The wood anatomy of 33 species of Brazilian Guttiferae were studied, belonging to the genera Caraipa, Calophyllum, Clusia. Haploclathra, Kielmeyera, Lorostemon, Mahurea, Moronobea, Platonia, Rheedia, Symphonia, Tovomita and Vismia. Rhombic crystals of calcium oxalate were seen in the radial cells of Caraipa grandiflora and Symphonia globulifera and in the axial parenchyma cells of Caraipa grandiflora, Platonia insignis, Rheedia Benthamiana, Symphonia globulifera, Tovomita mangle and Kielmeyera coriacea. Intercellular radial canals occur in Rheedia macrophylla and Rheedia sp; unilateral axial parenchyma in Caraipa grandiflora, C. densiflora, C. psidifolia, C. volioi, Haploclathra leiantha, H. paniculata, H. verticillata and Tovomita macrophylla; vascular elements with "cribiform" areas in Caraipa densiflora, C. psidifolia, Calophyllum brasiliense and Haploclathra verticillata; and abundant silica bodies in the rays of Tovomita. Anatomical characters that distinguish genera are the intervascular pitting, the unilateral and zonal parenchyma, the uni and multiseriate rays, and the distribution of vessels. In general, the wood of Guttiferae has quite a heterogeneous anatomical structure which can be used as an aid in the identification of genera and species.