I report on nectar robbing behavior of the wedge-billed hummingbird, Schistes geoffroyi (Trochilidae) on the Andean bellflower, Centropogon granulosus (Campanulaceae). Many species of Centropogon are characterized by an abruptly curved corolla tube which is likely specialized for pollination by sicklebill hummingbirds (Eutoxeres), as evident from the matching curvature of flower and bill. Nectar robbing has been documented for some Centropogon spp., but not for sicklebill pollinated C. granulosus. Given recent developments and interest in the Centropogon-sicklebill mutualism, it is pertinent to document any natural history observations that may underlie the ecology and evolution of this pollination system. The establishment of wedge-billed hummingbird as a nectar robber of C. granulosus calls for a new assessment of the ecology and evolution of the highly specialized Centropogon-sicklebill mutualism.
nectar robbing; bird pollination; neotropical bellflowers; Schistes geoffroyi; co-evolution