Services on Demand
Print version ISSN 1519-6984
Braz. J. Biol. vol.62 no.1 São Carlos Feb. 2002
CYCLOPIDAE (CRUSTACEA, COPEPODA) FROM THE UPPER PARANÁ RIVER FLOODPLAIN, BRAZIL
LANSAC-TÔHA, F. A., VELHO, L. F. M., HIGUTI, J. and TAKAHASHI, E. M.
Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Nupélia, Department of Biology, Postgraduate Course in Ecology of Continental Aquatic Environments, Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringá, PR, Brazil
Correspondence to: Fábio Amodêo Lansac-Tôha, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Nupélia, Department of Biology, Postgraduate Course in Ecology of Continental Aquatic Environments, Av. Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringá, PR, Brazil, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received March 24, 2000 ¾ Accepted November 29, 2000 ¾ Distributed February 28, 2002
(With 6 figures)
Cyclopid copepods from samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes and plancton obtained in lotic and lentic environments were obtained from the upper Paraná River floodplain (in the states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil). Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands and washed. Plankton samples, taken from the water column surface and bottom, were obtained using a motor pump, with a 70 mm mesh plankton net for filtration. Twelve taxa of Cyclopidae were identified. Among them, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus, and Microcyclops finitimus were new finds for this floodplain. Eight species were recorded exclusively in aquatic macrophyte samples. Among these species, M. albidus albidus and M. finitimus presented greatest abundances. Only four species were recorded in plankton samples, and Thermocyclops minutus and Thermocyclops decipiens are limited to this type of habitat. Among these four species, T. minutus is the most abundant, especially in lentic habitats.
Key words: Cyclopidae, taxonomy, phytophyle fauna, zooplankton, Paraná River.
Cyclopidae (Crustacea, Copepoda) da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Brasil
Foram obtidos copépodes cyclopídeos de amostras de fauna associadas a macrófitas aquáticas e plâncton de ambientes lóticos e lênticos da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná (nos Estados do Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul). As amostras foram coletadas em bancos homogêneos e lavadas. As amostras de plâncton, tomadas à superfície e fundo da coluna de água, foram obtidas com o auxílio de uma motobomba, utilizando-se uma rede de plâncton de abertura de malha de 70 mm para filtração. Doze táxons de Cyclopidae foram identificados. Entre eles, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, Paracyclops chiltoni, Ectocyclops rubescens, Homocyclops ater, Eucyclops solitarius, Mesocyclops longisetus curvatus, Mesocyclops ogunnus e Microcyclops finitimus representam novos registros para essa planície. Oito espécies foram registradas exclusivamente em amostras de macrófitas aquáticas. Entre essas, M. albidus albidus e M. finitimus são as mais abundantes. Somente quatro espécies foram registradas em amostras de plâncton, e Thermocyclops minutus e Thermocyclops decipiens são exclusivas para esse tipo de habitat. Dessas quatro espécies, T. minutus é a mais abundante, especialmente em ambientes lênticos.
Palavras-chave: Cyclopidae, taxonomia, fauna fitófila, zooplâncton, rio Paraná.
In Brazil, studies of cyclopid copepods have traditionally been dealt with prior to their biological and ecological aspects. Among the studies developed about taxonomic aspects, those undertaken by Reid (1985) include the development of identification keys and list of references for South American freshwater species. Recently, Rocha & Botelho (1998) reviewed cyclopoid species recorded in Brazil, providing information on taxonomy and geographical distribution of the species.
Research was carried out in the floodplain of the upper Paraná River, and species composition of cyclopid copepods from samples of both fauna associated with aquatic macrophyte and plankton are described.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Cyclopid copepods from Eichhornia azurea Kunth associated fauna and plankton samples were obtained from lotic and lentic environments from the upper Paraná River floodplain, states of Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul (22o40'-22o50'S, 53o10'-53o40'W), Brazil (Fig. 1), from March 1992 to February 1993. Macrophytes were collected in homogeneous stands washed in pails with formaldehyde 4% solution. Plankton samples were obtained by horizontal and vertical hauls and a pump. A plankton net, mesh size of 70 mm for filtration, was used. Samples were taken at different depths in the pelagic region and from the surface of the littoral region.
For identification of different taxa, organisms were separated, mounted on slides with glycerin, analyzed, and measured by Wild M20 microscope. Sketches of organisms were made with a drawing tube. Measurements were taken with a pre-calibrated micrometric eyepiece. In the case of Ectocyclops rubescens (Brady), males were also used.
Material was placed in the zooplankton laboratory of the Research Nucleus in Limnology, Ichthology, and Aquaculture of the Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Maringá, Paraná, Brazil.
Herbst, 1962: 268-269, figs. 24-31; Reid, 1985: 35, fig. 4; Morton, 1990: 670-672, fig. 7.
Commentaries: This species is common in samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes from lentic and lotic environments of the upper Paraná River floodplain. It was not registered in plankton samples. This is the first record for the upper Paraná River floodplain.
Herbst, 1959: 49, figs. 1-4; Reid, 1985: 39, figs. 121-123; Defaye & Dussart, 1988: 118, figs. 81-87.
Commentaries: E. solitarius is rare in the upper Paraná River floodplain. It had only been registered only in samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes from lentic and lotic environments. This is the first record for this floodplain.
Reid, 1985: 31, figs. 59-61; Fallavena, 1985, fig. 6 (as Macrocyclops ater); Montú & Goeden, 1986: 111, fig. 34 (as Macrocyclops ater).
Commentaries: Rare species in the upper Paraná River floodplain. It had only been registered in samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes from lentic environments. This is the first record for the upper Paraná River floodplain.
Dussart, 1984: fig. 13; Reid, 1985: 32, figs. 66-69; Fallavena, 1985, fig. 5 (as M. albidus); Montú & Goeden, 1986: 116, fig. 35-i (as M. albidus); Chengalath & Shih, 1994: 2425-2426, fig. 3.
Commentaries: Abundant species in the floodplain in samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes; greater abundance in lotic environments. It had not been recorded in plankton samples. This is the first record for the upper Paraná River floodplain.
Smith & Fernando, 1978: 2022, figs. 40-42; Reid, 1985: 34, fig. 75; Dussart & Frutos, 1986: pl. IX, figs. 60-61; Suárez-Morales et al., 1996: 179, fig.62; Karaytug & Boxshall, 1998: 590-598, figs. 17-23.
Commentaries: This species is common in the upper Paraná River floodplain in samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes from lentic and lotic environments. It had not been recorded in plankton samples. This is the first record of the species for this floodplain.
Dussart, 1984: 60, fig. 26; 1987: 152, figs. 27-35; Reid, 1985: 45-46, figs. 183-186; Dussart & Frutos, 1985: 313, figs. 56-59; Silva et al., 1989: 729, figs. 155-183; Reid & Pinto Coelho, 1994: 361.
Commentaries: Frequent and abundant species in lentic and lotic environments of the upper Paraná River floodplain in samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes, with greater abundances in lentic environments. It has been recorded in plankton samples, but in low frequence and abundance.
Onabamiro, 1957: 125, figs. 7-12; Dussart & Fernando, 1988: 241, 250-251, figs. 28-30; Boxshall & Braide, 1991: 208-209, 212, fig. 64; Reid & Kay, 1992: 331, 336-339, fig. 3d-f; Reid & Pinto-Coelho, 1994: 360-361.
Commentaries: M. ogunnus, an Afro-Asian species recently introduced into Brazil, in Furnas Reservoir situated in the south of Minas Gerais, partly bordering São Paulo State (Reid & Pinto-Coelho, 1994). Rare in lentic and lotic environments of the upper Paraná River floodplain, and recorded only in samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes. It is the first record for this floodplain.
Dussart, 1987: 150, 156, figs. 3-4, 7-8; Reid & Reed, 1994: 80-82, figs. 1-2; Reid & Pinto-Coelho, 1994: 367; Suárez-Morales et al., 1996: 12, figs. 33-35, 89 a-b.
Commentaries: This species is common in the upper Paraná River floodplain, in samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes. Greater abundance in lentic environments. This is the first register for this floodplain.
Richard, 1897: 265, figs. 1-4; Sendacz & Kubo, 1982: 81, figs. 72-75 (as M. anceps); Matsumura-Tundisi & Rocha, 1983: fig. VI (as M. anceps); Reid, 1985: 54, figs. 4-16; Rocha, 1998: 427-429, pl. I, figs. 1-2 , pl. II, fig. 13, pl. III, fig. 17.
Commentaries: Frequent species in the floodplain with greater abundance in lentic environments, especially in samples of fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes.
Dussart, 1984: 57-58, fig. 19A; Silva et al., 1989: 729, figs. 184-197; Rocha, 1998: 427-429, pl. I, fig. 7, pl. II, fig. 12, pl. III, fig. 18.
Commentaries: Abundant species in lentic and lotic environments of the upper Paraná River floodplain in fauna associated with aquatic macrophytes. It had not been recorded in plankton samples. This is the first register for the upper Paraná River floodplain.
Sendacz & Kubo, 1982: 75-76, figs. 44-57 (as T. crassus); Reid, 1985: 49, figs. 224-227; Defaye et al., 1987: 3145, figs. 11-19.
Commentaries: Frequent and abundant species in plankton samples of the upper Paraná River floodplain.
Greatest densities have been registered in lentic environments.
Lowndes, 1934: 113, fig. 10 (as Mesocyclops minutus); Sendacz & Kubo, 1982: 76, figs. 51-56; Matsumura-Tundisi & Rocha, 1983, figs. I. 2; Reid, 1985: 49, figs 217-219.
Commentaries: T. minutus is the most frequent and abundant species of copepods in plankton samples of the upper Paraná River floodplain. Greatest abundance of this species is in lentic environments.
Species richness of cyclopoid copepods associated with Eichhornia azurea was greater than that found in plankton samples collected in the same type of habitats from the upper Paraná River floodplain.
Among the most frequent and abundant species of phytophile fauna, such as Microcyclops anceps anceps, M. finitimus, Macrocyclops albidus albidus, and Mesocyclops meridianus, only M. anceps anceps and M. meridianus have been recorded in low frequency and low abundance in plankton samples. Inversely, the most frequent and abundant species in the plankton, Thermocyclops minutus and T. decipiens were not found associated with E. azurea.
Paggi (pers. comm.) suggested that there is a transversal gradient of abundance in which cyclopids increase in richness and abundance from the pelagic region toward the littoral region.
According to McLachlan (1969), predadors seem to be favored by the great compactness of aquatic macrophyte banks. In the present study the occurrence of many predatory cyclopid species suggests the use of macrophytes as hiding place (Strixino & Strixino, 1984). The animals might better exercise their predatory strategies in those banks.
Acknowledgments We thank Prof. Dr. William M. Silva for suggestions and comments, Prof. Dr. Luiz Carlos Gomes for assistance with the English text, and Prof. Dr. Alice Michiyo Takeda for supplying Cyclopidae from aquatic macrophyte samples. This study was supported by PADCT/CIAMB and NUPELIA/UEM.
BOXSHALL, G. A. & BRAIDE, E. I., 1991, The freshwater cyclopoid copepods of Nigeria, with an illustrated key to all species. Bull. Br. Mus. Nat. Hist. Zool., 57: 185-212. [ Links ]
CHENGALATH, R. & SHIH, C., 1994, Littoral freshwater copepods of northwestern North America: Northern British Columbia. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol., 25: 2421-2431. [ Links ]
DEFAYE, D., DUSSART, B. H., Fernando, C. H. & Samita, A. S., 1987, On some species of the genus Thermocyclops (Crustacea, Copepoda) from the Oriental Region. Can. J. Zool., 65: 3144-3153. [ Links ]
DEFAYE, D. & DUSSART, B. H., 1988, Compléments à la fauna des Crustacés copépodes des eaux intérieurs de Guyane Française. Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop., 21: 109-125. [ Links ]
DUSSART, B. H., 1984, Some Crustacea Copepoda from Venezuela. Hydrobiologia, 113: 15-23. [ Links ]
DUSSART, B. H., 1987, Sur quelques Mesocyclops (Crustacea, Copepoda) d'Amerique du Sud. Amazoniana, 10: 149-161. [ Links ]
DUSSART, B. H. & Frutos, S. M., 1985, Sur quelques copépodes d'Argentine. Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop., 18: 305-314. [ Links ]
DUSSART, B. H. & FRUTOS, S. M., 1986, Sur quelques copépodes d'Argentine. 2. Copépodes du Paraná Médio. Rev. Hydrobiol. Trop., 19: 241-262. [ Links ]
DUSSART, B. H. & FERNANDO, C. H., 1988, Sur quelques Mesocyclops (Crustacea, Copepoda). Hydrobiologia, 157: 241-264. [ Links ]
FALLAVENA, M. A. B., 1985, Composição e variações sazonal e espacial dos copépodos planctônicos (Crustacea, Copepoda) na lagoa Negra, Município de Viamão, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Iheringia, 65: 3-30. [ Links ]
HERBST, H. V., 1959, Brasilianische Süsswassercyclopoiden (Crustacea Copepoda). Gewäss Abwäss, 24: 49-73. [ Links ]
HERBST, H. V., 1962, Crustacea aus dem Amazonnasgebiet, gesammelt von Professor Dr. H. Sioli und Dr. R. Braun. 1. Litorale und substratgebundene Cyclopoida Gnathostoma (Copepoda). Crustaceana, 3: 259-278. [ Links ]
KARAYTUG, S. & BOXSHALL, G. A., 1998, The Paracyclops fimbriatus-complex (Copepoda, Cyclopoida): a revision. Zoosystema, 20: 563-602. [ Links ]
LOWNDES, A. G., 1934, Reports of an expedition to Brazil and Paraguay in 1926-7 supported by the Trustees of the Percy Sladen Memmorial Fund and the Executive Committee of the Carnegie Trust for Scotland. Copepoda. J. Limn. Soc. Zool., 39: 83-131. [ Links ]
MATSUMURA-TUNDISI, T. & ROCHA, O., 1983, Occurrence of copepod (Calanoida, Cyclopoida and Harpacticoida) from "Broa" Reservoir (São Carlos, São Paulo, Brazil). Rev. Bras. Biol., 43: 1-17. [ Links ]
McLACHLAN, A. J., 1969, The effect of aquatic macrophytes on the variety and abundance of benthic fauna in newly created lake in the tropics (Lake Kariba). Arch. Hydrobiol., 62: 212-231. [ Links ]
MONTÚ, M. & GOEDEN, I. M., 1986, Atlas dos Cladocera e Copepoda (Crustacea) do estuário da lagoa dos Patos (Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil). Nerítica, 1: 1-134. [ Links ]
MORTON, D. W., 1990, Revision of the Australian Cyclopidae (Copepoda: Cyclopoida). II. Eucyclops Claus and Ectocyclops Brady. Aust. J. Mar. Fresh. Res., 41: 657-675. [ Links ]
ONABAMIRO, S. D., 1957, Some new species of Cyclops sensu-lat. (Crustacea: Copepoda) from Nigeria. J. Linn. Soc. Lond. Zool., 43: 123-133. [ Links ]
REID, J. W., 1985, Chave de identificação e lista de referências bibliográficas para as espécies continentais sul-americanas de vida livre da Ordem Cyclopoida (Crustacea, Copepoda). Bolm Zool., São Paulo, 9: 17:143. [ Links ]
REID, J. W. & KAY, B. H., 1992, Mesocyclops guangxiensis, new species, and new records of four congeners (Crustacea: Copepoda: Cyclopidae) from China, Laos and Viet Nam. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., 105: 331-342. [ Links ]
REID, J. W. & REED, E. B., 1994, First records of two neotropical species of Mesocyclops (Copepoda) from Yukon Territory: cases of passive dispersal? Arctic, 47: 80-87. [ Links ]
REID, J. W. & PINTO-COELHO, R. M., 1994, An afro-asian continental copepod, Mesocyclops ogunnus, found in Brazil; with a new key to the species of Mesocyclops in South America and a review of intercontinental introductions of copepods. Limnologica, 24: 359-368. [ Links ]
RICHARD, J., 1897, Entomostracés de l'Amerique du Sud, recueillis par M. U. Dieters, H. von Ihering, G. W. Muller et C. O. Poppe. Mem. Soc. Zool. France, 10: 263-301. [ Links ]
ROCHA, C. E. F., 1998, New morphological characters useful for the taxomomy of the genus Microcyclops (Copepoda, Cyclopoida). J. Mar. Syst., 15: 425-431. [ Links ]
ROCHA, C. E. F. & BOTELHO, M. J. C., 1998, Maxillopoda-Copepoda Cyclopoida. In: P. S. Young (ed.), Catalogue of crustacea of Brazil. Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro (Série Livros no 6). [ Links ]
SENDACZ, S. & KUBO, E., 1982, Copepoda (Calanoida e Cyclopoida) de reservatórios do Estado de São Paulo. Bol. Inst. Pesca, 9: 51-89. [ Links ]
SILVA, E. N. S., ROBERTSON, B. A., REID, J. L. W. & HARDY, E. R., 1989, Atlas de copépodos planctônicos, Calanoida e Cyclopoida (Crustacea), da Amazônia Brasileira. I. Represa de Curuá-Una, Pará. Rev. Bras. Zool., 6: 725-758. [ Links ]
SMITH, K. & FERNANDO, C. H., 1978, The freshwater calanoid and cyclopoid copepod Crustacea of Cuba. Can. J. Zool., 56: 2015-2023. [ Links ]
STRIXINO, G. & STRIXINO, S. T., 1984, Macroinvertebrados associados a macrófitas aquáticas das lagoas marginais da estação ecológica de Jataí (Luiz Antônio-SP). Anais, Seminário Regional de Ecologia, São Carlos, SP, 8: 1189-1198. [ Links ]
SUÁREZ-MORALES, E., REID, J. W., ILIFFE, T. M. & Fiers, F., 1996, Catálogo de los copépodos (Crustacea) continentales de la Península de Yucatán, México. ECOSUR/CONABIO, Ciudad del México. [ Links ]