Brazilian Journal of Biology
On-line version ISSN 1519-6984
PEREZ-SAYANS, M et al. An update in the structure, function, and regulation of V-ATPases: the role of the C subunit. Braz. J. Biol. [online]. 2012, vol.72, n.1, pp. 189-198. ISSN 1519-6984. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842012000100023.
Vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases) are present in specialized proton secretory cells in which they pump protons across the membranes of various intracellular organelles and across the plasma membrane. The proton transport mechanism is electrogenic and establishes an acidic pH and a positive transmembrane potential in these intracellular and extracellular compartments. V-ATPases have been found to be practically identical in terms of the composition of their subunits in all eukaryotic cells. They have two distinct structures: a peripheral catalytic sector (V1) and a hydrophobic membrane sector (V0) responsible for driving protons. V-ATPase activity is regulated by three different mechanisms, which control pump density, association/dissociation of the V1 and V0 domains, and secretory activity. The C subunit is a 40-kDa protein located in the V1 domain of V-ATPase. The protein is encoded by the ATP6V1C gene and is located at position 22 of the long arm of chromosome 8 (8q22.3). The C subunit has very important functions in terms of controlling the regulation of the reversible dissociation of V-ATPases.
Keywords : V-ATPases; proton transport; ATP6V1C1; V1 domain; V0 domain; C subunit.