous (sub-group pusio ) .................... 9

9. Hind femur strongly curved (Figs. 36, 37) .................... 10

9'. Hind femur weakly curved or straight (Fig. 38) .................... 11

10. Eighteen frontal setae, sparse setulae on eyes, wing yellowish, hind coxa with four setae on posterior margin, hind tibia with row of 9-13 anterior setae on apical half, abdomen trimaculate .................... F. chibcha Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

10'. Eleven to twelve frontal setae, eyes bare, wing smoky, hind coxa with two setae on posterior margin, hind tibia with row of 8-9 setae on anterior surface, abdomen black .................... F. yunguensis Quiroga & Dominguez, 2010

11. Hind femur with conspicuous preapical protuberance (Figs. 39, 40) .................... 12

11'. Hind femur with small preapical protuberance .................... 13

12. Hind femur with 3-4 longer bristles inserted on the swelling, hind tibia on anterodorsal surface with three median bristles (Fig. 39) .................... F. femoralis (Stein, 1898)

12'. Hind femur with many short bristles inserted on the swelling, hind tibia on anterodorsal surface with row of five setae (Fig. 40) .................... F. snyderi Seago

13. Hind femur with preapical ventral protuberance bearing strong setae .................... 14

13'. Hind femur with preapical ventral protuberance without setae as described above .................... 15

14. Hind tibia with 1-2 rows of long setae on ventral surface (Fig. 38), hind femur on ventral surface with preapical protuberance, anteroventral and posteroventral surfaces with long and curved setae on the protuberance (Fig. 38, 42) .................... F. pusio (Wiedemann, 1830)

14'. Hind tibia without rows of long setae on ventral surface, hind femur on anteroventral surface with 3-4 preapical setae with straight apex (Fig. 41) .................... F. sabroskyi Seago

15. Hind femur with middle third of anteroventral surface with two rows of short and straight setae and apical third with one strong seta (Fig. 43), posteroventral surface with weak preapical protuberance and row of setae that increase in length towards the apex, ending in 3-4 setae inserted on the protuberance (Fig. 44) .................... ...................F. trimaculata (Stein, 1898)

15'. Hind femur on middle third of anteroventral surface without short and straight setae, if setae are present in the area, they form a tuft with the ventral setae on basal half .................... 16

16. Hind tibia on anterodorsal surface with 10 setae (Fig. 45), hind femur on ventral surface with preapical protuberance, anteroventral surface on basal half with series of 6-7 close, strong setae, preapical seta strong (Fig. 45) .................... F. dodgei Seago

16'. Hind tibia on anterodorsal surface with 5-8 setae, hind femur on ventral surface with preapical protuberance, anteroventral surface on basal half with or without a row of close, strong setae .................... 17

17. Hind femur on base of ventral surface up to preapical protuberance bare, posterior surface with row of long setae that increase in length and on the preapical protuberance form a set of longer setae with weakly curved apices, apical half setulose (Fig. 46) .................... F. magdalena Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

17'. Hind femur on ventral surface completely setulose or setulose at least from base to preapical protuberance, femur not with characters described above .................... 18

18. Hind femur on posteroventral surface with row of long setae ending with hooked apices on protuberance (Fig. 47), ventral surface on basal half with dense setae towards the posteroventral surface where they become sparse (Fig. 48), hind tibia on anterodorsal surface with row of 6-8 setae and anteroventral surface with one median seta (Fig. 48) .................... F. embera Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

18'. Hind femur on apical half of posteroventral surface with row of long setae that become longer and form a tuft of setae with apex slightly curved on preapical protuberance (Fig. 49), ventral surface setulose, hind tibia on anterior surface with row of five setae (Fig. 50) .................... F. porce Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

19. Upper orb present (Fig. 51) .................... F. canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761)

19'. Upper orb absent .................... 20

20. Scutum with three vittae following acr and dc rows (Fig. 52), scape and pedicel yellowish or brownish (Fig. 53) .................... 21

20'. Scutum without vittae, scape and pedicel completely brown or with yellowish parts (Fig. 54) .................... 25

21. Arista completely yellowish .................... 22

21'. Arista completely dark or part of it yellowish .................... 23

22. Parafacial with setae on the ridge, 5 fr , proboscis yellowish (Fig. 55), 1 pra , fore and mid legs yellowish, hind leg brownish .................... F. longipila Albuquerque

22'. Parafacial without setae on the ridge, 9 fr , proboscis brownish, 0 pra , legs brownish .................... F. bahiensis Albuquerque

23. Arista black with basal third yellow, palpus black, thorax black, brownish pollinose, scutum on postsutural area with brown median vitta extending to the pleural region, apex of scutellum silver and yellowish, hind femur with approximately 10 long preapical pv , not forming a tuft (Fig. 56) .................... F. flavicincta (Stein)

23'. Arista light brown and not with characters as described above .................... 24

24. Thorax with brown vitta along acrostichal line, broader brown vitta along dorsocentral lines which dissolves between 4th and 5th dorsocentral setae, and brown postsutural vitta along supraalar line, hind femur with one row of long and hair-like pv , forming a long and curled preapical tuft (Fig. 57) .................... F. heydenii Wiedemann

24'. Thorax with three brown vittae along acrostichal line and dorsocentral line, hind femur on v and pv surface on the protuberance with tuft of long setae with curved apex, tuft diminishing to the base of the femur (Fig. 58) .................... F. yenhedi Albuquerque

25. Basal hind tarsomere wide, on p surface with torsion apically (Fig. 59), hind tibia on ventral surface with very long and strong curved seta that almost reaches apex of basal tarsomere (Fig. 59) .................... F. carvalhoi Couri

25'. Basal tarsomere without expansion or apically torsion, hind tibia on ventral surface without setae .................... 26

26. Three stripes on the scutum, calypter yellowish or whitish .................... 27

26'. Scutum without stripes, calypter brownish .................... 28

27. Wing brownish with transverse veins dark brown, calypter and halter yellowish, 10 fr , 1 pra , hind tibia with 1 ad setae and 5 av setae (Fig. 60) .................... F. punctipennis Albuquerque

27'. Wing yellowish with transverse veins not dark brown, calypter whitish and halter yellowish, 12 fr , 1 pra , hind tibia with 2 ad and 3-4 av (Fig. 61) .................... F. tumidifemur Stein

28. Wing with upper third brownish, hind femur with preapical protuberance on ventral surface and tuft of setae with curved apex, hind tibia with 5 av and 2 ad (Fig. 62) .................... F. lamosca Grisales, Wolff & Carvalho

28'. Wing without upper third brownish, hind femur with a row of pv that forms long preapical tuft (Fig. 63), hind tibia with 3 av and 5 ad .................... F. sanihue Dominguez & Aballay

Figures 19-21 Fannia, male. (19) F. grandis , hind leg, posterior view; (20) F. pusio , hind leg, posterior view; (21) F. grandis , hind leg, anterior view. Scale bars: 1 mm. 

Figures 22-23 Fannia , male. (22) F. pijao , thorax, lateral view; (23) F. quimbaya , thorax, lateral view. Scale bars: 1 mm. 

Figures 24-27 Fannia , male. (24) F. albitarsis , fore leg, fore tarsomere; (25) F. albitarsis , hind leg, anterior view; (26) F. fusconotata , hind leg, anterior view; (27) F. fusconotata , posterior view. Scale bars: 1 mm. 

Figures 28-31 Fannia , male. (28) F. quimbaya , hind leg, anterior view; (29) F. pijao , hind leg, anterior view; (30) F. scalaris , mid tibia; (31) F. scalaris , mid leg, posterior view. Scale bars: 1 mm. 

Figures 32-35 Fannia , male. (32) F. pusio , abdomen, posterior view; (33) F. grandis , dorsal view; (34) F. katios , posterior view; (35) F. obscurinervis , wing, dorsal view. Scale bars: 1 mm. 

Figures 36-38 Fannia , male. (36) F. chibcha , hind leg, anterior view; (37) F. yunguensis , hind leg, posterior view; (38) F. pusio , hind leg, anterior view. Scale bars: 1 mm. 

Figures 39-50 Fannia , male, hind leg. (39) F. femoralis , anterior view; (40) F. snyderi , anterior view; (41) F. sabroskyi , anterior view; (42) F. pusio , posterior view; (43) F. trimaculata , anterior view; (44) F. trimaculata , posterior view; (45) F. dodgei , anterior view; (46) F. magdalena , anterior view; (47) F. embera ; posterior view; (48) F. embera ; anterior view; (49) F. porce , posterior view; (50) F. porce ; anterior view. Scale bars: 1 mm. 

Figures 51-55 Fannia. (51) F. canicularis, male head, anterior view; (52) F. longipila, male, dorsal view; (53) F. longipila, male head, anterior view; (54) F. lamosca, male head, anterior view; (55) F. longipila, female head. Scale bars: 1 mm. 

Figures 56-63 Fannia , hind leg and wing. (56) F. flavicincta , posterior view; (57) F. heydenii , posterior view; (58) F. yenhedi , posterior view; (59) F. carvalhoi , basal tarsomere; (60) F. punctipennis, anterior view; (61) F. tumidifemur , anterior view; (62) F. lamosca , anterior view; (63) F. sanihue , posterior view. Scale bars: 1 mm. 

Checklist of the Neotropical forensically important Fanniidae

Euryomma cariocaAlbuquerque, 1956: 2. Type locality: Brazil, Guanabara [= Rio de Janeiro]. References: Brazil (Linhares 1981, Almeida et al. 1985, Leandro & D'Almeida 2005).

Euryomma cornuatumGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012a: 816-819. Type locality: Colombia, Medellín. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012a).

Euryomma aburraeGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012a: 808, 812-814. Type locality: Colombia, Antioquia. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012a).

Euryomma chitareraGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012a: 814-816. Type locality: Colombia, Norte de Santander. References: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012a).

Euryomma guaneGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012a: 819-821. Type locality: Colombia, Santander. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012a).

Euryomma muiscaGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012a: 821-824. Type locality: Colombia, Cundinamarca. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012a).

Euryomma tahamiGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012a: 824-826. Type locality: Colombia, Antioquia. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012a).

Euryomma uwaGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012a: 826-828. Type locality: Colombia, Santander. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012a).

Euryomma peregrinum (Meigen, 1826: 187). Type locality: Germany, Hamburg. References: Argentina (Aballay et al. 2012a), Brazil (Almeida et al. 1985).

Fannia albitarsisStein, 1911: 105. Type locality: Chile, Guayacán. References: Argentina (Perotti 1998, Aballay et al. 2012a).

Fannia bahiensisAlbuquerque, 1954: 388. Type locality: Brazil, Bahia. Reference: Brazil (Gomes et al. 2002).

Fannia canicularis (Linnaeus, 1761: 454). Type locality: "Europe". References: Brazil (Linhares 1981, Almeida et al. 1985, Carvalho et al. 2000, Leandro & D'Almeida 2005, Oliveira & Vasconcelos 2010, Vasconcelos & Araujo 2012), Colombia (Pérez et al. 2005), Peru (Iannacone 2003).

Fannia carvalhoiCouri, 2005: 457-458. Type locality: Brazil, Rio de Janeiro. Reference: Brazil (Lecheta 2009).

Fannia chibchaGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012b: 7-9. Type locality: Colombia, Cundinamarca. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia dodgeiSeago, 1954: 4. Type locality: Panama, David. References: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia dorsomaculataGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012b: 12-13. Type locality: Colombia, Antioquia. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia emberaGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012b: 24-25. Type locality: Colombia, Chocó. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia femoralisStein, 1898: 282. Type locality: USA, Louisiana. References: Argentina (Aballay et al. 2008, Battán Horenstein et al. 2010, Patitucci et al. 2011, Aballay et al. 2012a, 2012b, Battán Horenstein & Salvo 2012, Battán Horenstein et al. 2012), Brazil (Moura et al. 2005, Lecheta 2009), Colombia (Garcia 2010).

Fannia flavicinctaStein, 1904: 453. Type locality: Peru, Vilcanota and Colombia, Cordillera. References: Brazil (Almeida et al. 1985, Leandro & D'Almeida 2005, Barbosa et al. 2009, 2010).

Fannia fusconotataRondani, 1868: 27. Type locality: Argentina, Mendoza. References: Argentina (Centeno et al. 2002, Aballay et al. 2008, 2012a, 2012b, Patitucci et al. 2011).

Fannia grandisMalloch, 1912: 3. Type locality: Panama, Porto Bello. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia heydeniiWeidemann, 1830: 429. Type locality: "Brazil". References: Argentina (Patitucci et al. 2011, Aballay et al. 2012b), Brazil Almeida et al. 1985, Gomes et al. 2002).

Fannia lamoscaGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012b: 30-32. Type locality: Colombia, Antioquia. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia longipilaAlbuquerque, 1954: 385. Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo. Reference: Brazil (Gomes et al. 2002).

Fannia magdalenaGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012b: 32-33. Type locality: Colombia, Antioquia. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia obscurinervisStein, 1900: 207. Type locality: Bolivia, Songo. References: Brazil (Linhares 1981, Almeida et al. 1985, Moura et al. 1997, Wendt & Carvalho 2009, Vasconcelos & Araujo 2012), Colombia (Garcia 2010).

Fannia penicillarisStein, 1900: 205. Type locality: Bolivia, Songo. References: Brazil (Linhares 1981, Almeida et al. 1985, Leandro & D'Almeida 2005, Lecheta 2009, Wendt & Carvalho 2009).

Fannia pijaoGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012b: 34-36. Type locality: Colombia, Caldas. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia porceGrisales, Wolff & Carvalho, 2012b: 36-37. Type locality: Colombia, Antioquia. Reference: Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia punctipennisAlbuquerque, 1954: 319. Type locality: Brazil, Minas Gerais. References: Brazil (Almeida et al. 1985, Brum et al. 1996, Moura et al. 1997, Lecheta 2009).

Fannia pusioWiedemann, 1830: 437. Type locality: "South America". References: Brazil (Linhares 1981, Campos & Barros 1995, Carvalho et al. 2000, Marchiori et al. 2000, Gomes et al. 2002, Leandro & D'Almeida 2005, Moura et al. 2005, Souza et al. 2008, Barbosa et al. 2009, 2010, Lecheta 2009, Rosa et al. 2009, Krüger et al. 2010, Oliveira & Vasconcelos 2010, Faria et al. 2013, Vasconcelos & Araujo 2012), Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia sabroskyiSeago, 1954: 5. Type locality: Guyana, Kaieteur. References: Brazil (Almeida et al. 1985, Lecheta 2009).

Fannia sanihue Domínguez & Aballay, 2008: 820, 822. Type locality: Argentina, Mendoza. References: Argentina (Domínguez & Aballay 2008, Patitucci et al. 2011, Aballay et al. 2012b).

Fannia scalaris Fabricius, 1794: 332. Type locality: Denmark, "Hafniae" [= Copenhagen]. References: Brazil (Almeida et al. 1985), Chile (Ortloff et al. 2012), Colombia (Wolff et al. 2004), Costa Rica (Calderón-Arguedas et al. 2005).

Fannia snyderiSeago, 1954: 2. Type locality: USA, Maryland. References: Brazil (Almeida et al. 1985, Leandro & D'Almeida 2005, Rosa et al. 2009).

Fannia trimaculataStein, 1898: 176. Type locality: North America and Jamaica. References: Brazil (Lecheta 2009), Colombia (Grisales et al. 2012b).

Fannia tumidifemurStein, 1911: 104. Type locality: Bolivia, Sorata. References: Brazil (Almeida et al. 1985, Leandro & d'Almeida 2005, Lecheta 2009).

Fannia yenhediAlbuquerque, 1957: 16. Type locality: Brazil, São Paulo. References: Brazil (Linhares 1981, Faria et al. 2013).

Fannia yunguensisQuiroga & Dominguez, 2010: 98-99. Type locality: Argentina, Jujuy. Reference: Argentina (Quiroga & Dominguez 2010).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are thankful to the curators of the entomological collections for facilitating access to specimens. We also thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript. James J. Roper improved the English language and provided helpful comments. Financial support was provided by a CNPq (Brazil) postdoctoral grant to DG (process 158870/2014-0) and doctoral grant to ML. CJBC is a fellow of CNPq (process 304713/2011-2). MCD and FHA thanks to CONICET and ANPCyT (PICT 2012-0231 and PICT 2013-514) Argentina, for financial support.

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Editorial responsibility: Gabriel L.F. Mejdalani

Received: March 22, 2016; Revised: May 20, 2016; Accepted: June 14, 2016

*Corresponding author: E-mail: ochoa310@gmail.com

Author Contributions:

DG, ML, FA and CJB participated equally in the preparation of this article.

Competing Interests:

The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

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