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Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo

On-line version ISSN 1806-9657

Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Solo vol.25 no.1 Viçosa Jan./Mar. 2001

https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-06832001000100002 

SEÇÃO I - FÍSICA DO SOLO

 

Quantificação de pressões críticas para o crescimento das plantas(1)

 

Quantifying critical pressures for plant growth

 

 

S. ImhoffI; A. Pires da SilvaII; M. de S. Dias JuniorIII; C. A. TormenaIV

IEngenheiro-Agrônomo, PG do Dep. de Solos e Nutrição de Plantas, Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - ESALQ/USP. Av. Pádua Dias 11, Caixa Postal 9, CEP 13418-900 Piracicaba (SP). Bolsista da CAPES. E-mail: scigiave@carpa.ciagri.usp.br
IIEngenheiro-Agrônomo, Ph.D., Dep. de Solos e Nutrição de Plantas, ESALQ/USP. E-mail: apisilva@carpa. ciagri.usp.br
IIIEngenheiro-Agrícola, Ph.D., Dep. de Ciência do Solo, Universidade Federal de Lavras - UFLA. Bolsista do CNPq. E- mail: msouzadj@ufla.br
IVEngenheiro-Agrícola, Dr., Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade Estadual de Maringá - UEM. Av Colombo 579, CEP 87030-121 Maringá (PR). E-mail:catormen@uem.br

 

 


RESUMO

A compactação, uma das principais causas de degradação dos solos agrícolas, tem sido avaliada por meio de diversos indicadores: (a) de qualidade estrutural do solo para o crescimento das plantas, como o intervalo hídrico ótimo (IHO), e (b) de capacidade de suporte do solo, como a pressão de preconsolidação (σp). Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo não só de relacionar o IHO e a σp, mas também de determinar valores de pressões críticas (Pcr) que possam ser aplicados ao solo sem restringir o crescimento das plantas ou provocar a compactação adicional do solo. O estudo foi realizado com amostras de Podzólico Vermelho-Amarelo, cultivado com cana-de-açúcar, no município de Piracicaba (SP). Na camada superficial do solo, foram coletadas trinta e seis amostras com estrutura indeformada para a quantificação do IHO e da σp. A partir do IHO, foi obtido o valor de densidade do solo crítica (Dsc) para o crescimento das plantas. A σp foi linearmente relacionada com a densidade e umidade do solo, permitindo a incorporação dos valores de Dsc e do IHO para a quantificação de Pcr. Os resultados indicaram que a Pcr diminuiu linearmente com o incremento da umidade, variando de 360 kPa a 500 kPa para a faixa de umidade de θ = 0,18 m3 m-3 a θ = 0,12 m3 m-3. O parâmetro proposto permitiu definir pressões máximas que podem ser aplicadas ao solo, para diferentes umidades, sem promover a degradação da qualidade estrutural do solo para o crescimento das plantas.

Termos de indexação: compactação do solo, pressão de preconsolidação, intervalo hídrico ótimo, pressões críticas.


SUMMARY

Compaction is one of the main causes of degradation of agricultural soils and it has been evaluated through several indicators of: (a) soil structural quality for crop growth, such as the least limiting water range (LLWR), and (b) load support capacity of the soil, i.e., the preconsolidation pressure (σp). This research was carried out with the objective to relate the LLWR and the σp, as well as to determine critical pressures values that can be applied to the soil without inducing restrictive conditions to plant growth as well as additional soil compaction. The study was conducted with soil samples of a Red-Yellow Podzolic soil (Ultisol) cultivated with sugarcane from Piracicaba, State of São Paulo (Brazil). Thirty six undisturbed soil samples were taken at the superficial layer to quantify the σp and the LLWR. Soil critical bulk density (Dbc) was obtained from the LLWR. The σp was a linear function of the water content and soil bulk density, allowing the incorporation of Dbc and LLWR for quantifying the Pcr. The results indicated that Pcr decreased linearly with soil water content, varying from 360 kPa to 500 kPa for the soil water range from θ = 0,18 m3 m-3 to θ = 0,12 m3 m-3. The results allowed to define values of maximum pressures that can be applied to the soil, for different water contents, without promoting degradation of soil structural quality for plant growth.

Index terms: soil compaction, preconsolidation pressure, least limiting water range, critical pressure values.


 

 

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Full text available only in PDF format.

 

 

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Recebido para publicação em fevereiro de 2000
Aprovado em setembro de 2000

 

 

(1) Parte da Tese de Doutorado do primeiro autor, apresentada à Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz - ESALQ/USP.

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