ISSN 1808-1851 printed version
ISSN 2177-014X online version



Politics and aims

The Journal COLUNA/COLUMNA is an open access journal that publishes contributions from the national and international scientific community, in the form of original articles of high scientific relevance (review articles, systematic reviews and case reports). The journal's goal is to publish articles that contribute to the improvement and development of the practice, research and teaching topics related to the Spine, Spinal Diseases, Orthopedics and Traumatology, Rehabilitation and related areas.

Column/Columna publishes preferably original articles of international interest, not only of regional significance. The Editorial Board is formed by members national and international institutions, who work for free to improve the quality of the journal, aiming to make it attractive not only for regional/national research,  but also to the international scientific community.

It is published in two versions, quarterly in 4 issues per year (March, June, September and December). Its goal is to publish articles that contribute to the improvement and development of the practice, research and teaching of Spine related topics.

There is no fee for submission and evaluation articles.


Manuscript preparation

Peer Review

Peer review is one of the factors that sustain the quality of a scientific journal. The editorial board of Coluna/Columna is formed mostly by university professors, which allows a careful and rigorous peer review. All manuscripts, after approval by the editors, will be reviewed by two or more reviewers, anonymity being guaranteed throughout the assessment process (double-blind). Articles which do not present scientific merit and do not fit into the journal's editorial policy will be rejected with no recourse. The reviewers' comments will be returned to authors for changes in the text or by justifying its conservation. After approval by the reviewers, articles will be sent to the associate editors for final approval. Only after final approvals by reviewers and editors, manuscripts will be forwarded to publication.


Statements published in articles are the sole responsibility of the authors. However, all published material becomes the property of the journal Coluna/Columna, which shall reserve the copyrights. Authors should attach as a supplementary document in SciELO online submission and publication system: a) Declaration of Conflict of Interests; b) Certificate of Approval by the Ethics in Research Commission of the institution when the research involves experimentation on humans or animals; c) Documentation on possible sources of research funding; d) Statement that the participants signed the Informed Consent document, when it refers to medical research on human beings; and e) Letter of transfer of copyright signed by all authors and a statement that the article is original and has not been submitted for publication in another journal or book.


Presentation and submission of manuscript

The journal Coluna/Columna - is a quarterly publication that circulates in January/February/March; April/ May/June; July/August/September; and October/ November/December in two versions, one in its original language (Portuguese, English or Spanish) and another version in English, with the aim to publish original papers on specialties. The concepts and statements contained in papers are the sole responsibility of the authors. The articles published in the journal follow the Uniform Requirements proposed by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, available at

The journal Coluna/Columna, in support of the policies for clinical trials registry of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), recognizing the importance of such initiatives for the registration and international dissemination of information on clinical studies in open access, from August 2009 only accept for publication articles on clinical research that have received an identification number on one of the Clinical Trial Registers validated by the criteria established by WHO and ICMJE, available at:  or at the PubMed website.

When describing experiments related to human and animal topics, indicate if the procedures follow the norms of the Ethical Committee for Human Experiments of the institution at which the experiment was carried out, or if they are in accordance with the 1995 Helsinki Declaration and with Animal Experimentation Ethics, respectively. The authors should include a declaration indicating that the protocol was approved by the institution’s Ethics Committee (the institution with which at least one of the authors is affiliated), with their respective identification number. The authors should also declare that the Free and Informed Consent Form was signed by all participants. This information should be cited in the manuscript’s Materials and Methods section.

The journal welcomes articles for publication to the following sections: Original Articles, Review Articles, Article Updates and Case Reports. Articles may be written in Portuguese, Spanish or English.

Papers should be typed in double spacing, preferably using the word processor Microsoft Word®, with 3 cm margins, using Times New Roman font size 12 and should not exceed 20 pages including the cover page, abstracts, text, acknowledgments, references and tables.

The submitted paper must be accompanied by:

Cover page: title (concise and informative), in Portuguese, Spanish and English; full name of each author (without abbreviations) and of the institution (The hierarchical structure should be presented in diminishing order, for example: the university, college, and department to which each person belongs. The names of the institutions and programs should preferably be presented by their full title and in the institution’s original language, or in English when not using Latin script, for example: Arabic, Mandarin, Greek), with numerical and sequential numbers, using superscript Arabic numerals. If there is more than one institutional affiliation, indicate only the most relevant; location of the work or study’s execution; name of the corresponding author with their complete address, telephone, and email. The ORCID number for each author should be noted on the cover page.

Abstract and Keywords: abstract in Portuguese, English and Spanish with maximum 250 words. For Original Articles, abstracts should be structured (Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusions), highlighting the most significant results. For Review Articles or Articles Update the summary should not be structured. Below the abstract, specify at least five and at most ten descriptors that define the subject of the work. The descriptors should be based on DeCS - Descriptors in Health Sciences - available at, or MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) available at in Portuguese, English and Spanish versions for each descriptor.

Levels of Evidence and Types of Study should be reported at the end of the Summary, Abstract and Abstract .


Presentation of the text

Introduction: it should contain the objective of the study and summarize its rationale. It should only show strictly pertinent citations and not include data or conclusions from the work being reported.

Methods: it should clearly describe the selection of individuals who took part in the study (patients or laboratory animals, including controls). Identify age, gender, and other important characteristics of the individuals. The definition and relevance of race or ethnicity are ambiguous. Authors should be particularly careful when using these categories. Identify the methods, apparatus (display the name and address of manufacturer in brackets) and procedures in sufficient detail to enable the reproduction of the results by other researchers. State if the study was approved by the institution’s Ethics Committee (the institution with which at least one of the authors is affiliated) and provide their respective identification number. Authors should also note if the Free and Informed Consent Form was signed by all participants.

Results: they should be presented in a logical sequence in the text, tables and figures. There should not be repeated throughout the text all the data in the tables or illustrations, instead, it should be emphasized or summarized only important observations.

Discussion: it should emphasize new and important aspects of the study and the following conclusions. The data presented in the introduction or the results should not be repeated. New hypotheses should be established only when they are clearly justified.

Conclusions: they should be linked to the study’s objectives avoiding unqualified ones, not fully substantiated by the data. They should present conclusive argument of detailed supporting data.

Acknowledgements: when necessary, briefly thank the people who collaborated intellectually, but whose contributions don’t constitute co-authorship, or those who have provided material or technical aid or support. The author should guarantee that these people agree to be recognized in this manner. Financial support for the study and scholarships should be acknowledged in this section (agency and grant number).

Conflicts of interest: they must be reproduced objectively when there are, and when not, present the statement: "The authors declare no conflict of interest in this work".

Declaration of author contribution: should be expressed at the end of the article, with the use of two minimal criteria for authorship: a) active participation in the discussion of results; b) review and approval of the final version of the work.

Each author made significant individual contributions to the manuscript. AF (0000-0000-0000-0000)*:writing, revision and performance surgeries; GR (0000-0000-0000-0000)*:surgeries, data analysis and writing. FP (0000-0000-0000-000x)*: statistical analysis, surgeries and revision. MAC (0000-0000-0000-0000)*: analysis of  slides and revision. MSC (0000-0000-0000-0000)*: writing and revision and intellectual concept. ATA (0000-0000-0000-0000)*: surgery, writing, statistical analysis, intellectual concept  and drafting of the entire research project.

References: must be strictly in accordance with the instructions found at Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, updated in October 2007. Or at the PubMed. All authors and papers cited in the text must appear in the references and vice versa. The numbering of the references should be according to the order in which they are first mentioned in the text using Arabic numerals for text and references. Cite all authors up to six; if there are more, cite the first six followed by et al. The titles of journals should be abbreviated according to the list of journals in Index Medicus. All references for the current or previous five years must be in bold.


Journal Articles:

Caetano MBF, Albertoni WM, Caetano EB. Estudo anatômico das inserções distais do tendão extensor longo do polegar. Acta Ortop Bras. 2004;12(2):118-24.

Hong-Wan N, Ee-Chon T, Qing-Hang Z. Biomechanical effects of C2-C7 intersegmental stability due to laminectomy with unilateral and bilateral facetectomy. Spine. 2004;29(16):1737-45.


Defino, HLA. Lesões Traumáticas da coluna vertebral. São Paulo: Bevilacqua; 2006.

Book Chapters:

Tencer AF. Biomechanics of spinal trauma. In: Cotler JM, Simpson JM, An HS, Silveri CP, editors. Surgery of spinal trauma. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2000. p. 61-112.

Dissertations and Theses:

Giglio CA. Caracterização funcional e histológica de modelos experimentais de estudo do trauma raquimedular [tese]. Ribeirão Preto: Universidade de São Paulo; 2000.

Journal articles in electronic format:

Author(s). Title of article. Abbreviated title of periodical [support]. Publication date [date accessed with the expression “accessed on:”]; volume (number): pages initial-final [or approximate number of pages]. Electronic address with the expression “Available at:”
Pavezi N, Flores D, Perez CB. Proposição de um conjunto de metadados para descrição de arquivos fotográficos considerando a Nobrade e a Sepiades. Transinf. [Internet]. 2009 [accessed on 2010 Nov 8];21(3):197-205. Available at:

Figures: illustrations (photographs, drawings, graphs, etc.) should be cited as figures and numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals in the order that they are cited for the first time in the text. The figures should be sent in, tif or jpg format, 300 dpi resolution, in a large format together. The figures should be sent in an editable file (World or Excel) along with the originals. Photos will be published in black and white. For color publications, the additional cost will be the author’s responsibility.

Please note that it is the authors’ responsibility to obtain permission from copyright holders to reproduce figures (or tables) which have been previously published in other places. For all open access values the authors should have permission from copyright holders should they wish to include images that have been published in other places, in non-open access publications. Permission should be indicated in the caption for the figure, and the original source should be included in the list of references.

Tables: Tables should be numbered in the order they appear in the text using Arabic numerals. Each table should have a title and, if necessary, an explanatory legend. Charts and tables should be sent in their original files (e.g., Excel) and not as images. Tables and charts that take up more than one page should be avoided. Don’t use graphic elements, text boxes, or tabs.

Abbreviations and acronyms: they must be preceded by the full name when first cited in the text. All figures and tables should contain its meaning below the figure or table.

Videos: Submission of videos is optional, and will accompany the online version of the article. The video must be sent together with the article in a separate file and accompanied by captions. Videos must be sent in MP4 digital format.


Manuscript submission

Article submissions should be done online. The originals of the text, tables, figures, and documents should be submitted via the link:

  • Responsibility for concepts expressed in the articles are the sole responsibility of the authors.
  • The total or partial reproduction of articles is permitted, provided the source is properly mentioned.
  • All content of the journal, except where otherwise stated, is under the license Creative Commons License Attribution-type BY-NC.

Levels of evidence for primary research questions

Levels of Evidence for Primary Research Questiona
[This chart was adapted from material published by the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine, Oxford, UK. For more information, please see]

Type of Studies


Therapeutic Studies—
Investigating the
Results of Treatment

Prognostic Studies—
Investigating the
Effect of a Patient
Characteristic on the
Outcome of Disease

Diagnostic Studies—
Investigating a
Diagnostic Test

Economic and Decision
Analyses—Developing an
Economic or Decision Model


  • High quality randomized trial with statistically
    significant difference or no statistically significant difference but narrow confidence intervals
  • Systematic reviewb of Level I RCTs (and study results were homogenousb)
  • High quality prospective studyd (all patients were enrolled at the same point in their disease with ≥80%
    of enrolled patients)
  • Systematic reviewb of Level I studies
  • Testing of previously developed diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference ‘‘gold’’  standard)
  • Systematic reviewb of Level I studies
  • Sensible costs and alternatives; values obtained from many studies; with multiway sensitivity analyses
  • Systematic reviewb of Level I studies


  • Lesser quality RCT(eg, < 80% followup, no blinding, or improper
  • Prospectived comparative studye
  • Systematic reviewb of Level II studies or Level I studies with inconsistent results
  • Retrospectivef study
  • Untreated controls from an RCT
  • Lesser quality prospective study (eg, patients enrolled at different points in their disease or <80% followup)
  • Systematic reviewb of Level II studies
  • Development of diagnostic criteria on consecutive patients (with universally applied reference ‘‘gold’’ standard)
  • Systematic reviewb of Level II studies
  • Sensible costs and alternatives; values obtained from limited studies; with multiway sensitivity analyses
  • Systematic reviewb of Level II studies


  • Case control studyg
  • Retrospectivef comparative studye
  • Systematic reviewb of Level III studies
  • Case control studyg
  • Study of nonconsecutive patients; without
    consistently applied
    reference ‘‘gold’’ standard
  • Systematic reviewb of Level III studies
  • Case-control study Poor reference standard
  • Analyses based on limited alternatives and costs; and poor estimates
  • Systematic reviewb of Level III studies


Case seriesh

Case series


  • Analyses with no sensitivity analyses


Expert opinion

Expert opinion

Expert opinion

Expert opinion

a A complete assessment of quality of individual studies requires critical appraisal of all aspects of the study design.
b A combination of results from two or more prior studies.
c Studies provided consistent results.
d Study was started before the first patient enrolled.
e Patients treated one way (eg, cemented hip arthroplasty) compared with a group of patients treated in another way (eg, uncemented hip arthroplasty) at the same institution.
f The study was started after the first patient enrolled.
g Patients identified for the study based on their outcome, called ‘‘cases’’ eg, failed total arthroplasty, are compared with patients who did not have outcome, called ‘‘controls’’ eg, successful total hip arthroplasty.
h Patients treated one way with no comparison group of patients treated in another way.



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