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Territorial expansion of Zenaida auriculata (Aves: Columbidae) in the Brazilian Amazon

Carlos Nei ORTÚZAR-FERREIRA Gabriel Magalhães TAVARES Alexandre Gabriel FRANCHIN About the authors

ABSTRACT

Birds are considered bioindicators of environmental quality because they are sensitive to environmental changes. The eared dove (Zenaida auriculata) is associated with open areas, has low sensitivity to environmental changes and is widely distributed in Brazil, although it is not typically found in the Amazon region. We analyzed the biogeographic expansion of this species in the Brazilian Amazon through searches carried out on digital citizen science platforms. The records of Z. auriculata were related with the area of accumulated deforestation in the biome. We identified 804 records of Z. auriculata in the Brazilian Amazon, of which 259 were in areas where its occurrence had been previously unknown. We show that the species has been expanding its geographic distribution, clearly overlapping with deforested areas.

KEYWORDS:
deforestation; eared dove; biogeography; citizen science

RESUMO

As aves são consideradas bioindicadores de qualidade ambiental por serem sensíveis às mudanças ambientais. A avoante (Zenaida auriculata) é associada a áreas abertas, possui baixa sensibilidade às mudanças ambientais e é amplamente distribuída no Brasil, apesar de não ser tipicamente encontrada na Amazônia. Nós analisamos a expansão biogeográfica desta espécie na Amazônia brasileira por meio de buscas em plataformas digitais de ciência cidadã. Os registros obtidos de Z. auriculata foram relacionados com a área de desmatamento acumulado no bioma. Identificamos 804 registros de Z. auriculata na Amazônia brasileira, dos quais 259 em regiões onde sua ocorrência era desconhecida. Nós mostramos que a espécie vem ampliando sua distribuição geográfica em nítida sobreposição com áreas desmatadas.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE:
desmatamento; avoante; biogeografia; ciência cidadã

Many anthropogenic factors currently affect bird populations and assemblages, including hunting, invasion of exotic species, deforestation and associated forest fragmentation (Tubelis and Cavalcanti 2000Tubelis, D.P.; Cavalcanti, R.B. 2000. A comparison of bird communities in natural and disturbed non-wetland open habitats in the Cerrado’s central region, Brazil. Bird Conservation International, 10: 331-350.; Gimenes and Anjos 2003Gimenes, M.R.; Anjos, L. 2003. Efeitos da fragmentação florestal sobre as comunidades de aves. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences, 25: 391-402. ). The response to anthropogenic factors varies among species, as some benefit from anthropic interventions and expand their populations, whereas others become locally extinct (Marini and Garcia 2005Marini, M.A.; Garcia, F.I. 2005. Conservação de aves no Brasil. Megadiversidade, 1: 95-102. ).

The eared dove, Zenaida auriculata (Des Murs, 1847) (Columbidae) is a gregarious bird that can form large flocks and has a wide geographic distribution, ranging from the Caribbean to Patagonia (Sick 1997Sick, H. 1997.Ornitologia Brasileira. Nova Fronteira, Rio de Janeiro, 862p.). It occurs in practically all of the Brazilian territory, but is uncommon in the Amazon biome, except for the subspecies Z. a. marajoensis (present in the northwest of Pará state to the north of Maranhão state), Z. a. jessieae (found in the region of the lower Amazonas River), and Z. a. stenura (distributed from Colombia to Suriname and down to the northern tip of Brazil) (Pinto 1978Pinto, O.M.O. 1978. Novo Catálogo de Aves do Brasil. Empresa Gráfica da Revista dos Tribunais, São Paulo, 446p.). The species is preferentially granivorous, has low sensitivity to environmental disturbances, lives in fields and open formations, and its presence has been strongly associated with damage to crops (Silva and Guadagnin 2018Silva, G.G.; Guadagnin, D.L. 2018. Effect of land use in seasonal abundance of Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata) in Southwestern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 78: 18-24.). It is also found in several Brazilian urban centers (Fontoura and Orsi 2014Fontoura, P.M.; Orsi, M.L. 2014. Comparative population densities of three species of doves (Columbidae) in disturbed landscapes in Northern Paraná State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22: 245-250.).

In recent decades, there have been increasing sightings of the eared dove where it had not been recorded before in the Amazon region, in new open areas due to deforestation (eBird 2020eBird. 2020. Eared Dove - Distribution map. ( (https://ebird.org/map/eardov1 ). Accessed on 15 Aug 2020.
https://ebird.org/map/eardov1...
; Táxeus 2020Táxeus. 2020. Zenaida auriculata (avoante) - Distribuição e classificação. ( (https://www.taxeus.com.br/especie/zenaida-auriculata ). Accessed on 14 Aug 2020.
https://www.taxeus.com.br/especie/zenaid...
; WikiAves 2020WikiAves. 2020. Zenaida auriculata (avoante). ( (https://www.wikiaves.com.br/wiki/avoante ). Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.
https://www.wikiaves.com.br/wiki/avoante...
). Here we provide a review of records of Z. auriculata in the Brazilian Amazon documented in community science platforms.

We searched digital citizen science platforms (WikiAves, eBird, and Táxeus), which are large databases of records of Brazilian species by both academics and laymen, to find previously undocumented appearances of the species in the Amazon biome. The search period was 1982 to 2020, using Zenaida auriculata as search term. Subsequently, we filtered the records for locations in the Amazon biome. For eBird and Táxeus, we included the records of the lists that contained the species. In Wikiaves, we analyzed the sound and photographic database of the species and excluded erroneous records (species misidentified as Z. auriculata). To assess the relation between bird records and deforested areas, the QGIS software was used to overlay the location points of Z. auriculata on a map of accumulated deforestation between 1988 and 2019 in the Amazon biome, provided by the National Institute for Space Research (Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais - INPE).

We identified 804 records of Z. auriculata in the Brazilian Amazon, the oldest in 1982 and most recent in 2020. Of these, 259 records (32.2%) were from areas where the species was not previously known to occur (IUCN 2021IUCN. 2021. Red list of threatened species (Zenaida auriculata). ( (https://www.iucnredlist.org/search?query=Zenaida%20auriculata&searchType=species ). Accessed on 22 Apr 2021.
https://www.iucnredlist.org/search?query...
). The data compilation showed that all records of Z. auriculata outside its known distribution area occurred in deforested areas (Figure 1), and most of them occurred in the last six years of the survey period (2014 - 2020) (Table 1).

Figure 1
Records of eared dove, Zenaida auriculata in the Amazon biome in Brazil overlayed on a map showing the accumulated deforestation in the region from 1982 to 2020. Geographic coordinate system: Datum Sirgas (2000); Cartographic sources: IBGE (2020), INPE (2021INPE. 2021. Map of accumulated deforestaion in the Amazon. ( (http://terrabrasilis.dpi.inpe.br/ ). Accessed on 10 May 2021.
http://terrabrasilis.dpi.inpe.br/...
), IUCN (2021IUCN. 2021. Red list of threatened species (Zenaida auriculata). ( (https://www.iucnredlist.org/search?query=Zenaida%20auriculata&searchType=species ). Accessed on 22 Apr 2021.
https://www.iucnredlist.org/search?query...
). This figure is in color in the electronic version.

Table 1
Records of eared dove (Zenaida auriculata) in the Brazilian Amazon in three digital citizen science platforms. * = locality in area not previously registered as occurrence area of the species according to IUCN (2021IUCN. 2021. Red list of threatened species (Zenaida auriculata). ( (https://www.iucnredlist.org/search?query=Zenaida%20auriculata&searchType=species ). Accessed on 22 Apr 2021.
https://www.iucnredlist.org/search?query...
).

Ranvaud et al. (2001Ranvaud, R.; Freitas, K.C.; Bucher, E.H.; Dias, H.S.; Avanzo, V.C.; Alberts, C.C. 2001. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, AVES, Columbidae) in a sugar-cane colony in South-Eastern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 61: 651-660.) demonstrated how Z. auriculata easily takes advantage of agricultural crops, adapting its diet to different types of grains. This is possibly the reason why populations of Z. auriculata are dispersing to deforested areas, which are, to a large extent, being occupied by crops such as soybean and maize. Corn and soybean seedlings are among the main food items of the species (Okawa et al. 1999Okawa, H.; Martinho, P.R.R.; Ranvaud, R.; Dias, H.S. 1999. Custos do afugentamento da pomba-amargosa, Zenaida auriculata, na cultura da soja, no médio paranapanema, safra 1998/99. Informações Econômicas, 31: 7-22.; Ranvaud et al. 2001; Cândido Jr. et al. 2008Cândido Jr, J. F.; Snak, C.; Castaldelli, A.P.A.; Brocardo, C.R.; Model, K.J. 2008. Dieta de avoantes (Zenaida auriculata Des Murs, 1847) atropeladas na BR-277 entre Cascavel e Foz do Iguaçu-PR e implicações para seu manejo.Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 6: 68-69..).

There are populations of Z. auriculata that migrate seasonally from southern states such as São Paulo and Paraná to the Brazilian northeastern region (Bucher 1982Bucher, E.H. 1982. Colonial Breeding of the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata) in Northeastern Brazil. Biotropica, 14: 255-261.; Souza et al. 2007Souza, E.A.; Telino-Júnior, W.R.; Nascimento, J.L.X.; Lyra-Neves, R.M.; Júnior, S.M.A.; Filho, C.L.; Neto, A.S. 2007. Estimativas populacionais de avoantes (Zenaida auriculata, Aves Columbidae, DesMurs, 1847) em colônias reprodutivas no Nordeste do Brasil. Ornithologia , 2: 28-33.; Oliveira et al. 2016Oliveira, A.C.; Barbosa, A.E.A.; Sousa, A.E.B.A.; Lugarini, C.; Lima, D.M.; Nascimento, J.L.X. et al. 2016. Relatório Anual de Rotas e Áreas de Concentração de Aves Migratórias no Brasil. CEMAVE/ICMBio. (https://www.icmbio.gov.br/cemave/destaques-e-noticias/240-cemave-publica-relatorio-sobre-rotas-de-aves-migratorias.html)
https://www.icmbio.gov.br/cemave/destaqu...
), which suggests that other populations can establish migratory routes to the Amazon if they finds favorable conditions there.

Historically, some species have been favored by the anthropization of natural environments, or even by deforestation (Rutt et al. 2019Rutt, C.L.; Jirinec, V.; Cohn-Haft, M.; Laurance, W.F.; Stouffer, P.C. 2019. Avian ecological succession in the Amazon: A long-term case study following experimental deforestation. Ecology and Evolution, 9: 13850-13861.). These species are less sensitive to changes, are easily adaptable to ecological niches in open areas that result from deforestation. For example, Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) has been reported to expand to the Amazon (Aguiar 2010Aguiar, K.M.O. 2010. Primeiro registro documentado de expansão geográfica da lavadeira-mascarada Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) para a Amazônia. Ornithologia, 4: 74-75.), to southern Brazil (Straube et al. 2007Straube, F.C.; Urben-Filho, A.; Deconto, L.R.; Patrial, E.W. 2007. Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) nos estados do Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul e sua expansão de distribuição geográfica pelo sul do Brasil. Atualidades Ornitológicas, 137: 33-38.) and to regions with anthropogenic desertification in the state of São Paulo (Willis 1991Willis, E.O. 1991. Expansão geográfica de Netta erythrophthalma, Fluvicola nengeta e outras aves de zonas abertas com a “desertificação” antrópica em São Paulo. Ararajuba, 2: 101-102. ). Another columbid, Patagioenas picazuro (Temminck, 1813), also exploited the effects of deforestation that turned the Brazilian southeast drier and more pastoral, to settle in the region (Willis and Oniki 1987Willis, E.O.; Oniki, Y. 1987. Invasion of deforested regions of São Paulo state by the picazuro pigeon, Columba picazuro Temminck, 1813. Ciência e Cultura, 39: 1064-1065.). Zenaida auriculata seems to be following this pattern in the Amazon region.

Borges et al. (2017Borges, S.H.; Whittaker, A.; Almeida, R.; Cornelius, C.; Santos-Jr, M.A.; Moreira, M. 2017. Bird record in the northwestern and central portions of the Amazon basin highlight the needs for inventories and long-term monitoring in the region. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 25: 206-220.) report the presence of Vanellus chilensis (Molina, 1782), Elaenia flavogaster (Thunberg, 1822), Athene cunicularia (Molina, 1782) and Geranoaetus albicaudatus (Vieillot, 1816) in the central Amazon, which further indicates the colonization of this region by bird species not normally associated with the Amazon biome and calls for long-term monitoring to better understand this colonization dynamics.

Zenaida auriculata is a species with great adaptive plasticity, benefiting from anthropization due to its ability to live in cities or agricultural landscapes (Cândido Jr. et al. 2008Cândido Jr, J. F.; Snak, C.; Castaldelli, A.P.A.; Brocardo, C.R.; Model, K.J. 2008. Dieta de avoantes (Zenaida auriculata Des Murs, 1847) atropeladas na BR-277 entre Cascavel e Foz do Iguaçu-PR e implicações para seu manejo.Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 6: 68-69..), two scenarios that result from deforestation. This may explain how this species has been expanding its distribution and colonizing different areas of the Brazilian Amazon, given the drastic changes that have taken place in this biome. Given that most records are quite recent, future monitoring will determine whether these populations establish themselves permanently in these areas, e.g., by strating to reproduce. Finally, we emphasize the relevance of data provided by citizen science platforms in determining the range expansion of Z. auriculata. These platforms can be a valuable source of information for the monitoring of bird distribution, particularly in scenarios of rapid environmental.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are immensely grateful to the WikiAves platform for providing the stimulus to ornithological knowledge. We would also like to thank the reviewers and editors for comments and suggestions that substantially contributed to the improvement of the manuscript.

REFERENCES

  • Aguiar, K.M.O. 2010. Primeiro registro documentado de expansão geográfica da lavadeira-mascarada Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) para a Amazônia. Ornithologia, 4: 74-75.
  • Borges, S.H.; Whittaker, A.; Almeida, R.; Cornelius, C.; Santos-Jr, M.A.; Moreira, M. 2017. Bird record in the northwestern and central portions of the Amazon basin highlight the needs for inventories and long-term monitoring in the region. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 25: 206-220.
  • Bucher, E.H. 1982. Colonial Breeding of the Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata) in Northeastern Brazil. Biotropica, 14: 255-261.
  • Cândido Jr, J. F.; Snak, C.; Castaldelli, A.P.A.; Brocardo, C.R.; Model, K.J. 2008. Dieta de avoantes (Zenaida auriculata Des Murs, 1847) atropeladas na BR-277 entre Cascavel e Foz do Iguaçu-PR e implicações para seu manejo.Revista Brasileira de Biociências, 6: 68-69..
  • eBird. 2020. Eared Dove - Distribution map. ( (https://ebird.org/map/eardov1 ). Accessed on 15 Aug 2020.
    » https://ebird.org/map/eardov1
  • Fontoura, P.M.; Orsi, M.L. 2014. Comparative population densities of three species of doves (Columbidae) in disturbed landscapes in Northern Paraná State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 22: 245-250.
  • Gimenes, M.R.; Anjos, L. 2003. Efeitos da fragmentação florestal sobre as comunidades de aves. Acta Scientiarum Biological Sciences, 25: 391-402.
  • INPE. 2021. Map of accumulated deforestaion in the Amazon. ( (http://terrabrasilis.dpi.inpe.br/ ). Accessed on 10 May 2021.
    » http://terrabrasilis.dpi.inpe.br/
  • IUCN. 2021. Red list of threatened species (Zenaida auriculata). ( (https://www.iucnredlist.org/search?query=Zenaida%20auriculata&searchType=species ). Accessed on 22 Apr 2021.
    » https://www.iucnredlist.org/search?query=Zenaida%20auriculata&searchType=species
  • Marini, M.A.; Garcia, F.I. 2005. Conservação de aves no Brasil. Megadiversidade, 1: 95-102.
  • Oliveira, A.C.; Barbosa, A.E.A.; Sousa, A.E.B.A.; Lugarini, C.; Lima, D.M.; Nascimento, J.L.X. et al 2016. Relatório Anual de Rotas e Áreas de Concentração de Aves Migratórias no Brasil. CEMAVE/ICMBio. (https://www.icmbio.gov.br/cemave/destaques-e-noticias/240-cemave-publica-relatorio-sobre-rotas-de-aves-migratorias.html)
    » https://www.icmbio.gov.br/cemave/destaques-e-noticias/240-cemave-publica-relatorio-sobre-rotas-de-aves-migratorias.html
  • Okawa, H.; Martinho, P.R.R.; Ranvaud, R.; Dias, H.S. 1999. Custos do afugentamento da pomba-amargosa, Zenaida auriculata, na cultura da soja, no médio paranapanema, safra 1998/99. Informações Econômicas, 31: 7-22.
  • Pinto, O.M.O. 1978. Novo Catálogo de Aves do Brasil Empresa Gráfica da Revista dos Tribunais, São Paulo, 446p.
  • Ranvaud, R.; Freitas, K.C.; Bucher, E.H.; Dias, H.S.; Avanzo, V.C.; Alberts, C.C. 2001. Diet of Eared Doves (Zenaida auriculata, AVES, Columbidae) in a sugar-cane colony in South-Eastern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 61: 651-660.
  • Rutt, C.L.; Jirinec, V.; Cohn-Haft, M.; Laurance, W.F.; Stouffer, P.C. 2019. Avian ecological succession in the Amazon: A long-term case study following experimental deforestation. Ecology and Evolution, 9: 13850-13861.
  • Sick, H. 1997.Ornitologia Brasileira Nova Fronteira, Rio de Janeiro, 862p.
  • Silva, G.G.; Guadagnin, D.L. 2018. Effect of land use in seasonal abundance of Eared Dove (Zenaida auriculata) in Southwestern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 78: 18-24.
  • Souza, E.A.; Telino-Júnior, W.R.; Nascimento, J.L.X.; Lyra-Neves, R.M.; Júnior, S.M.A.; Filho, C.L.; Neto, A.S. 2007. Estimativas populacionais de avoantes (Zenaida auriculata, Aves Columbidae, DesMurs, 1847) em colônias reprodutivas no Nordeste do Brasil. Ornithologia , 2: 28-33.
  • Straube, F.C.; Urben-Filho, A.; Deconto, L.R.; Patrial, E.W. 2007. Fluvicola nengeta (Linnaeus, 1766) nos estados do Paraná e Mato Grosso do Sul e sua expansão de distribuição geográfica pelo sul do Brasil. Atualidades Ornitológicas, 137: 33-38.
  • Táxeus. 2020. Zenaida auriculata (avoante) - Distribuição e classificação. ( (https://www.taxeus.com.br/especie/zenaida-auriculata ). Accessed on 14 Aug 2020.
    » https://www.taxeus.com.br/especie/zenaida-auriculata
  • Tubelis, D.P.; Cavalcanti, R.B. 2000. A comparison of bird communities in natural and disturbed non-wetland open habitats in the Cerrado’s central region, Brazil. Bird Conservation International, 10: 331-350.
  • Willis, E.O.; Oniki, Y. 1987. Invasion of deforested regions of São Paulo state by the picazuro pigeon, Columba picazuro Temminck, 1813. Ciência e Cultura, 39: 1064-1065.
  • Willis, E.O. 1991. Expansão geográfica de Netta erythrophthalma, Fluvicola nengeta e outras aves de zonas abertas com a “desertificação” antrópica em São Paulo. Ararajuba, 2: 101-102.
  • WikiAves. 2020. Zenaida auriculata (avoante). ( (https://www.wikiaves.com.br/wiki/avoante ). Accessed on 16 Jun 2020.
    » https://www.wikiaves.com.br/wiki/avoante

  • CITE AS:

    Ortúzar-Ferreira, C.N.; Tavares, G.M.; Franchin, A.G. 2022. Territorial expansion of Zenaida auriculata (Aves: Columbidae) in the Brazilian Amazon. Acta Amazonica 52: 166-171.

ASSOCIATE EDITOR

Sérgio H. Borges

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    15 July 2022
  • Date of issue
    Apr-Jun 2022

History

  • Received
    15 Sept 2021
  • Accepted
    18 Feb 2022
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