SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.11 issue4Minimum number of common bean plants per plot to assess field resistance to white moldBrisasul: a new high-yielding white oat cultivar with reduced lodging author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links


Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology

On-line version ISSN 1984-7033

Crop Breed. Appl. Biotechnol. (Online) vol.11 no.4 Viçosa Dec. 2011 

Genetic diversity in NaN3-induced common bean mutants and commercial varieties detected by AFLP


Diversidade genética revelada por AFLP em mutantes induzidos por NaN3 e variedades comerciais de feijão


CL ChenI; HH WangI; TL JengII; SJ ChuangIII; ML WeiII; Sung Jih MinIV*

IDepartment of Agronomy, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City, Taiwan, ROC
IIDivision of Biotechnology, Agricultural Research Institute, WuFeng, Taichung City, Taiwan, ROC
IIIDivision of Biotechnology, Taiwan Seed Improvement and Propagation Station, Taichung City, Taiwan, ROC
IVDepartment of Food Science and Technology, Hung Kuang University, Shalu, Taichung City, Taiwan, ROC. *E-mail:




The analysis of Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) was used to estimate genetic diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) variety Hwachia and in 34 NaN3-induced mutants and 11 commercial varieties introduced from China. Eight primer combinations generated 516 DNA fragments of the tested mutants and introduced varieties, of which 448 fragments were polymorphic. The calculated Jaccard similarity coefficients based on AFLP data ranged from 0.47 to 0.84. The molecular profiles obtained from eight AFLP primer pairs indicated a high genetic diversity among Hwachia, NaN3-induced mutants and introduced varieties. The extent of genetic variation was slightly higher between Hwachia and NaN3-induced mutants than between Hwachia and introduced commercial varieties. These results, supported by cluster analysis, suggest that NaN3-induced mutagenesis effectively broadens the genetic diversity of common bean varieties. Some of the produced mutants could be useful as sources of variation to develop new improved common bean varieties.

Key words: genetic similarity, mutagenesis.


Marcadores AFLP foram utilizados para analisar a diversidade genética em feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) na variedade Hwachia, em 34 mutantes induzidos por NaN3 e 11 variedades comerciais chinesas. Oito combinações de primers geraram 516 fragmentos de DNA dos mutantes e variedades chinesas, dos quais 448 fragmentos foram polimórficos. Os coeficientes de similaridade de Jaccard calculados com base nos dados de AFLP variaram de 0,47 a 0,84. Os perfis moleculares de AFLP indicaram alta diversidade genética entre Hwachia, mutantes induzidos por NaN3 e variedades chinesas. A extensão da variação genética foi ligeiramente maior entre Hwachia e mutantes induzidos por NaN3 do que entre Hwachia e introduziu variedades comerciais chinesas. Estes resultados, apoiados pela análise de cluster, sugerem que a mutagênese induzida por NaN3 efetivamente amplia a diversidade genética das variedades de feijão. Alguns dos mutantes produzidos podem ser úteis como fontes de variação para desenvolver novas variedades melhoradas de feijão.

Palavras-chave: similaridade genética, mutagênese.



Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a morphologically diverse grain legume, with large detectable variations for traits related to growth habit, pigmentation, pods and seeds and others (Singh 2001, Coan et al. 2010). It was introduced in Taiwan over a century ago, but is not popular with the local farmers because its yield is lower than of other grain legumes. This factor has reduced the germplasm sources used in hybridization and limited the genetic variability available for common bean breeding in Taiwan. Recently, the fact that common bean is rich in many phytochemicals with beneficial effects on human health (Jeng et al. 2010) has rekindled interest in the crop in Taiwan. But the number of modern varieties with improved agronomic and phytochemical traits is very limited.

Genetic diversity is the basis of genetic improvement of crops and the most important condition in any breeding program. The genetic viability of common bean in Taiwan is rather limited. To broaden genetic variation, it is therefore essential to collect desirable traits from introduced varieties or wild populations (Singh 2001, Newton et al. 2009). Another approach is to use chemical mutagenesis to broaden genetic diversity (Parry et al. 2009). Mutation breeding in crop plants is a well-documented technique, especially in crops with a narrow genetic base. Many mutants have been identified as donors of desirable traits in breeding programs. Results of chemical mutagenesis in morphological, physiological and genetic changes, as well as variety development has been reported in common bean (Blair et al. 2007).

Recently a chemical mutagenesis program of the common bean landrace Hwachia, which is very popular in central Taiwan was implemented, and many NaN3-induced mutants with differing seed traits were produced (Jeng et al. 2010). Nevertheless, the extent of genetic diversity among these mutants and other introduced common bean varieties has not been determined. In this study, the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technique was used to assess the extent of diversity among the NaN3-induced mutants and the commercial varieties introduced from China. This information would be useful in the selection of parents for hybrid production with maximum heterosis and of combinations of useful genes in improvement programs of common bean varieties.



In the present study, the variety Hwachia and its 34 stabilized NaN3-induced M6 mutants (Jeng et al. 2010) plus 11 commercial varieties introduced from north and southwest China were used. The experiments were performed in the spring of 2008. Sowing was done manually in rows. Fertilization consisted of the banded application of N, P2O5 and K2O (16, 32 and 31 kg ha-1, respectively). Weed control was performed by hand, and plots were maintained pest and disease-free until harvest. The experimental plots consisted of multiple 7-m long rows spaced 0.6 m and plants 15 cm apart.

Genomic DNA of each accession was extracted from freshly harvested young leaves by using CTAB (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide) procedure described by Chuang et al. (2009). The samples of bulked leaf tissues (500 mg) collected from five individual plants were used for DNA extraction. DNA concentration was estimated by a full-spectrum UV/VIS spectrophotometer (NanoDrop, ND-1000), diluted with sterile distilled water to a final concentration of 100 ng ìL-1. AFLP analysis and electrophoresis were carried out with eight pre-selected primer pairs (Table 1).

The percentage of polymorphism, polymorphism information content (PICi) and Jaccard's similarity coefficient were calculated using the methods detailed by Roldán-Ruiz et al. (2000) and Jaccard (1908), respectively. The similarity coefficient matrix was subjected to cluster analysis by the Un-weighted Pair Group Method of arithmetic Averages (UPGMA). A dendrogram was constructed using NTSYS-PC software (Rohlf 1998).



Morphological traits are frequently used to quantify the genetic diversity in common bean genotypes (Ceolin et al. 2007). However, the major limitation of morpho-agronomical characterization is that this kind of evaluation often involves a high number of descriptors, many influenced by the environment, particularly those conditioned by many genes (Chiorato et al. 2007). Therefore, DNA markers, such as RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) (Alzate-Martin et al. 2001; Chiorato et al. 2007) and AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) (Kumar et al. 2008), are also used to determine the genetic diversity in common bean. In this study, the genomic DNA collected from wild type variety Hwachia and its 34 NaN3-induced mutants and 11 commercial varieties introduced from China were compared by AFLP analysis. All AFLP primer pairs produced well-defined and scorable DNA fragments with polymorphism among the 46 common bean accessions (Table 1). The average number of scored fragments per primer pair was 56, which was higher than reported by Maciel et al. (2003), who obtained a mean of 38 fragments for common bean; polymorphic fragments were generated with every primer pair.

The level of variation detected by AFLP depends on the number of primer pairs and the genetic distance between the varieties analyzed. From the 46 common bean DNA samples amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with 8 pre-selected primer pairs, a total of 516 fragments were obtained, of which 448 were polymorphic (Table 1). The higher number of polymorphic fragments confirms the polymorphism detection efficiency of AFLP (Maciel et al. 2003). The polymorphic banding patterns of these primer pairs averaged from 69.23 % for E-AAC/M-CAA to 97.65 % for E-ACG/M-CAT. The average percentage of polymorphic fragments, across eight primer pairs, was 86.82 %. The calculated values of polymorphism information content (PICi) for the eight primer pairs ranged from 0.1861 (E-ACT/M-CAG) to 0.2410 (E-ACG/M-CAT) (Table 1). The average PICi value for the amplification products, across eight primer pairs, was 0.2065.

Kumar et al. (2008) and Svetleva et al. (2006) used the AFLP technique, each with different primer pairs, to analyze the genetic diversity of common bean varieties and landraces collected at different locations, and found an average similarity coefficient of 0.52 and 0.91, respectively. However, only very limited AFLP data are available for evaluating the genetic diversity in crop mutants (Lu et al. 2007, Rashid et al. 2009) obtained by induced mutation. In the present study, Jaccard genetic similarity coefficients were calculated between pairs of common bean accessions. Pair-wise similarities ranged from 0.47 (SA-34 vs. PI-Agro-07) to 0.84 (SA-19 vs. SA-21). An average similarity coefficient of 0.65 was found, which was higher than the average similarity coefficient (0.52) of Kumar et al. (2008), but lower than the average similarity coefficient (0.91) reported by Svetleva et al. (2006).

The similarity matrix further indicated that the similarity coefficients between wild type Hwachia and NaN3-induced mutants ranged from 0.49 (Hwachia vs. SA-031) to 0.77 (Hwachia vs. SA-03), with an average of 0.68 across all pair-wise comparisons. These variations in Jaccard similarity coefficients were wider than the range obtained for Hwachia and introduced varieties (0.511-0.699). Thus, NaN3-induced mutagenesis appears to be more effective in generating and broadening genetic diversity than variety introduction (Al-Qurainy and Khan 2009), at least in the case of the commercial varieties introduced from China. However, relatively higher Jaccard similarity coefficients were found between some NaN3-induced mutants and introduced varieties. For instance, a similarity coefficient of 0.73 (higher than the average of 0.68) was obtained for SA-25 and PI-43. Thus, it appears that the NaN3-induced mutants SA-07, SA-25 and SA-31 were genetically close to some of the introduced commercial varieties, and were more distant from the wild type Hwachia and other NaN3-induced mutants.

A dendrogram obtained from the similarity matrix showed two clusters, separating at a similarity value of roughly 0.54 (Figure 1). Cluster I contained four NaN3-induced mutants (SA-07, SA-08, SA-30, SA-31) and five introduced varieties (PI-Agro-05, PI-Agro-06, PI-Agro-07, PI-Agro-09 and PI-40) (Figure 1). Wild type Hwachia and other 30 mutants and six introduced varieties were grouped in cluster II. These results confirmed that the mutants SA-07, SA-08, SA-30 and SA-31 were more distinct from the wild type Hwachia. The agronomic traits observed (unpublished data) showed that the dry seeds of NaN3-induced mutants and introduced commercial varieties grouped in cluster I generally were relatively smaller than of Hwachia, NaN3-induced mutants and introduced varieties grouped in cluster II. Most cultivated common bean varieties are reported to originate from two separate gene pools, the Mesoamerican and Andean, with marked morphological differences (Singh 2001). The seeds of the Andean type varieties are generally larger (> 40 g per 100 seed) than of Mesoamerican type varieties (< 40 g per 100 seed) (Rodiño et al. 2006, Chiorato et al. 2007). The origins of the wild type Hwachia and introduced varieties from north and southwest China are unknown; however, they might be derived from different gene pools. In this regard, a follow-up study to verify the genetic origin should be conducted.

Genetic diversity, resulting from natural selection, spontaneous mutation and artificial selection, is the most important aspect in any plant breeding program. In this study, the molecular profiles obtained from eight AFLP primer pairs demonstrated high genetic diversity among the wild type Hwachia, 34 NaN3-generated common bean mutants and 11 introduced commercial varieties. However, the degree of genetic diversity in NaN3-induced mutants was slightly higher than of the Chinese commercial varieties. These results, supported by cluster analysis, indicate that NaN3-induced mutagenesis could effectively broaden the genetic diversity of common bean varieties. Some of the produced mutants could be useful as sources of variation for the development of new improved common bean varieties.



The authors thank the National Science Council of Taiwan ROC for supporting this research (Grant Number NSC97-2313-B-241-006-MY3-2).



Al-Qurainy F and Khan S (2009) Mutagenic effects of sodium azide and its application in crop improvement. World Applied Sciences Journal 6: 1589-1601.         [ Links ]

Alzate-Marin AL, Costa MR, Sartorato A, Rava CA, Barros EG and Moreira MA (2001) Use of markers as a tool to investigate the presence of disease resistance genes in common bean cultivars. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 1: 125-133.         [ Links ]

Blair MW, Porch T, Cichy K, Galeano CH, Lariguet P, Pankhurst C and Broughton W (2007) Induced mutants in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and their potential use in nutrition quality breeding and gene discovery. Israel Journal Plant Science 55: 191-200.         [ Links ]

Ceolin ACG, Conçalves-Vidigal MC, Vidigal Filho PS, Kvitschal MV, Gonela A and Scapim CA (2007) Genetic divergence of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) group Carioca using morpho-agronomic traits by multivariate analysis. Hereditas 144: 1-9.         [ Links ]

Chiorato AF, Carbonell SAM, Benchimol LL, Chiavegato MB, Dias LAS and Colombo CA (2007) Genetic diversity in common bean accessions evaluated by means of morpho-agronomical and RAPD data. Scientia Agricola 64: 256-262.         [ Links ]

Chuang SJ, Chen CL, Chen JJ, Chou WY and Sung JM (2009) Detection of somaclonal variation in micro-propagated Echinacea purpurea using AFLP marker. Scientia Horticulturae 120: 121-126.         [ Links ]

Coan MMD, Stähelin D, Coimbra JLM, Rafaeli Neto SL, Guidolin AF and Pereira TP (2010) Management system of an active genebank of common bean. Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology 10: 95-100.         [ Links ]

Jaccard P (1908) Nouvelles recherches sur la distribution florale. Société Vaudoise des Sciences Naturelles 44: 223-270.         [ Links ]

Jeng TL, Shih YJ, Lai CC, Wu MT and Sung JM (2010) Anti-oxidative characterization of NaN3-induced common bean mutants. Food Chemistry 119: 1006-1011.         [ Links ]

Kumar V, Sharma S, Kero S, Sharma S, Sharma AK, Kumar M and Bhat KV (2008) Assessment of genetic diversity in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) germplasm using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Scientia Horticulturae 116: 138-143.         [ Links ]

Lu G, Zhang X, Zou Y, Zou Q, Xiang X and Cao J (2007) Effect of radiation on regeneration of Chinese narcissus and analysis of genetic variation with AFLP and RAPD markers. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture 88: 319-327.         [ Links ]

Maciel F, Echeverrigaray S, Gerald LTS and Grazziotin FG. (2003) Genetic relationships and diversity among Brazilian cultivars and landraces of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by AFLP marker. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 50: 887-893.         [ Links ]

Newton AC, Begg GS and Swanston JS (2009) Deployment of diversity for enhanced crop function. Annals of Applied Biology 154: 309-322.         [ Links ]

Parry MA, Madgwick PJ, Bayon C, Tearall K, Hemandez-Lopez A, Baudo M, Rakszegi M, Hamada W, Al-Yassin A, Quabbou H, Labhilili M and Phillips A (2009) Mutation discovery for crop improvement. Journal of Experimental Botany 60: 2817-2825.         [ Links ]

Rashid M, Liu R, Jin W, Xu Y, Wang F, Tao Y, Wang J, Akbar AC, Chen J and He G (2009) Genomic diversity among basmati rice (Oryza sativa L) mutants obtained through 60 Co gamma radiations using AFLP markers. African Journal of Biotechnology 8: 6777-6783.         [ Links ]

Rodiño AP, Santalla M, González AM, De Ron AM and Singh SP (2006) Novel genetic variation in common bean from the Iberian Peninsula. Crop Science 46: 2540-2546.         [ Links ]

Rohlf FJ (1998) NTSYS-pc Numerical taxonomy and multivariate analysis system. Version 2.0. Exeter, Setauket,         [ Links ]

Roldán-Ruiz I, Dendauw J, Van Bockstaele E, Depicker A and De Loose M (2000) AFLP markers reveal high polymorphic rates in ryegrasses (Lolium spp.). Molecular Breeding 6: 125-134.         [ Links ]

Singh SP (2001) Broadening the genetic base of common bean cultivars: a review. Crop Science 41: 1659-1675.         [ Links ]

Svetleva D, Pereira G, Carlier J, Cabrita L, Leitão J and Genchev D (2006) Molecular characterization of Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes included in Bulgarian collection by ISSR and AFLPTM analyses. Scientia Horticulturae 109: 198-206.         [ Links ]



Received 13 December 2010 Accepted 21 February 2011

Creative Commons License All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License