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Journal of Physical Education

On-line version ISSN 2448-2455

J. Phys. Educ. vol.27  Maringá  2016  Epub Mar 20, 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.4025/jphyseduc.v27i1.2759 

Artigo de Revisão

SUPERVISED INTERNSHIP IN THE TRAINING OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS: SCIENTIFIC PUBLICATIONS ON THE SUBJECT

ESTÁGIO SUPERVISIONADO NA FORMAÇÃO DE PROFESSORES DE EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA: PRODUÇÕES CIENTÍFICAS SOBRE O TEMA

Silvane Fensterseifer Isse1 

Vicente Molina Neto1 

1Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre-RS, Brasil.


ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to analyze scientific publications that address the issue of supervised teaching in the training of Physical Education teachers. A systematic review was performed in databases in order to identify theses, dissertations and articles that deal with the subject. Two theses, seven dissertations and twenty-nine articles were identified. The results showed that the authors share the idea that supervised teaching plays a central role in teachers education. There is concern for the enhancement of the experiences of the trainee teachers. The study gave visibility to issues that need to be addressed: the limited dialogue between university and school; the role of the collaborator teacher and the basic school as preceptors; guidance to the trainee teachers by the educational institutions; the dichotomy between theory and practice and the privilege often given to utilitarian content activities.

Keywords: Supervised teaching; Staff development; Physical Education.

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar as produções científicas que abordam a temática do estágio supervisionado na formação de professores de Educação Física. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática em bases de dados com o intuito de identificar teses, dissertações e artigos que tratam do tema. Foram identificadas duas teses, sete dissertações e vinte e nove artigos. Os resultados evidenciaram que os autores compartilham a ideia de que o estágio é algo central na formação de professores. Há uma preocupação com a potencialização das experiências vividas pelos estagiários. O estudo deu visibilidade a questões que precisam ser enfrentadas: o restrito diálogo entre universidade e escola; o papel do professor-colaborador e da escola básica como formadores; o acompanhamento aos estagiários por parte das instituições formadoras; a dicotomia entre teoria e prática e o privilégio muitas vezes dado a ações de teor utilitário.

Palavras-chave: Estágios; Desenvolvimento de pessoal; Educação física.

Introduction

Supervised teaching had its worth amplified in the Brazilian Education legislation, especially after the publication of the National Education and Guidance Law 9.394/9611. According to Álvarez, Cámara and Navarro2, the supervised teaching period, in which students, supervisors and teachers receiving the trainee teachers in schools have high expectations, differs markedly from the rest of the training.

During their supervised teaching practice, students in training have real experience in their field of work, that is, they come into contact with "real" students and teachers, facing the complexity of the teaching activity. They experience intense emotions due to their responsibility to the other's learning, the organization of time and space, the exercise of evaluation and the establishment of relationships with the school community. Assuming the role of teacher and being accepted by the students is a great challenge for them, students in training, who are surrounded by educational problems2.

The National Curriculum Guidelines for the Training of Teachers of Basic Education3,4) convey its concern regarding supervised teaching in teacher training curricula, as well as its view that supervised teaching should be a real opportunity for in-service training, monitored closely by teachers of the Basic Education school and by the educational institution, with whom the trainees can share their experiences. It has been a challenge for teachers and researchers, who dedicate their reflections to this theme, to make the supervised teaching period a powerful, creative and investigative experience.

The worth of supervised teaching in teacher training seems to be widely recognized by researchers and teachers; however, it has not been a frequent topic of research in Physical Education. According to Pimenta and Lima5:45), there is a need for "conceptual deepening of supervised teaching and the activities that take place in it", because supervised teaching is a theoretical activity that needs to be seen as an investigative action and as a relevant field of research. This study proposes to analyze academic-scientific productions whose thematic focus is the supervised teaching in the formation of Physical Education teachers.

Methodological Procedures and Mapping of Scientific Production

This study was set up as a systematic literature review6,7. In order to identify and analyze the academic-scientific productions on supervised teaching in the formation of Physical Education teachers, databases of theses and dissertations and Brazilian electronic journals were consulted, using the descriptors "supervised teaching", "curricular supervised teaching","teacher training" and "teaching practice", core concepts in the study. There was no temporal cut of the productions, as we wanted to follow the scientific development of the subject.

Our search included: 1) PhD theses and dissertations available at the Thesis Bank of CAPES (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Level Personnel); 2) articles published in Brazilian e-journals of the subarea Physical Education, classified in the A1 to B4 qualifications of CAPES in 2013. Initially, we read the abstracts and, later, we selected the articles, theses and dissertations dealing with the subject, which were analyzed in full.

The search in the theses and dissertations database of CAPES allowed the identification of a doctoral thesis carried out in the Post-Graduation Program (PGP) in Education at Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; a PhD thesis from the PGP in Human Molecular Sciences (UNESP - Rio Claro) and seven master's dissertations, three of them in PGPs in Physical Education (UFSC, UPE-UFPB and UEM/UEL) and the other four in PGPs in Education (PUCRS, UNINOVE, UFPEL and UEPG). One of them was not available digitally.

We then went on to search CAPES qualifiers in the subarea of Physical Education. The initial search was in journals with A1, A2, B1, B2 and B3. We only found 13 articles, since most of these journals focused on health publications. Consultations were then extended to journals with B4 qualifications, which offer more opportunities for publications in pedagogical studies. A further 16 articles were found, from 14 consulted journals, plus 29 articles that referred to the subject in question. We consulted all journals with A1 to B4 qualifications, focusing on Physical Education in its different approaches. This research evidenced that the studies related to supervised teaching, both in teacher training and in professional training in Physical Education in general, do not appear in those journals considered more qualified in the field of Physical Education.

Source: The authors

Figure 1 Databases and e-journals searched. 

The supervised internship in Physical Education in graduate programs

The search for theses and dissertations at CAPES database enabled the identification, as mentioned above, of two theses and seven dissertations, whose research topics can be seen in the figure below.

Figure 2 Theses and dissertations identified at CAPES database in 01/06/14 

Scherer's research8, based on the principles of participatory research and action research, questions the contribution of participatory processes in supervised teaching for the development of autonomy and critical-reflexive awareness of trainees. The results of this study show that temporal and material limitations, as well as school pedagogical culture, made it difficult to use participatory methodologies, which is evident in the lack of changes in the daily practices of Physical Education in the participating school. The methodology used in the research, however, contributed to a more critical and autonomous attitude of trainees in the exercise of their activities.

Quaranta9 discusses how trainees from an e-learning Physical Education course, who did not have previous teaching experiences in Physical Education, redefine the issues discussed during their training course, as well as their life experiences when they are inserted in school culture and build their pedagogical practices. According to this author, experiences in Basic Education are determinant to become a teacher (in solving problems, in their attitude with students or in the way they didactically organize their contents). However, the re-signification of this experience in its pedagogical practices is very limited. Moreover, according to Quaranta9, the integration of trainees into the school is very precarious, in the sense of even making it impossible to them the access to the Political-Pedagogical Projects, which, consequently, results in the difficulty of recognizing the curriculum component Physical Education. This same study also highlights the lack of dialogue and integration between universities and schools receiving the trainees, as well as the lack of close and systematic monitoring by the educational institution, which contributes to the weakening of reflections on pedagogical practice.

Quaranta9 emphasizes that the topics developed by the trainees in their classes are directly linked to the content presented in the courses taken in the academic stage or semester of their supervised teaching. The trainees’ experiences, according to the study participants, are a significant element in their formation. The author ends the study by remarking that the restriction to the trainees’ testimonies and records as sources of information constitutes a limitation to the study and, in this sense, suggests that ethnographic studies would be more interesting to understand the research questions.

Bezerra10 analyzes the building of Physical Education teachers’ identity in their initial formation, from two socialization contexts: pre-vocational socialization and supervised teaching. The study shows that the supervised teaching experience was extremely positive for all participants as it prepares them for research, reflection, dialogue and allows them a view that surpasses the classroom universe. In other words, supervised teaching allows the creation and incorporation of theoretical and practical knowledge related to teaching work, to the insertion into a professional group, experimenting the role of teacher and re-signification of teaching identities, through collaborative work among teachers (coordinator, supervisor, school-field teacher) and fellow trainees, which supports them facing the school reality. The supervised teaching monitoring, when it is not only just a mere overseeing, contributes to the building of trust and respect relationships.

Despite the low prestige of the teaching career in the memory of several students, their positive experiences in the school-field and their overcoming of their initial anxieties contribute to some of them changing these images towards teaching, the public school and their students. Supervised teaching is, therefore, an important locus for the construction of their teaching identities, which are not static, but integrate their personal and social dimensions and take place in the complex relationship between real and ideal work.

According to Bezerra10, sports practices experienced while students inside and outside the school environment, family influence, a possible ease to become university students, the involvement with sports provided by the course and the curricular organization - which allows a different structure from the conventional class - play an important role on their professional choice and contribute to the construction of their teaching identity. The memories of teaching practices of former teachers in Basic Education are presented as references of what the trainees want to be or to avoid as teachers. There is a great rejection of the teacher-ball"model" and the desire to learn and provide their students with what they did not have as students. Interestingly, there was no reference to their Physical Education teachers regarding affective references, competence to teach and pedagogical references, among the positively mentioned teachers.

Honorato11 discusses the understanding about the articulation between academic theoretical formation and pedagogical practice in the experiences of supervised teaching. The author investigated the possibility of articulating academic knowledge to the pedagogical practice; to unveil the elements that approximate/distance academic formation from pedagogical practice, and to list elements for critical reflections that contribute to the advancement of the unicity between theory and practice in teachers’ formation.

Her results show that a model of technical and sports curriculum is still very present in the Physical Education teachers’ formation courses. According to her, this stems from the pragmatism demanded by the present formation, from the market influences and from the treatment given to the Physical Education profession, the relaxing of teachers’ continued formation and the articulation of the teaching-research-extension triad. In this sense, it also proposes that training curricula be designed recognizing the school, primarily, as a place of knowledge.

Another issue evidenced by Honorato's research11 is the detachment from the theory/practice unicity in the Teaching Practice course. According to her, this distancing directly impacts teaching methodologies, the reflections and discussions on the teaching conceptions used in the school. In this sense, theory assumes an important role in professional training as it supports reflections; however, it acquires a secondary role in the reality of the school in which supervised teaching takes place.

The author finishes her dissertation affirming that supervised teaching allows questions from a motor, impervious and utilitarian perspective, still so present in Physical Education. Still, according to her, there is a need to address the issues highlighted by her study, including the understanding that supervised teaching is a time to put into practice the knowledge acquired in the technical-instrumental courses. We need to face the fact that supervised teaching often privileges actions of utilitarian content, fulfillment of the workload and bureaucratic demands to the detriment of pedagogical and epistemological reflection.

Benites12 aimed to understand how the "collaborating teacher" (teacher who receives the trainees in an official supervised teaching) becomes a trainer within the traineeship scope; to characterize the space of the curricular supervised teaching and the work of the collaborating teacher, as well as to point out which knowledge and practices emerge from the collaborating teacher in the supervised teaching context. The results show that supervised teaching brings together the academic discourse and the school practice, which is an important formative place, although not often recognized as so. According to the author, school and collaborating teachers are still moving towards recognizing each other and becoming participants in the process of initial teacher training.

When researching the formation of the collaborating teacher, Benites12 seeks to understand his/her choice for becoming a collaborator, how trainee teachers perceive them, how he/she sees his/her role and their personal beliefs regarding supervised teaching in the future teachers' formation. According to the study, being a collaborator is a personal choice; teachers, in general, assume a role of trainees' caretakers, receiving them with "goodwill", in such a way that they base their actions on a friendship relationship. However, becoming a collaborating teacher is to add to their tasks the responsibility of assisting future teachers in their didactic-pedagogical experiences, without receiving any payment to carry out this task, including, often, adapting their workload or work contract.

The Brazilian legislation does not define the role/function/task of the collaborating teacher. There is also no specific training for such a function. The collaborating teachers, as Benites points out12, have doubts and anxieties regarding their intervention with the trainee teachers. As they often do not know how or when they should intervene, they prefer to adopt a noninterference role, for they fear to take away the trainees’ freedom, who, in turn, feel that the collaborating teachers give them autonomy, but, at the same time, are there if they need them. Although the relation between trainee teacher and collaborating teacher takes place in this perspective, the collaborating teacher is a reference in terms of security for the trainee. It is important, the author proposes, that collaborating teachers assume their role as mediators, mentors, trainers, not just being "the one who receives the trainee."

The third issue discussed by Benites12, the knowledge and practices used by collaborating teachers in their directions during the supervised teaching, show that these knowledge are evidenced through their attitude and actions, which are guided by the knowledge that comes from experience. Teachers become collaborators based on their observations, experiences, practices and personal and professional characteristics, which make them sensitive to this initial training bias. Even if they work as teachers, they have, according to the author, a traditional view of the supervised teaching practice, according to which they relinquish their classes to the trainees, and they must be able to grow professionally. There is a lack of time and clarity regarding the roles played by them, the intentionality and the preparation during the guidance process. Also, it is necessary to train these teachers as well as to acknowledge and understand their role as teacher trainers, so that we can think of processes that make their potential visible.

Benites12 finishes her thesis defending "a supervised teaching pedagogy" that sets objectives, principles, systematization of contents, reflection and that positioned itself in relation to the desired abilities. She proposes the creation of new perspectives of supervised teaching practices, beyond the traditional representation, configuring it as a space of collaboration in which those involved are clear of their roles and have a background. She proposes "a reorganization of the supervised teaching practice from a professional practice epistemology, recognizing in the collaborating teacher a trainer, an indispensable professional when becoming a teacher"(12:7).

Trainees of undergraduate courses in Physical Education took part in Sousa13 and Zancan14 studies in order to understand aspects related to the role of supervised teaching in teacher education. Sousa13 aimed to understand how the trainees analyze their own teaching activity and how the reflection process assists them in the construction of knowledge and of their teacher identity, while Zancan14 sought to reflect on the contributions and limitations of supervised teaching in teacher training.

The results of these two studies show that students recognize supervised teaching practice as an important source of learning, of rapprochement and of knowing about the future field of work, of building an epistemological basis and of strengthening pedagogical practices. Knowing the future field of professional activity, according to the trainees, provides them with learning about the context and about the life and work of teachers in the school.

The participants of the two studies understand that the supervised teaching improves the teacher training, since it offers them opportunities to learn about the ways of organizing the teaching-learning processes; the experimentation and the confrontation of challenges regarding planning and educational interventions; the exercise of decision-making and the building of an ethical stance. For the students, supervised teaching is one of the elements of theoretical-practical formation, a possible articulator between theory and practice, although they recognize the dichotomy between them. They see research as the structuring axis of practice and acknowledge that there are problems in the university-school relationship that need to be addressed. According to them, the university supervising professors are important figures in the processes of observation, reflection and (re) organization of the trainees' teaching activities. Their teaching experience is an enlightening and inspiring source for trainees as they raise questions.

Silva’s15) research aimed to map how supervised teachings take place in undergraduate courses in Physical Education in the North of Paraná, following curricular reformulations resulting from the enactment of Resolutions by the National Council of Education (NCE/CP) 01 and 02/2002 and NCE/State Council of Education (SCE) 07/20044. The study results show that the changes made from the curricular reformulations are mainly focused on the increase of the trainees' workload, which allowed a greater time of experience in the school environment, as well as, experiences in the different levels of Basic Education and in the school routine. The experiences in Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education, provided for in the regulations of all Higher Education Institutions (HEI) surveyed as compulsory supervised teaching, however, are not effectively fulfilled. The 400-hour-workload is met by only one of the surveyed HEIs. The monitoring of trainees by the HEIs is recognized as fundamental for the good development of supervised teaching; however, there is no clarity in the documents analyzed as to how it should happen. Most of the graduates point out that their supervised teaching practices were monitored, but not entirely, only partially. They also differ in their understanding of their supervised teaching monitoring.

Moreover, Silva's research15 reveals different ways of organizing the supervised teaching actions (individually, in pairs, in small groups, only in the city where the HEI is located, in the students’ place of residence, experience in all stages of Basic Education, Special Education, Youth and Adult Education, Vocational Education, school events, outside the formal context). However, the observation and coparticipation experiences as well as regency of Physical Education classes are the trainees’ responsibilities in all the studied institutions. According to the coordinators' view, supervised teaching is not yet adequately carried out in terms of preparation, planning, implementation and evaluation; however, it was possible to perceive that HEIs have sought to reflect, modify and implement new supervised teaching proposals, based on their realities.

Articles in electronic journals

The articles found in the electronic journals address four major themes: 1) reports of supervised teaching experiences in schools; 2) research on impressions, concerns, trainee perceptions about their experience as trainees; 3) structural, organizational, legal, operational aspects of their supervised teaching practice; 4) articulation between theory and practice.

The focus of the experiences reports were pedagogical practices. They were carried out in schools and published in the journals Cadernos de Formação RBCE (2), Motrivivência (5) and Pensar a Prática (2). The authors present and/or discuss their didactic and methodological choices, but without deepening the discussion. Theoretical principles, teaching and learning conceptions, procedures used, body culture themes worked with the students and the relevance of their diversification, as well as agreements, rules and student productions are described and problematized. Reflections on experiences and didactic-pedagogical interventions are presented, but in a rather superficial way. It is noteworthy that none of the reports presents experiences in the teaching of Physical Education in High School.

Within this major theme, Silva, Cintra and Pinheiro16 and Oliveira, Martins and Pimentel17 report on experiences in Early Childhood Education. Silva, Cintra and Pinheiro16 present their pedagogical practice in a nursery, with a focus on the babies’ movement, touch and corporal perception. Oliveira, Martins and Pimentel17 report their experience with four-year-old children, problematizing epistemological and didactic-methodological aspects that involve the presence of Physical Education in Early Childhood Education.

The largest number of reports on supervised teaching refers to Elementary School. Soares Junior, Rocha and Figueiredo18 present the pedagogical proposal carried out with a 9th grade class from a state school in Goiás, through a discussion of its different stages of elaboration and execution: conjuncture analysis, planning, intervention, systematization and socialization. Fernandes and Martins19 report their experience with a 1st grade class. The challenge of their supervised teaching practice was to work with the theme "circus".

Alves20 describes the use of critical-overcoming methodology in dance classes for 5th and 6th grade classes. As for Teaching Practice, the author proposes that it "should be the axis" of teacher training and the "articulating axis of knowledge in the course of Physical Education"(20:137). She also states that "spending at least one school year in school is indispensable for human formation"(20:136).

Lucena, Escobar and Oliveira21 present the planning and evaluation criteria of Physical Education classes for children aged six to eight years, without, however, discussing them. Football as an element of sensitization to violence in a 3rd grade class is discussed in the text by Albino et al22. The authors present their didactic choices, their theoretical-methodological contribution, agreements and rules to "solve" difficulties and to understand their field of study.

Teaching experiences with Youth and Adult Education classes - YAE are reported by Avance, Silva and Ventorim23 and Moreira24. Avance, Silva and Ventorim23 speak about supervised teaching carried out in an extension project of the Federal University of Espírito Santo. According to the authors, the didactic-pedagogical intervention, carried out in their supervised teaching practice with YAE class, is, at the same time, a continuous formation course for schoolteachers that receive the trainees. In reporting his experience, Moreira24 problematizes the meanings of Teaching Practice in training and its implications on the performance of future teachers.

These reports, with experiences in different school contexts, show the complexity of the teaching activity and how supervised teaching allows for the reflection on the teachers’ working conditions. By narrating their supervised teaching experiences, political, social, epistemological aspects of Physical Education are dealt with. If, on the one hand, some students already have teaching experience in extension projects or as teachers, for many the supervised teaching practice is the first real contact with teaching, when they change from the student to the teacher role. Supervised teaching practice, the time and space of theoretical-methodological experiences and didactic-pedagogical interventions can be very interesting to arouse curiosity and respect for teaching.

As for the second theme - research on impressions, concerns, trainees’ perceptions about their supervised teaching experience -, we found five articles in the magazines Motrivivência, Pensar a Prática, Revista Brasileira de Ciência e Movimento, Movimento and Motriz.

The articles by Quaranta and Pires25,26) raise issues related to the investigation of how undergraduate students in Physical Education, in the Distance Learning Program (DLP), carry out and interpret their first teachers’ experiences in the supervised teaching practice with children of Early Childhood Education. Their results show that "life histories influence to a large extent the choice of their didactic strategies as well as how they interpret their teaching experiences in the supervised teaching practice"(25:185). According to the authors, supervised teaching practice is a fundamental experience for "rehearsing the 'becoming a teacher""(26:52), especially for Physical Education DLP students.

Martiny, Souza and Gomes-da-Silva27, Moletta et al28 and Farias et al29 investigated issues related to the dimension of affections: the trainees’ fears, striking moments, affective relationships and concerns. Martiny, Souza and Gomes-da-Silva(27:51) results show that fear instigates trainees "to seek more knowledge to carry out their teaching practice and to reflect on interventions." The trainees taking part in Moletta et al28) study point out the relationship with the students, the activities carried out and the professional learning as the most outstanding issues of their experience. Farias et al (29: 312) results show that the students' greatest concern is related to the recognition of "the students’ social and emotional needs".

Structural, organizational, legal and operational aspects of supervised teaching practice are themes published in the journals Kinesis (2), Motrivivência (2), Pensar a Prática (1), Revista Brasileira de Ciência e Movimento (1), Revista de Educação Física (1), Revista Mackenzie de Educação Física e Esporte (2) and Motriz (1). The concern with the lack of articulation between university and school is recurrent and significant in several texts examined.

Pires et al30 is an action research carried out at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, whose theme is interventions in the supervised teaching practice and the university/school relationship in the context of the supervised teaching/teaching practice. According to the authors, "in undergraduate courses, the curricular supervised teaching practice is directly linked to the Teaching Practice course"(30: 228). The text alerts us to three "dangers" regarding supervised teaching practice: 1) Teaching Practice classes cannot be the only meeting point, the sole responsible for the intermediation between students and the school reality, nor can it assume the role of sole responsible for "professional practice" and for "uniting theory and practice"; (2) supervised teaching practice cannot have a temporary “teaching class” (dação de aulas in Portuguese) (an expression used by the authors), and is often considered as a simple (but sometimes painful!) fulfillment of formal workload required by the legislation "; 3) schools cannot be seen as a "exploration and testing field, then abandoned by the HEIs that use them, leaving nothing to contribute to the school's own mission"(30:226).

Ramos31, Ferreira and Krug32, Cardoso33 and Pinho34 reflect on curricular and didactic experiences related to supervised teaching in the institutions in which they work as teachers. They problematize questions such as structure, curricular organization, methodologies and pedagogical intervention.

Zotovici et al35 discuss issues related to how supervised teaching occurs in the student education, as well as, regarding the attributions of the professor who accompanies, guides, and supervises the students. The article, quoting Silva, Souza, Checa36, discusses the problem of the trainees' monitoring by the educational institution, pointing out that the professor adviser often devotes much more time to bureaucratic matters than to the didactic-pedagogical discussion. The authors argue that "the supervised teaching is a potential learning phase for critical learning"(35:575) and that the supervision "is essential to the students’ formation"(35:577). Supervised teaching is an interesting opportunity to "think the intertwining and tension areas between theory and practice"(35:571). Thinking the close relationship between professors and students of Teaching Practice courses certainly contributes to the strengthening of this reflection.

Silva, Souza and Checa36 diagnosed the dynamics of supervised teaching monitoring in undergraduate and baccalaureate courses in Physical Education of six private institutions of Greater São Paulo, based on CNE/CP Resolutions 01/2002, 02/2002, 07/2004 and 02/2007, and verified if the practices complied with the new guidelines. The article points out some problems related to the lack of supervision; to the excessive number of students per advisor, which reaches two hundred in one of the institutions; the lack of discussion of student reports, and even the absence of discussions about supervised teaching.

The impact of the four hundred hours of supervised teaching in Physical Education forming courses in Rio Grande do Sul is the theme of Montiel and Pereira study37. The authors warn that, although CNE/CP Resolution 01/2002 proposes a systematic interaction between the Basic Education schools and the institutions that form teachers, there is a great distance between them. Zotovici et al35, Montiel and Pereira37 address the problems in the supervision of trainees by their educational institutions, warning that the administrative problems mentioned by them (training institutions) could not jeopardize possible pedagogical benefits arising from CNE/CP Resolution 02/2002.

Benites et al38:14) is based on Benites' doctoral research12 previously mentioned. The research data selected by the authors to compose the article show that the collaborator teachers occupy a "privileged place" during supervised teaching, but the great majority of them "were trained to teach students" and "had no characteristics to be a teacher of teachers"(38:13). Generally, "they are the trainees "pals"" and recognize the value of sharing their experience with them, teaching them "the tricks of the profession" and offering them "conditions and space to put into practice their didactic-pedagogical knowledge. They are open to dialogue and gradually shift the autonomy of the classes to the trainees "38:13).

Fernandes and Almeida Júnior39:57) deals with the records of the experiences lived during their supervised teaching through teaching books and "pedagogical popcorn", which are, according to the authors, a denomination for short narratives, "a tale, whose contents are the issues of educating children and young people who concern us as educators; they are black and white or color ID-size photos taken by photographers-teachers-storytellers telling their tales as well as their students’". For the authors, their challenge is to move from mere description into reflection, deconstructing the idea that records are just another task. Their desire is for new meanings to be produced for the registers, for they contribute to the perception of dilemmas present in teaching practices, becoming learning sources. In this sense, the text is not only for the other, but also for oneself. The narrative, according to the authors, "happens from the inside out. It is my eyes, my nose, my skin, my hands, my body that has tried and translated what has happened. It is an unpretentious text, but loaded with intentions and authenticity "39:60); it is a text that uncovers what goes through us, mobilizes us, affects us in the day to day of school.

Organizing the practices and reflections on supervised teaching, from what we can perceive in the issues raised by the authors, goes through the challenge of broadening the links between university and school, designing the supervised teaching as a continuing training of collaborating teachers. The authors, in relation to this third major theme, are almost unanimous in saying that there are articulation problems between the university and the basic education. It is necessary that the training of teachers to be connected to the professional reality, which requires that we reduce the distance between training and intervention. The schoolteacher is an important partner in consolidating relationships between school and university, and the supervised teaching is often the main, if not the only, mechanism for dialogue between universities and education networks/basic education. Dialogue, debate, reflection and close, systematic monitoring of supervised teaching are essential for the student formation, so that the supervised teaching is not treated "as a simple university task, just a need to fulfill the workload"20.

The fourth major theme is the articulation between theory and practice, discussed in texts published in the magazines Pensar a Prática (2), Revista da Educação Física (1) and Revista Mackenzie de Educação Física e Esporte (2), using different approaches,.

Through a case study, Nunes and Fraga40 researched the articulation between the theories learned in pedagogical subjects with the teaching practice in the school. The study was carried out with a Teaching Practice student of the School of Physical Education of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, whose supervised teaching was carried out with a fourth grade elementary school class. The relevance of the didactic-methodological disciplines was pointed out by the study collaborator; however, it is necessary to pay attention to the fact that these disciplines often deal with a methodology more focused on "education of seated bodies"(40:306) and "less on the education of bodies in movement"(40:306) [emphasis added] . Therefore, there is a lack of methodologies focusing on the bodies in movement along the course, which do not trigger traditional sets of “rules, norms and instruments that cause restrictions on the movement of the student body” (40:307). The "organization of 'ideas' about the teaching exercise," the authors say, is "a process that occurs slowly, from experiences and reflections in which it is necessary, as our collaborator says, 'to have a sensitivity to know how to filter knowledge '"40:307) [emphasis added].

Martiny and Gomes-da-Silva41 aimed to identify and discuss the knowledge and non-knowledge mobilized and/or acquired by teachers in pedagogical practices of trainee teachers who worked with pre-literate to the 5th grade classes of Elementary School. According to the authors, trainees convert supervised teaching into "great laboratories of teacher learning"(41:580). Their results show that there is a pedagogization of the corporal experiences lived in childhood and/or adolescence as they become contents of the trainees’ classes. For the authors, the construction of "being-a-teacher"(41:580) is a long and unfinished process, which contributes to the construction of critical teachers.

Neto, Martiny and Gomes-da-Silva42 analyzes the coherence between the didactic procedures used by Physical Education trainee teachers and the pedagogical proposal they adopt for classes from the 1st to 5th grade of Elementary School. The researchers aimed to verify the materialization of teaching work and its theoretical and methodological consistency. According to the authors, "the divergences seen in the class plans reinforce the need for the trainees to make critical reflections on their actions"(42:40). Thus, it is necessary "to bring together the knowledge seen in the initial formation, the knowledge thematized in the school context and the knowledge derived from the experience in the teaching practice"(42:41).

Santos, Souza and Barbosa43 investigated the evaluation process in the classes taught by trainee teachers of Universidade Estadual do Sudoeste da Bahia. The study presents the trainees' conceptions about evaluation and shows that the majority feel difficulties when evaluating their students. Their results suggest that many trainees "think of evaluation in a traditional way, despite any theoretical discussion produced in academic training. Moreover, [...] although they have a concept formed about evaluation, many use methods that do not correspond to their concepts"43:514).

Filgueiras, Rodrigues and Verenguer(44) discuss the importance of the curricular supervised teaching and presents the proposal of the Physical Education course of Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie. The authors point out their concern about the frequent dichotomy between theory and practice and propose the integration of supervised teaching to the classroom discussions in the various disciplines of the degree, as a possibility of integrating theory and practice.

As we can see in the texts discussing the articulation between theory and practice, this connection needs to be exercised from the beginning of the training, by all disciplines in the curriculum, as a founding principle of teacher training. The unicity theory/practice occurs from the permanent links of Teaching Practice with the other disciplines. Supervised teaching, therefore, is not the solution to the problems of theory and practice unicity in teacher training, nor a mere juxtaposition between theory and practice, application of theory to practice or explanation of practice from theories.

Some authors, although prizing and advocating theory and practice unicity, seem to "slip" into the idea of a Teaching Practice that transforms theory into concrete actions24. It is possible, then, to realize that the line between unicity and dichotomy theory/practice seems rather tenuous. Lima(45:47) points out that the idea that the main objective of the theory is the "formulation of general principles that teachers can use to solve their problems in class and, consequently, improve educational practice" still strongly maintains. The rupture with the model of technical rationality, according to which supervised teaching would be the implementation of theoretical elements/theories in practice, seem to be the greatest challenge in teachers’ formation.

Final considerations

The academic-scientific production during the period this search was carried out - January to June of 2014 - proved to be quite restricted - two theses, seven dissertations and 29 articles - and quite recent. The study shows that, of this production, 01 article was published in the 1980s; five in the 1990s; and 23 between 2005 and 2013. The masters and doctoral studies were presented in the years of 2008 (1 thesis); 2011 (2 dissertations) and 2012 (1 thesis and 4 dissertations).

In addition to the restriction of publications, the study also shows a restriction on the number of journals - only nine - that have published, in electronic form, articles on the subject in question. The search in databases and electronic journals of Physical Education evidences issues that need to be discussed by the scientific community: is there a lack of interest in journals and researchers in the area of knowledge on the subject? Were not the texts been well evaluated by peers?

Although restricted to Physical Education journals, this review suggests that it is necessary to problematize the scientific community interests regarding the formation of teachers, the problematization of what has been considered as good science in this area of knowledge, as well as the quality of what is published in the Physical Education area. We also need to have a more in-depth debate about this important stage of the formation of Physical Education teachers and stimulate the scientific community to give due attention to the supervised teaching.

There seems to be a kind of consensus in the texts analyzed around the idea that supervised teaching is, or should be, central to teacher training. Supervised teaching is a time for reflection on pedagogical knowledge and practice; it is a field of knowledge, space of invention, for experimenting the role of teacher and questioning about Physical Education as a curricular component of Basic Education.

The cutbacks established by the authors are multiple and demonstrate their concern with the potentialization of the experiences lived by the trainee teachers in their practice contexts. In this sense, the study gave visibility to some issues that need to be addressed such as: the restricted dialogue/integration between university and school; the debate on the role of the collaborating teacher and the basic school, as teacher trainers; the monitoring restricted to the trainees by some educational institutions, as well as the conditions for guidance offered by the institutions to their professors; the dichotomy still so present between theory and practice and the frequent centrality of actions of a utilitarian nature. There is, therefore, still much to be debated and researched about the supervised teaching in the training of Physical Education teachers.

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Received: February 27, 2016; Revised: May 30, 2016; Accepted: August 12, 2016

Author address: Silvane Fensterseifer Isse. Rua Piauí, 1008, Bairro Alto do Parque, Lajeado-RS, CEP. 95900-000. E-mail: silvane@univates.br

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