SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.34 issue2Reeducation and recovery of motor function in lesions of the central nervous systemPyrrolidone acetamide as an auxiliary drug in the treatment of cerebral palsy author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand

Journal

Article

Indicators

Related links

Share


Arquivos de Neuro-Psiquiatria

Print version ISSN 0004-282X

Arq. Neuro-Psiquiatr. vol.34 no.2 São Paulo June 1976

http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-282X1976000200006 

Plasticidad del sistema nervioso

 

Plasticity of the nervous system: a review

 

 

L. M. Garcia-Segura

Instituto Cajal, C.S.I.C., Madrid, España

 

 


RESUMEN

En este trabajo se revisan los conocimientos más recientes sobre el fenómeno de la plasticidad del sistéma nervioso, tanto a nivel morfológico como a nivel fisiológico y molecular. Se estudian los cambios morfólogicos y fisiológicos de las neuronas frente a la experiencia. Tambien se considera la adaptación molecular del sistéma nervioso a la información que recibe como la base de todo tipo de plasticidad.


SUMMARY

The most recent knowledge about the phenomenon of the nervous system plasticity are revised, as much in morphological as in physiological and molecular levels. The neuron morphological and physiological changes opposite to the experience are studied. The nervous system molecular adaptation to the information it receives as the base of all type of plasticity is also considered.


 

 

Texto completo disponível apenas em PDF.

Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

REFERENCIAS

1. BENNETT, E. L.; DIAMOND. M. C.; KRECH, D. & ROSENZWEIG, M. R. — Chemical and anatomical plasticity of brain. Science 146:610, 1964.         [ Links ]

2. BLAKEMORE, C. & MITCHELL, D. E. — Environmental modification of the visual cortex and the neural basis of learning and memory. Nature 241:467, 1973.         [ Links ]

3. COLEMAN, P. D. & RIESEN, A. H. — Environmental efects on cortical dendritic fields. J. Anat. 102:365, 1968.         [ Links ]

4. CRAGG, B. G. — The effects of vision and dark-rearing on the size and density of synapses in the lateral geniculate nucleus mesured by electron microscopy. Brain Res. 13:53, 1969.         [ Links ]

5. CREUTZFELDT, O. D. & HEGGELUND, P. — Neuronal plasticity in visual cortex of adult cats after exposure to visual patterns. Science 188:1025, 1975.         [ Links ]

6. DIAMOND, M. C.; LAW, F.; RHODES, H.; LINDER, B.; ROSENZWEIG. M. R.; KRENCH, D. & BENNETT, E. I. — Increases in cortical depth and glia numbers in rats subjected to enriched environment. J. Comp. Neurol. 128:117, 1966.         [ Links ]

7. ECCLES, J. C. — The nature of central inhibition. Proc. Roy. Sic. Section B. 153:445, 1961.         [ Links ]

8. ECCLES, J. C. & McINTYRE. A. K. — The effects of the use and of inactivity of mammalian spinal reflexes. J. Physiol. 121:492, 1963.         [ Links ]

9. ECCLES, R. M. & WESTERMAN, R.A. — Enhanced synaptic function due to excesive use. Nature 184:460, 1969.         [ Links ]

10. FIFKOVÁ, E. — Changes in the visual cortex of rats after unilateral deprivation. Nature 220:379, 1968.         [ Links ]

11. FIFKOVÁ, E. — The effect of monocular deprivation on the synaptic contacts of the visual cortex. J. Neurobiol. 1:285, 1970.         [ Links ]

12. FREEMAN, R. D. & PETTIGREW, J. D. — Alteration of visual cortex from environmental asymetries. Nature 246:359, 1973.         [ Links ]

13. GARCÍA-SEGURA, L. M. — The use of tannin-iron method as a nervous system general stain technique. Trab. Inst. Cajal 66, 1974.         [ Links ]

14. GARCÍA-SEGURA, L. M. — Cambios estructurales en el cerebro frente a la experiencia y su relación con la memoria y el aprendizaje. Arch. Neurobiol. 37:561, 1974.         [ Links ]

15. GARCÍA-SEGURA, L. M. — Regulación ejercida por la experiencia en el desarrollo cerebral: revisión. Rev. Psiquiatria y Psicologia Medica 12:49, 1975.         [ Links ]

16. GARCÍA-SEGURA, L. M. — La base molecular de la memoria y el aprendizaje. Rev. Neurologia 3:73. 1975.         [ Links ]

17. GARCÍA-SEGURA, L. M. — Papel de Ias proteínas en la memoria. Arch. Neurobiol. 1975. En prensa.         [ Links ]

18. GARCÍA-SEGURA, L. M. & DÍAZ-GONZALEZ, P. — Etude sur le spécificité histochimique de la méthode tanno-ferrique. Ann. Histochim. 20:173. 1975.         [ Links ]

19. GARCIA-SEGURA, L. M.: MARTINEZ-RODRIGUEZ, R.; TOLEDANO, A.; de AGUSTÍN, M. & RODRIGUEZ-GONZALEZ, C. Investigación histoquímica de fosfolipidos y esteres triglicéridos simples en cerebelo de reta. Trab. Inst. Cajal 66. 1974.         [ Links ]

20. GAY, R. & RAPHELSON, A. — "Transfer of learning" by injection of brain RNA: a replication. Psychonomir Sci. 8:369, 1967.         [ Links ]

21. HAMBERGER, C. A. & HYDÉN, H. — Production of nucleoproteins in the vestibular ganglion. Acta olo-laring. Suppl. 75:53, 1949.         [ Links ]

22. HIRSCH, H. V. B. & SPINELLI. D. N. — Visual experience modifies distribution of horizontally and vertically oriented receptive fields in cats. Science 1968:869. 1970.         [ Links ]

23. HIRSCH, H. V. B. & SPINELLI, D. N. — Modification of the distribution of receptive field orientation in cats by selective visual exposure during development. Exp. Brain Res. 12:509, 1971.         [ Links ]

24. HUBEL, D. H. & WIESEL, T. N. — The period of susceptibility to the physiological effects of unilateral eye closure in kittens. J. Physiol. (London) 206:419, 1970.         [ Links ]

25. HYDÉN, H. — Satellite cells in the nervous system. Sci. Am. 205:62. 1961.         [ Links ]

26. HYDÉN. H. & EGYHAZI, E. — Nuclear RNA changes of nerve cells during a learning experiment in rats. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Washington) 48:1366. 1962.         [ Links ]

27. HYDÉN. H. & EGYHAZI, E. — Glial RNA changes during a learning experiment in rats. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Washington) 49:618, 1963.         [ Links ]

28. HYDÉN, H. & EGYHAZI, E. — Changes in RNA content and base composition in cortical neurons of rats in a learning experiment involving transfer of handedness. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Washington) 52:1030, 1964.         [ Links ]

29. HYDÉN, H. & LANGE, P. W. — A differentiation in RNA response in neurons early and late during learning. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Washington) 53:946. 1965.         [ Links ]

30. HYDÉN, H. & LANGE, P. W. — A genie stimulation with production of adenine-uracil rich RNA in neurons and glia in learning. Naturwiss. 53:64, 1966.         [ Links ]

31. HYDÉN, H.; LANGE, P. W.; MIHAILOVIC, J. J. & PETROVIC-MINIC, B. Changes of RNA base composition in nerve cells of monkeys subjected to visual discrimination and delayed alternation performance. Brain Res. 65:215, 1974.         [ Links ]

32. MARTINEZ-RODRIGUEZ, R.; GARCÍA-SEGURA, L. M.; TOLEDANO, A.: GONZALEZ, M.; GAMONAL, A.; DE AGUSTIN. M.; DIAZ-GONZALEZ, Ô. & RODRIGUEZ-GONZALEZ, C. — Investigation of acid mucosubstances in rat cerebellum. Ann. Histochim. 20, 1975.         [ Links ]

33. MARTINEZ-RODRIGUEZ, R.: TOLEDANO, A.; GARCIA-SEGURA. L. M.; GONZALEZ. M.; GAMONAL, A.; DIAZ-GONZALEZ, P.; DE AGÜSTIN, M. & RODRIGUEZ-GONZALEZ, C. — Mucopolysaccharides in hypothalamic neurons of the rat. J. Anat. 1975, en prensa.         [ Links ]

34. MUIR, D. W. & MITCHELL, D. E. — Behavioral deficits in cats following early selected visual exposure to contours of a single orientation. Brain Res. 85:459, 1975.         [ Links ]

35. PARNAVELAS. J. G.: GLOBUS, A. & KAUPS, P. — Changes in lateral geniculate neurons of rats as a result of continuous exposure to light. Nature new biol. 245:287, 1973.         [ Links ]

36. PETTIGREW, J. D.; OLSON, C. & BARLOW, II. B. — Kitten visual cortex: shortterm stimulus-induced changes in connectivity. Science 180:1202. 1973.         [ Links ]

37. PETTIGREW, J. D.; OLSON, C. & HIRSCH. H. V. B. — Cortical effect of selective visual experience: degeneration or reorganization? Brain Res. 51:345, 1973.         [ Links ]

38. RAMÓN Y CAJAL, S. — Histologie du Système Nerveux de l'Homme et des Vertébrés, Vol. 2. C. S. I. C. Instituto Cajal. Madrid, 1972.         [ Links ]

39. ROSE, S. P. R. — Changes in visual cortex on first exposure of rats to light. Nature 215:253, 1967.         [ Links ]

40. ROSENZWEIGH, M. R.; BENNETT, E. L. & DIAMOND, M. C. — Brain changes in response to experience. Sci. Am. 226:22, 1972.         [ Links ]

41. RUIZ-MARCOS, A. & VALVERDE, F. — The temporal evolution of the distribution of dendritic spines on the visual cortex of normal and dark raised mice Exp. Brain Res. 8:284, 1969.         [ Links ]

42. RYUGO, D. K.; RYUGO, R.; GLOBUS, A. & KILLAKEY, H. P. — Increased spine density in auditory cortex following visual or somatic deafferentiation Brain Res. 90:143, 1975.         [ Links ]

43. SHASHOVA, V. E. — RNA changes in goldfish brain during learning. Nature 217:238, 1968.         [ Links ]

44. SHASHOVA, V. E. — RNA metabolism in goldfish brain during acquisition of new behavioral patterns. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. (Washington) 65:160, 1970.         [ Links ]

45. STEIN, D. G.; ROSEN, J. J. & BUTTERS, N. — Plasticity and recovery of function in the central nervous system. Academic Press, New York, 1974.         [ Links ]

46. THOMPSON, R. F. — Fundamentos de Psicologia Fisiológica. Versáo castelhana. Editorial Trillas, México, 1974.         [ Links ]

47. TRETTER, F.; CYNADER, M. & SINGER, W. — Modification of direction selectivity of neurons in the visual cortex of kittens. Brain Res. 84:143, 1975.         [ Links ]

48. UNGAR, G. — Evidence for molecular coding of neural information. In H. P. Zippel (Ed.) — Memory and Transfer of Informatinon. Plenum Press. New York, 1973.         [ Links ]

49. VALVERDE, F. — Apical dendritic spines of the visual cortex and light deprivation in the mouse. Exp. Brain Res. 3:337, 1967.         [ Links ]

50. VALVERDE, F. — Rate and extent of recovery from dark rearing in the visual cortex of the mouse. Brain Res, 33:1. 1971.         [ Links ]

51. VAN HOF, M. W. — Retinal input and early development of the visual system. Docum. ophthal (Den Haag) Proc. Series, 4:495, 1974.         [ Links ]

52. VAN SLUYTERS, R. C. & BLAKEMORE, C. — Experimental creation of unsual neuronal properties in visual cortex of kitten. Nature, 246:506, 1973.         [ Links ]

53. VOLKMAR, F. R. & GREENOUGH, W. T. — Rearing complexity affects branching of dendrites in the visual cortex of the rat. Science 176:1445, 1972.         [ Links ]

 

 

Instituto Cajal C. S. I. C. — Calle Velazquez, 144 — Madrid-6 — España.

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License