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vol.54 issue6Paraganspis egeria Díaz, Gallardo & Walsh (Hymenoptera: Figitidae: Eucoilinae) as potential agent in the biocontrol of muscoid dipterous collected in several substracts in Itumbiara, Goias, Brazil author indexsubject indexarticles search
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Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia

Print version ISSN 0102-0935On-line version ISSN 1678-4162

Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec. vol.54 no.6 Belo Horizonte Dec. 2002 




Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) as parasitoid of Diptera, in Brazil


[Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) como parasitóde de Diptera, no Brasil]



C.H. Marchiori; L.A. Pereria; O.M.S. Filho; L.C.S. Ribeiro

Departamento de Biologia do Instituto Luterano de Ensino Superior de Itumbiara-ULBRA

 Address for correspondence



The hosts Pteromalidae include Hemiptera, Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Siphonaptera, Hymenoptera, Dermaptera and Homoptera. They attack eggs, larvae, pupae, rarely adults. The main contribution of pteromalids is in the control over muscoid flies, especially the house-fly and the stable fly (Hanson & Gauld, 1995). Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani is considered a solitary parasitoid containing a great number of Diptera in the families Anthomyiidae, Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Tachinidae and Tephritidae. This species presents a diversified (cosmopolitan) distribution and it has been found in North America, Canada and Africa (Rueda & Axtell, 1985).

The fly control using fly-spray always ends up in selecting resistant populations, being just a palliative. Mendes & Linhares (1993) believe in the need of researching on new methods concerning fly control; and as a possibility to control these insects, some natural regulators can be used, such as parasitoids which are responsible for the reduction of synanthropic fly populations. The aim of this note is to relate the hosts for the Pachycrepoideus vindemiae associated to muscoids in human feces, cattle kidneys, cattle liver, fish and fruit.

The study was conducted in the city of Itumbiara-GO (18º25'S – 49º13'W), Brazil. The flies were collected by the use of traps, made of dark cans, measuring 19cm height and 9cm diameter, with two openings like blinders, located in the inferior part to allow the entrance of the flies. The upper part of the cans were coupled with nylon funnels, opened at the edges, base faced downward and wrapped with plastic bags, so when removed, it would make possible the collecting of the flies and parasitoids. The following items were used as baits: human feces, cattle kidneys, cattle liver, pig carcass, fish and fruit placed inside the cans, over a layer of land. Five traps were used and they were hanged on trees one meter above the ground, two meters apart from each other. The collected insects were taken to the laboratory, sacrificed with ethyl ether and kept in 70% alcohol for further identification. In order to obtain the parasitoids, the content of the traps was placed into plastic containers, which had a layer of sand, used as a substratum to the transformation of larvae into pupae. Therefore, this sand was sifted after being 15 days in field and from this sand the pupae were extracted and individually placed into gelatin capsules (00 number) in order to obtain the flies and/or the parasitoids. The prevalence of parasitism was calculated by the following formula: P = (parasite pupae/total of pupae) x100.

From March 1999 to November 2001, 151 specimens Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were collected in 2,447 pupae of Diptera (Tab. 1). From the hosts collected, it must be point out the importance of the species Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae). C. albiceps has a great medical and sanitary concern, since it is responsible for secondary myiasis and for being conductors of pathogenic microorganisms.



As shown on Table 1, 151 specimens of parasitoid Pachycrepoideus vindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were obtained in five sand substrates, from 10 different hosts. The use of P. vindemiae provides their maintainance in the environment, improving their potential as biological agent keepers. It is believed that the population level, observed in the fields, is enough to take over the plague insects.

A great number of individuals were obtained from the host C. albiceps, as high as 66.6%. Considering the substrates, the human feces presented a higher diversity of hosts (five) attacked by P. vindemiae (a total of 98 parasitoids), and 64.9% of the individuals were collected (Table 1). The total prevalence of parasitism was about 6.2%. The host showing the major prevalence of parasitism was the C. albiceps (Wiedemann) in cattle liver (Tab. 1).

In Costa Rica, P. vindemiae is currently tested for its potential to control the fruit fly (Tephritidae) (Hanson & Gauld, 1995). Pachycrepoideus vindemiae is considered a pupae parasitoid of a great number of Diptera, including species of Calliphora, Lucilia, Hylemya, Drosophila, Rhagoletis, Paratheresia, Anastrepha, Ceratitis, Phormia, Phaenicia and Haematobia (Hanson & Gauld, 1995; Marchiori et al., 2000a; 2000b).

This paper registers the first occurrence of parasitoid P. vindemiae in pupae of P. chrysostoma in Brazil.

Keywords: Diptera, Hymenoptera, biological control, substrate


Este estudo determinou as espécies de hospedeiros do parasitóide Pachycrepoideusvindemiae Rondani (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) em fezes humanas, rins e fígado de bovino, peixe e frutos. As pupas, obtidas pelo método de flutuação, foram colocadas individualmente em cápsulas de gelatina e mantidas até a emergência das moscas e/ou parasitóides. A prevalência total de parasitismo foi de 15,7%. Este trabalho registra a primeira ocorrência de Pachycrepoideusvindemiae em pupas de Peckiachrysostoma.

Palavras-chave: Diptera, Hymenoptera, controle biológico, substrato



HANSON, P.E.; GAULD, I.D. The Hymenoptera of Costa Rica. Oxford: Oxford University, 1995. 893p.        [ Links ]

MARCHIORI, C.H. Parasitóides de estágios imaturos de dípteros sinantrópicos coletados em vários ambientes em Itumbiara-GO. Acta Scientiarum, v.22, p.655-661, 2000a.        [ Links ]

MARCHIORI, C.H.; OLIVEIRA, A.M.S.; MARTINS, F.F. et al. Ocorrência de moscas frugívoras (Diptera: Tephritidae e Lonchaeidae) e seus parasitóides em Itumbiara-GO. Arq. Inst. Biol., v.67, p.139-141, 2000b.        [ Links ]

MENDES, J.; LINHARES, A.X. Atratividade por iscas, sazonalidade e desenvolvimento ovariano em várias espécies de Muscidae (Diptera). Rev. Bras. Entomol., v.37, p.289-297, 1993.        [ Links ]

RUEDA, L.M.; AXTELL, R.C. Guide to common species of pupal parasites (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) of the house fly and other muscoid flies associated with poultry and livestock manure. Tech. Bull. North Carolina Agric. Res. Serv., n.278, 1985.        [ Links ]



Address for correspondence
C.H. Marchiori
L.A. Pereria
O.M.S. Filho

Caixa Postal 23-T
75.500-000 - Itumbiara, GO

Recebido para publicação em 11 de março de 2002
Recebido para publicação, após modificações, em 20 de junho de 2002

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