Accessibility / Report Error

Sunflower protein concentrate and crambe protein concentrate in diets for silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824): use as sustainable ingredients

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate growth and metabolic parameters of silver catfish fed with protein concentrates of sunflower meal (SMPC) and crambe meal (CrMPC). The study evaluated two levels of substitution, where 25 or 50% of animal protein was replaced with plant-based protein. A total of 300 silver catfish (14 ± 0.26 g) were used in five treatments and three replications, in fifteen 280-liter experimental units. The results were submitted to analysis of variance and the means of the control diet was compared to the remaining treatments by Dunnett’s test at 5% significance level. At the end of the trial, no differences were observed for the variables final weight and daily weight gain. However, minor feed conversion was observed in the groups Control and SMPC-25%. Metabolic parameters were analyzed in the plasma and liver, where no significant differences were found for any of the blood parameters analyzed. In the analyzed liver parameters (ammonia, protein, amino acids and ALAT), the liver protein content was lower in fish consuming SMPC-50%, CrMPC-50% and 25% CrMPC diets. The amino acids content was higher in fish receiving the SMPC-25% diet. It can be concluded that sunflower meal protein concentrate is better utilized by fish and more efficient metabolically than crambe meal. This study demonstrated that a newly developed protein concentrate SMPC and CrMPC can effectively replace 25% and 50% the animal protein in a diet free of FM.

Key words
Crambe abyssinica; fish feeding; Helianthus annus; jundiá; liver metabolism; plant-based protein concentrates

INTRODUCTION

Fish diet formulation aims to obtain highly digestible, nutritionally balanced, economically viable and low environmental impact products (Shiau 2002SHIAU SY. 2002. Tilapia, Oreochromis spp. In: Webster CD and Lim C (Eds), Nutrient Requirement and Feeding of Finfish for Aquaculture. London: CABI Publishing, p. 273-292.). This concern is mainly related to protein sources, which is the main ingredient in fish nutrition (Cabral et al. 2011CABRAL EM, BACELAR M, BATISTA S, CASTRO-CUNHA M, OZÓRIO ROA AND VALENTE LMP. 2011. Replacement of fish meal by increasing levels of plant protein blends in diets for Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles. Aquaculture 322-323: 74-81.). Normally, the main protein source used in fish nutrition is of animal origin, such as fish meal (Santigosa et al. 2011SANTIGOSA E, GARCÍA-MEILÁN I, VALENTIN JM, PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ J, MÉDALE F, KAUSHIK S AND GALLARDO MA. 2011. Modifications of intestinal nutrient absorption in response to dietary fish meal replacement by plant protein sources in sea bream (Sparus aurata) and rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 317: 146-154.), due to its high nutritional value and balance in essential amino acids (Gatlin et al. 2007GATLIN DM ET AL. 2007. Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquacult Res 38: 551-579., Larsen et al. 2012LARSEN BK, DALSGAARD J AND PEDERSEN PB. 2012. Effects of plant proteins on post prandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 326-329: 90-98.).

However, increasing demand, high price and supply fluctuations, makes it a priority to find an alternative replacement to animal protein sources (Larsen et al. 2012). Soybean meal (SBM) is by far the most widely used vegetable protein source in fish diets, followed by sources from other oleaginous plants such as sunflower meal and crambe meal. Leguminous seeds are also good dietary protein sources, particularly if they are locally produced, contributing to the sustainability and cost-effectiveness of fish-farming (Gatlin et al. 2007GATLIN DM ET AL. 2007. Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquacult Res 38: 551-579., Kaushik and Hemre 2010KAUSHIK S AND HEMRE GI. 2010. Plant proteins as alternative sources for fish feed and farmed fish quality. In: Lie Ø (Ed), Improving farmed fish quality and safety, Cambridge: CRC Press, p. 300-319.).

The use of plant-based protein sources in fish feeds has expanded considerably in recent years to meet the demand for feeds and sustain the development of worldwide aquaculture production (Tacon and Metian 2015TACON AGJ AND METIAN M. 2015. Feed Matters: Satisfying the Feed Demand of Aquaculture. Rev Fish Sci 23(1): 1-10.). This protein sources in aquaculture is still challenging, since information on the bioavailability of nutrients are controversial (Cabral et al. 2011) and restraints. The low palatability (Gatlin et al. 2007), imbalance in the amino acid profile (Santigosa et al. 2008SANTIGOSA E, SANCHÉS J, MÉDALE F, KAUSHIK S, PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ J AND GALLARDO MA. 2008. Modifications of digestive enzymes in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) in response to dietary fish meal replacement by plant protein sources. Aquaculture 282: 68-74.) and intrinsic antinutritional factors (Gatlin et al. 2007GATLIN DM ET AL. 2007. Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquacult Res 38: 551-579., Mérida et al. 2010MÉRIDA SN, VIDAL AT, LLORENS SM AND CERDÁ MJ. 2010. Sunflower meal as a partial substitute in juvenile sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo) diets: Amino acid retention, gut and liver histology. Aquaculture 298: 275-281.) often restrict its use.

Many studies have focused on the use of plant-based protein sources as sustainable replacements of animal protein sources in fish diets (Gatlin et al. 2007GATLIN DM ET AL. 2007. Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquacult Res 38: 551-579., Tacon and Metian 2008TACON AGJ AND METIAN M. 2008. Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture 285: 146-158., Hardy 2010HARDY RW. 2010. Utilization of plant proteins in fish diets: effects of global demand and supplies of fishmeal. Aquacult Res 41: 770-776., Cabral et al. 2011CABRAL EM, BACELAR M, BATISTA S, CASTRO-CUNHA M, OZÓRIO ROA AND VALENTE LMP. 2011. Replacement of fish meal by increasing levels of plant protein blends in diets for Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles. Aquaculture 322-323: 74-81., Lovatto et al. 2015LOVATTO NM, GOULART FR, FREITAS ST, MOMBACH PI, BENDER ABB, BOLIGON AA, RADÜNZ NETO J AND SILVA LP. 2015. Nutritional evaluation of phosphorylated pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata) protein concentrate in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824). Fish Physiol Biochem 41(6): 1557-1567.). Among the potential protein sources, sunflower meal (Helianthus annuus) and crambe meal (Crambe abyssinica) are mentioned. Studies using sunflower meal in fish feed, in different proportions, showed that substitution levels are around 15% for different species (Olvera-Novoa et al. 2002OLVERA-NOVOA MA, OLIVERA-CASTILLO LE AND MÁRTINEZ-PALACIOS CA. 2002. Sunflower seed meal as a protein source in diets for Tilapia rendalli (Boulanger, 1896) fingerlings. Aquacult Res 33: 223-229., Lozano et al. 2007LOZANO NBS, VIDAL AT, MARTINÉZ-LLORENS S, MÉRIDA SN, BLANCO JE, LÓPEZ AM, TORRES MA AND CERDÁ MJ. 2007. Growth and economic profit of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed sunflower meal. Aquaculture 272: 528-534., Mérida et al. 2010MÉRIDA SN, VIDAL AT, LLORENS SM AND CERDÁ MJ. 2010. Sunflower meal as a partial substitute in juvenile sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo) diets: Amino acid retention, gut and liver histology. Aquaculture 298: 275-281.) low content lysine and methionine, high fiber content and the presence of antinutritional factors being the limiting aspects. Studies on crambe meal are scarce and there are no definite guidelines for its use in fish feed. The main limiting factors are its high levels of erucic acid, the presence of glucosinolates (Fundação MS 2010FUNDAÇÃO MS. 2010. Tecnologia e Produção: Crambe 2010. Maracaju: Fundação MS, 60 p.) and antinutritional factors for fish.

The use of plant-based protein concentrates is promising as an alternative to the use of in-natura plant-based (Deng et al. 2006DENG J, MAI K, AI A, ZHANG W, WANG H, XU W AND LIUFU Z. 2006. Effects of replacing fish meal with soy protein concentrate on feed intake and growth of juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture 258: 503-513.). Concentrates enable the obtainment of protein sources with low fiber content (Salze et al. 2010SALZE G, MCLEAN E, BATTLE PR, SCHWARZ MH AND CRAIG SR. 2010. Use of soy protein concentrate and novel ingredients in the total elimination of fish meal and fish oil in diets for juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Aquaculture 298: 294-299., Larsen et al. 2012LARSEN BK, DALSGAARD J AND PEDERSEN PB. 2012. Effects of plant proteins on post prandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 326-329: 90-98.), which are free of antinutritional factors and have a better amino acid profile, favoring the digestion (Salze et al. 2010).

The increase in omnivorous fish production is a trend, because they are better adapted to plant-based ingredients (Naylor et al. 2009NAYLOR RL ET AL. 2009. Feeding aquaculture in an era of infinite resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 15103-15110.). Silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) is an omnivorous fish species, native to southern Brazil (Baldisserotto 2004), which accepts artificial diets with plant-based protein sources. Out of the possible protein sources, soybean meal is the one most commonly used (Coldebella and Radünz Neto 2002COLDEBELLA IJ AND RADÜNZ NETO J. 2002. Farelo de soja na alimentação de alevinos de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Cienc Rural 32: 499-503., Refstie et al. 2010REFSTIE S, BAEVERFJORD G, SEIM RR AND ELVEBØ O. 2010. Effects of dietary yeast cell wall β-glucans and MOS on performance, gut health, and salmon lice resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed sunflower and soybean meal. Aquaculture 305: 109-116.). However, further studies should focus on the use of different plant-based protein sources, which are underutilized and considered by-products.

This study aims to evaluate the growth and metabolic parameters of silver catfish fed diets containing sunflower meal and crambe meal protein concentrates as substitutes for different levels (25 or 50%) of animal protein.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

OBTAINING THE PLANT-BASED PROTEIN CONCENTRATES AND INGREDIENTS

Pelleted sunflower meal with hulls (Giovelli Ltda, from Cerro Largo, RS) was milled and later sifted in a granulometer, with 600 μm mesh sieves, to remove excess fibers. The crambe cake (FMS Brilhante variety - MS Foundation for Agricultural Technology Research, Maracaju/MS) was defatted with hexane (2:1 v/w) to obtain the crambe meal, which was, in turn, used to obtain the protein concentrate. Protein concentrates from sunflower and crambe meal were obtained in our laboratory using the methodology described by Smith et al. (1946)SMITH AK, JOHNSON VL AND BECKEL AC. 1946. Linseed proteins alkali dispersion and acid precipitation. J Ind Eng Chem 38: 353-356., with modifications purpose of Lovatto et al. (2017)LOVATTO NM, GOULART NM, LOUREIRO NM, SPERONI, CS, BENDER ABB, GIACOMINI SJ, RADÜNZ NETO J AND SILVA LP. 2017. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) protein concentrates: production methods and nutritional properties for use in fish feed. An Acad Bras Cienc 89(3 Suppl.): 2495-2504..

Protein enrichment methods with the following changes: 1) The protein was dispersed in an aqueous medium by processing it three times in a blender (LIQ789, Cadence, Brazil) at maximum speed for 3 minutes at room temperature; the meal was blended in water at a ratio of 1:10 – each time. 2) The ground sample was sieved a 140 µm, and the remaining solid fraction (i.e., the fraction retained in the sieve) was discarded. The liquid fraction was then used for protein extraction. 3) Protein solubilization by isoelectric pH was carried out by increasing the pH of the liquid sample to 9.0 with 1 N NaOH. To precipitate the protein, the pH of the liquid was then reduced to 4.5 with 1 N HCl. The solution was conditioned under refrigeration (8ºC) over night to promote decantation of the dispersed protein fraction, followed by discarding the supernatant and drying the concentrated protein fraction in an air recirculation oven at 50ºC for approximately 24 hours (Lovatto et al. 2017).

The soybean protein concentrate (IMCOSOY 62®) was acquired of IMCOPA, Paraná, Brazil. The pork meat meal was acquired in Fasa Group, Cruzeiro do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In southern Brazil, pork meat meal is a widely used product and used as a source of animal protein due to the large production of pigs, easily found in local trade, when compared to fish meal (FM).

EXPERIMENTAL DIETS

Four experimental diets and a control diet (Table I) were used. Two levels (25 and 50%) of partial substitution of animal protein, replaced by plant-based protein concentrates of sunflower meal (SMPC) and crambe meal (CrMPC) were evaluated. Five isoproteic and isoenergetic diets were formulated to the requirements of 37% crude protein, in accordance with Meyer and Fracalossi (2004)MEYER G AND FRACALOSSI DM. 2004. Protein requirement of jundia fingerlings, Rhamdia quelen, at two dietary energy concentrations. Aquaculture 240: 331-343. with 3.200 kcal ME kg-1 (Jobling 1983JOBLING M. 1983. A short review and critic of methodology used in fish growth and nutrition studies. J Fish Biol 23: 685-703.) and amino acids in accordance with Montes Girao and Fracalossi (2006)MONTES-GIRAO PJ AND FRACALOSSI DM. 2006. Dietary lysine requirement as basis to estimate the essential dietary amino acid profile for jundiá, Rhamdia quelen. J World Aquacult Soc 37: 388-396.. Pork meat meal (Fasa, Brazil) and soy protein concentrate (Imcosoy 62®, Brazil) were used as protein base in the diet control. The chemical composition and amino acid profile are described in Table I.

TABLE I
Formulation, chemical composition and calculated amino acids of the experimental diets containing protein concentrate of sunflower meal and crambe meal in different proportions in diet (g kg-1).

For diets preparation, the ingredients were weighed and mixed until complete homogenization of the diets. Subsequently water was added and the pellets of the high density and size of 4mm were pelletized and later dried in an oven with forced air circulation at 50ºC for 24 hours.

GROWTH TRIAL AND SAMPLING

This study was carried out at the experimental fish farm and laboratory of the Federal University of Santa Maria (Universidade Federal de Santa Maria- UFSM) in southern Brazil. All procedures involving animals were carried out in compliance with the guidelines approved by the Committee on Research Ethics and Animal Welfare of said university, protocol number 23081.004071/2011-95. The fish were acquired from Fish Culture Station of the University of Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

A total of 300 silver catfish, with initial mean weight of 14 ± 0.26 g, were distributed into fifteen 280-litter polypropylene tanks (corresponding to 20 animals per tank), with individual water inlets and outlets, connected to a water recirculating system consisting of two biological filters with gravel, backwash system and controlled temperature. The fish were acclimated for a two week period, were fed to control feed and for seven weeks the fish were fed the experimental diets.

In the early and late experimental period (seven weeks of treatment), biometrics was performed to collect data. Animals fasted for 24 h, were anesthetized using Eugenol 20 mg.L-1 in the water (Cunha et al. 2010CUNHA MA, ZEPPENFELD CC, GARCIA LO, LORO VL, FONSECA MB, EMANUELLI T, VEECK APL, COPATTI CE AND BALDISSEROTTO B. 2010. Anesthesia of silver catfish with eugenol: time of induction, cortisol response and sensory analyses of fillet. Cienc Rural 40: 2107-2114.) and slaughtered by cervical puncture. The following data were collected: Final weight (g): final weight obtained at the end of the period; AFC: Apparent feed conversion = [(Total feed intake)/(final biomass - initial biomass)]; DWG: daily weight gain (g) = [(final weight - initial weight)/day]; survival (%) = [(Total number of fish harvested/total number of fish stocked) x 100] and hepatosomatic index (HSI) (%): [(weight of the liver/weight of the whole fish) x 100].

WATER QUALITY RECIRCULATION SYSTEM

During the experimental period, the physical/chemical variables of water quality were measured. During the trial, temperature was kept at 24.9 ± 1.5°C, oxygen concentration 6.7 ± 0.4 mg L-1, total ammonia 0.15 ± 0.06 mg L-1, nitrite 0.16 ± 0.1 mg L-1, pH 7.3 ± 0.2, Alkalinity 48.8 ± 13.7 mg CaCO3 L-1 and hardness of 56.4 ± 34.6 mg CaCO3 L-1. The levels of water quality remained ideal for temperate climate fish (Baldisserotto 2004BALDISSEROTTO B. 2004. Biologia do Jundiá. In: Baldisserotto B and Radünz Neto J (Eds), Criação de jundiá, Santa Maria: Editora UFSM, p. 67-72.).

PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY AND HEPATIC METABOLISM ASSAY

In the late experimental period, after fasting for 24 h, nine fish were captured per treatment. Blood was quickly collected from the caudal vein using heparinized syringes and the fish slaughtered by spinal cord excision behind the operculum and eviscerated to remove the liver. Thereafter, livers were quickly placed on ice and frozen at -20°C for biochemical parameters analysis. Plasma aliquots were separated after blood centrifugation at room temperature for 10 min at 1200 x g for posterior determination of plasmatic metabolic parameters: glucose, total proteins, triglycerides, cholesterol and albumin, using commercial kits (Doles® Reagents and Laboratory Equipment Ltda. Goiania, Goiás, Brazil).

Liver glycogen levels were determined according to Bidinotto et al. (1997)BIDINOTTO PM, SOUZA RHS AND MORAES G. 1997. Hepatic glycogen in eight tropical freshwater teleost fish: Procedure for field determinations of microsamples. B Técnico do CEPTA 10: 53-60.. The liver tissue was weighed (50 mg), and KOH and ethanol (1 and 3 mL, respectively) were added for hydrolysis and glycogen precipitation. For hepatic protein analysis, the tissues were heated at 100ºC with KOH and centrifuged at 1000 x g for 10 min. Supernatant was used to estimate the total protein level according to the method described by Bradford (1976)BRADFORD MMA. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72: 248-254., using bovine albumin serum as standard.

To measure hepatic amino acids, ammonia and transaminases, liver samples were mechanically disrupted by adding trichloroacetic acid 10% and the homogenate was centrifuged at 1000 x g for 10 min. The neutral supernatant extract was used for amino acid colorimetric determination according to Spies (1957)SPIES JR. 1957. Colorimetric procedures for amino acids. Methods in Enzymology 3: 467-477., using ninhydrin 1.5% in isopropyl alcohol as the color reagent. Hepatic ammonia was measured by colorimetry according to Verdouw et al. (1978). VERDOUW H, VANECHTELD CJA AND DECKKERS EMJ. 1978. Ammonia determinations based on indophenol formation with sodium salicylate. Water Res 12: 399-402.

This neutral extract was used to measure the hepatic transaminases concentration, but it was necessary to dilute the crude extract in homogenization buffer for the protein and alanine aminotransferase (ALAT) (EC 2.6.1.2). The enzymes were determined using colorimetric procedures following the protocols described in the kits (Doles®). ALAT concentration was expressed as UI. mg-1 hepatic tissue.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

The experimental design was completely randomized. The results were submitted to analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA). The means of the control diet were compared to the means of the other treatments by the Dunnett’s test at the 5% level of significance, using SPSS 8.0 software.

RESULTS

GROWTH PARAMETERS, SURVIVAL AND HEPATOSOMATIC INDEX

No differences (P>0.05) were observed in the final weight and daily weight gain (DWG) (Table II) of fish fed diets containing 25 or 50% SMPC and CrMPC when compared to the fish that received the control diet. The best (P<0.05) feed conversion (FC) was observed in the Control and SMPC-25% treatments. Lower efficiency in FC was observed for fish receiving the SMPC-50%, CrMPC-50% and CrPC-25% diets (Table II). No difference (P>0.05) was observed for survival, in all treatments survival was 100 %.

TABLE II
Growth parameters, survival and hepatosomatic index of silver catfish juveniles of different experimental groups fed different experimental diets.

The fish submitted to the experimental diets showed no difference (P>0.05) regarding the hepatosomatic index (HSI) (Table II).

PLASMA BIOCHEMISTRY ASSAY

Plasmatic levels of glucose, total proteins, albumin, cholesterol and triglycerides (Table III) did not differ (P>0.05) of fish fed diets containing 25 or 50% SMPC and CrMPC when compared to the control treatment.

TABLE III
Plasma biochemistry values for silver catfish of different experimental groups fed different experimental diets.

HEPATIC METABOLISM ASSAY

There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in hepatic ammonia levels among tested diets (Table IV). Lower content (P<0.05) of hepatic protein was observed in fish from diets SMPC-50%, CrMPC-50% and CrMPC-25% when compared to the control diet. The hepatic protein content of the fish fed the SMPC-25% diet did not differ (P>0.05) from the control diet (Table IV). There was an increase (P<0.05) in free amino acids content in the liver of fish fed the SMPC-25% diet (Table IV). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) in ALAT hepatic activity for fish fed diets containing the plant-based protein concentrates when compared to the control diet (Table IV).

TABLE IV
Hepatic biochemistry values for silver catfish of different experimental groups fed different experimental diets.

DISCUSSION

Diets containing plant-based protein concentrates (SMPC- 25% and 50% and CrMPC- 25% and 50%) provided similar growth rates to those observed in the control diet. These results confirm the efficiency of the concentrates as protein sources in the diet of silver catfish (R. quelen). The FC of the fish submitted to the SMPC-25% treatment may be related to the better protein quality of the diets. Furthermore, the values found for FC are similar to those observed in other studies (Piedras et al. 2004PIEDRAS SRN, MORAES PRR AND POUEY JLOF. 2004. Crescimento de juvenis de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen), de acordo com a temperatura da água. Instit de Pesca 30: 177-182., Freitas et al. 2011FREITAS JMA, SARY C, LUCHESI JD, FEIDEN A AND BOSCOLO WR. 2011. Proteína e energia na dieta de jundiás criados em tanques-rede. R Bras Zootec 40: 2628-2633.). Increased HSI is generally observed for fish fed diets containing high levels of carbohydrates (Debnath et al. 2007DEBNATH D, PAL AK, SAHU NP, YENGKOKPAM S, BARUAH K, CHOUDHURY D AND VENKATESHWARLU G. 2007. Digestive enzymes and metabolic profile of Labeo rohita fingerlings fed diets with different crude protein levels. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B 146: 107-114.) in association to the increase in hepatic glycogen content, which was not observed in our study.

Borges et al. (2004)BORGES A, SCOTTI LV, SIQUEIRA DR, JURINITZ DF AND WASSERMANN GF. 2004. Hematologic and serum biochemical values for jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Fish Physiol Biochem 30(1): 21-25. observed blood reference parameters in silver catfish, which were similar to those found in the present study, and no differences were observed among the treatments tested. This demonstrates that plasmatic levels were not altered by the use of plant protein concentrates in the diet of silver catfish juveniles.

The maintenance of normal levels of total circulating proteins is indicative of protein catabolism, which means that the protein in the diet is being used and metabolized, because when blood protein levels are low, liver protein synthesis is impaired (Lieberman et al. 2007LIEBERMAN M, MARKS AD AND SMITH C. 2007. Marks’ Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, 2nd ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 920 p.). In addition, serum albumin serves as an indicator of dietary protein quality (Lehninger et al. 2004)LEHNINGER AL, NELSON DL AND COX MM. 2004. Principles of Biochemistry: 4th ed., New York: WH Freeman, 1119 p. and the results may suggest that plant-based protein concentrates have provided the necessary protein for fish development.

The fish that received the diets containing CrMPC-25% and 50% also had lower levels of hepatic protein, when compared to the fish on the control diet. This fact may have occurred due to the glycogen mobilization in fish being slow and the gluconeogenic pathway by synthesizing glucose through carbon skeletons (Halver and Hardy 2002)HALVER JE AND HARDY RW. 2002. Nutrient Flow and Retention. In: Halver JE (Ed), Fish nutrition, 3rd revised, New York: Academic Press, p. 755-770. being preferred, since the fish fed those same diets (CrMPC-25% and CrMPC-50%) also had lower rates of hepatic glycogen. According to Bombardelli et al. (2003)BOMBARDELLI RA, MEURER F AND SYPERRECK MA. 2003. Metabolismo proteico em peixes. Arq Ciênc Vet Zool 7: 69-79., in a fasting state fish first mobilize the protein pool and pool of circulating amino acids before mobilizing hepatic glycogen, suggesting that the use of glycogen stock is performed when dietary proteins are not catabolized correctly.

In our study, there was no increase in hepatic ammonia. Lund et al. (2011)LUND I, DALSGAARD J, RASMUSSEN HT, HOLM J AND JOKUMSEN A. 2011. Replacement of fish meal with a matrix of organic plant proteins in organic trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feed. Aquaculture 321: 259-266. have shown that ammonia excretion is high in fish diets containing plant-based protein sources. This trend was not evidenced in our study, thus, it is suggested that the protein concentrates used in the diets presented adequate nutritional value. Larsen et al. (2012) found higher levels of ammonia for Oncorhynchus mykiss using plant-based protein sources, suggesting less efficient use of dietary proteins, unlike our results. Vieira et al. (2005)VIEIRA VP, INOUEB LAK AND MORAES G. 2005. Metabolic responses of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus) to dietary protein level. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 140(3): 337-342. reported that the increase in free amino acid content in the liver is related to the higher synthesis of dietary protein. In fish, it is known that tissue amino acid levels are affected by both the amount and quality of the dietary protein (Yamamoto et al. 2000YAMAMOTO T, UNUMA T AND AKIYAMA T. 2000. The influence of dietary protein and fat levels on tissue free amino acid levels of fingerling rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 180: 353-372.). The same authors have found a high correlation between the protein and amino acids contained in the diet, with those contained in the tissues (blood, liver and muscle).

Authors report that fish fed diets containing plant-based protein sources have lower ALAT activity in the liver, indicating that the protein transamination was not suppressed (Gómez-Requeni et al. 2004GÓMEZ-REQUENI P, MINGARRO M, CALDUCH-GINER JA, MÉDALE F, MARTIN SAM, HOULIHAN DF, KAUSHIK S AND PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ J. 2004. Protein growth performance, amino acid utilisation and somatotropic axis responsiveness to fish meal replacement by plant protein sources in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 232: 493-510., Hansen et al. 2007HANSEN AC, ROSENLUND G, KARLSEN Ø, KOPPE W AND HEMRE GI. 2007. Total replacement of fish meal with plant proteins in diets for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) I — Effects on growth and protein retention. Aquaculture 272: 599-611.).

The study of the metabolism within fish liver is crucial to elucidate and understand how well silver catfish diets adapt to different protein sources. Since the use of plant-based protein sources tends to increase linearly in feeding omnivorous fish (Naylor et al. 2009), it is likely that the dietary source will directly affect the endogenous protein/amino acid metabolism (Larsen et al. 2012).

In our study it was observed that among the protein concentrates obtained from different co-products, the SMPC was more metabolically efficient and better utilized by the fish than the CrMPC. The fish that received the SMPC-25% diet had the best metabolic efficiency of the ingredients. Further studies are needed to confirm the use of these proteins concentrates in the diet of silver catfish. From the production of protein concentrates on an industrial scale, up to carrying out a study with a longer experimental period, aiming at growth and fattening of the fish.

Is essential for the future development of global feed aquaculture that continued to develop new obtention feed products that are ethical, economical and sustainable. The FM based feeds become more expensive, due to increases, and then the protein demand will need to be met using largely plant-based alternatives and processing by-products from other industries (Bell et al. 2016BELL JG, STRACHAN F, ROY WJ, MATTHEW C, MCDONALD P, BARROWS FT AND SPRAGUE M. 2016. Evaluation of barley protein concentrate and fish protein concentrate, made from trimmings, as sustainable ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) feeds. Aquacult Nutr 22: 326-334.).

This study demonstrated that a newly developed protein concentrate SMPC and CrMPC can effectively replace 25% and 50% the animal protein in a diet free of FM. However, the results indicate that SMPC was more metabolically efficient and better utilized by the fish than CrMPC. Furthermore, data demonstrate that it is possible to use only 15% of animal protein, in diets whit SMPC for silver catfish, without prejudice to the growth and hepatic metabolism of fish.

ACKNOWLEGMENTS

The authors would like to thank the Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia (MCT) / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), the Fundo Setorial do Agronegócio (CT-AGRO – MCT/CNPq), the Ministério da Pesca e Aquicultura (MPA), and CNPq for the Master’s scholarship awarded.

REFERENCES

  • BALDISSEROTTO B. 2004. Biologia do Jundiá. In: Baldisserotto B and Radünz Neto J (Eds), Criação de jundiá, Santa Maria: Editora UFSM, p. 67-72.
  • BELL JG, STRACHAN F, ROY WJ, MATTHEW C, MCDONALD P, BARROWS FT AND SPRAGUE M. 2016. Evaluation of barley protein concentrate and fish protein concentrate, made from trimmings, as sustainable ingredients in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) feeds. Aquacult Nutr 22: 326-334.
  • BIDINOTTO PM, SOUZA RHS AND MORAES G. 1997. Hepatic glycogen in eight tropical freshwater teleost fish: Procedure for field determinations of microsamples. B Técnico do CEPTA 10: 53-60.
  • BOMBARDELLI RA, MEURER F AND SYPERRECK MA. 2003. Metabolismo proteico em peixes. Arq Ciênc Vet Zool 7: 69-79.
  • BORGES A, SCOTTI LV, SIQUEIRA DR, JURINITZ DF AND WASSERMANN GF. 2004. Hematologic and serum biochemical values for jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Fish Physiol Biochem 30(1): 21-25.
  • BRADFORD MMA. 1976. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72: 248-254.
  • CABRAL EM, BACELAR M, BATISTA S, CASTRO-CUNHA M, OZÓRIO ROA AND VALENTE LMP. 2011. Replacement of fish meal by increasing levels of plant protein blends in diets for Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles. Aquaculture 322-323: 74-81.
  • COLDEBELLA IJ AND RADÜNZ NETO J. 2002. Farelo de soja na alimentação de alevinos de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Cienc Rural 32: 499-503.
  • CUNHA MA, ZEPPENFELD CC, GARCIA LO, LORO VL, FONSECA MB, EMANUELLI T, VEECK APL, COPATTI CE AND BALDISSEROTTO B. 2010. Anesthesia of silver catfish with eugenol: time of induction, cortisol response and sensory analyses of fillet. Cienc Rural 40: 2107-2114.
  • DEBNATH D, PAL AK, SAHU NP, YENGKOKPAM S, BARUAH K, CHOUDHURY D AND VENKATESHWARLU G. 2007. Digestive enzymes and metabolic profile of Labeo rohita fingerlings fed diets with different crude protein levels. Comp Biochem Physiol Part B 146: 107-114.
  • DENG J, MAI K, AI A, ZHANG W, WANG H, XU W AND LIUFU Z. 2006. Effects of replacing fish meal with soy protein concentrate on feed intake and growth of juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture 258: 503-513.
  • FREITAS JMA, SARY C, LUCHESI JD, FEIDEN A AND BOSCOLO WR. 2011. Proteína e energia na dieta de jundiás criados em tanques-rede. R Bras Zootec 40: 2628-2633.
  • FUNDAÇÃO MS. 2010. Tecnologia e Produção: Crambe 2010. Maracaju: Fundação MS, 60 p.
  • GATLIN DM ET AL. 2007. Expanding the utilization of sustainable plant products in aquafeeds: a review. Aquacult Res 38: 551-579.
  • GÓMEZ-REQUENI P, MINGARRO M, CALDUCH-GINER JA, MÉDALE F, MARTIN SAM, HOULIHAN DF, KAUSHIK S AND PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ J. 2004. Protein growth performance, amino acid utilisation and somatotropic axis responsiveness to fish meal replacement by plant protein sources in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 232: 493-510.
  • HALVER JE AND HARDY RW. 2002. Nutrient Flow and Retention. In: Halver JE (Ed), Fish nutrition, 3rd revised, New York: Academic Press, p. 755-770.
  • HANSEN AC, ROSENLUND G, KARLSEN Ø, KOPPE W AND HEMRE GI. 2007. Total replacement of fish meal with plant proteins in diets for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.) I — Effects on growth and protein retention. Aquaculture 272: 599-611.
  • HARDY RW. 2010. Utilization of plant proteins in fish diets: effects of global demand and supplies of fishmeal. Aquacult Res 41: 770-776.
  • JOBLING M. 1983. A short review and critic of methodology used in fish growth and nutrition studies. J Fish Biol 23: 685-703.
  • KAUSHIK S AND HEMRE GI. 2010. Plant proteins as alternative sources for fish feed and farmed fish quality. In: Lie Ø (Ed), Improving farmed fish quality and safety, Cambridge: CRC Press, p. 300-319.
  • LARSEN BK, DALSGAARD J AND PEDERSEN PB. 2012. Effects of plant proteins on post prandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 326-329: 90-98.
  • LEHNINGER AL, NELSON DL AND COX MM. 2004. Principles of Biochemistry: 4th ed., New York: WH Freeman, 1119 p.
  • LOVATTO NM, GOULART FR, FREITAS ST, MOMBACH PI, BENDER ABB, BOLIGON AA, RADÜNZ NETO J AND SILVA LP. 2015. Nutritional evaluation of phosphorylated pumpkin seed (Cucurbita moschata) protein concentrate in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824). Fish Physiol Biochem 41(6): 1557-1567.
  • LOVATTO NM, GOULART NM, LOUREIRO NM, SPERONI, CS, BENDER ABB, GIACOMINI SJ, RADÜNZ NETO J AND SILVA LP. 2017. Crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) protein concentrates: production methods and nutritional properties for use in fish feed. An Acad Bras Cienc 89(3 Suppl.): 2495-2504.
  • LIEBERMAN M, MARKS AD AND SMITH C. 2007. Marks’ Basic Medical Biochemistry: A Clinical Approach, 2nd ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 920 p.
  • LOZANO NBS, VIDAL AT, MARTINÉZ-LLORENS S, MÉRIDA SN, BLANCO JE, LÓPEZ AM, TORRES MA AND CERDÁ MJ. 2007. Growth and economic profit of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) fed sunflower meal. Aquaculture 272: 528-534.
  • LUND I, DALSGAARD J, RASMUSSEN HT, HOLM J AND JOKUMSEN A. 2011. Replacement of fish meal with a matrix of organic plant proteins in organic trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feed. Aquaculture 321: 259-266.
  • MÉRIDA SN, VIDAL AT, LLORENS SM AND CERDÁ MJ. 2010. Sunflower meal as a partial substitute in juvenile sharpsnout sea bream (Diplodus puntazzo) diets: Amino acid retention, gut and liver histology. Aquaculture 298: 275-281.
  • MEYER G AND FRACALOSSI DM. 2004. Protein requirement of jundia fingerlings, Rhamdia quelen, at two dietary energy concentrations. Aquaculture 240: 331-343.
  • MONTES-GIRAO PJ AND FRACALOSSI DM. 2006. Dietary lysine requirement as basis to estimate the essential dietary amino acid profile for jundiá, Rhamdia quelen. J World Aquacult Soc 37: 388-396.
  • NAYLOR RL ET AL. 2009. Feeding aquaculture in an era of infinite resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106: 15103-15110.
  • OLVERA-NOVOA MA, OLIVERA-CASTILLO LE AND MÁRTINEZ-PALACIOS CA. 2002. Sunflower seed meal as a protein source in diets for Tilapia rendalli (Boulanger, 1896) fingerlings. Aquacult Res 33: 223-229.
  • PIEDRAS SRN, MORAES PRR AND POUEY JLOF. 2004. Crescimento de juvenis de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen), de acordo com a temperatura da água. Instit de Pesca 30: 177-182.
  • REFSTIE S, BAEVERFJORD G, SEIM RR AND ELVEBØ O. 2010. Effects of dietary yeast cell wall β-glucans and MOS on performance, gut health, and salmon lice resistance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed sunflower and soybean meal. Aquaculture 305: 109-116.
  • SALZE G, MCLEAN E, BATTLE PR, SCHWARZ MH AND CRAIG SR. 2010. Use of soy protein concentrate and novel ingredients in the total elimination of fish meal and fish oil in diets for juvenile cobia, Rachycentron canadum. Aquaculture 298: 294-299.
  • SANTIGOSA E, GARCÍA-MEILÁN I, VALENTIN JM, PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ J, MÉDALE F, KAUSHIK S AND GALLARDO MA. 2011. Modifications of intestinal nutrient absorption in response to dietary fish meal replacement by plant protein sources in sea bream (Sparus aurata) and rainbow trout (Onchorynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 317: 146-154.
  • SANTIGOSA E, SANCHÉS J, MÉDALE F, KAUSHIK S, PÉREZ-SÁNCHEZ J AND GALLARDO MA. 2008. Modifications of digestive enzymes in trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and sea bream (Sparus aurata) in response to dietary fish meal replacement by plant protein sources. Aquaculture 282: 68-74.
  • SHIAU SY. 2002. Tilapia, Oreochromis spp. In: Webster CD and Lim C (Eds), Nutrient Requirement and Feeding of Finfish for Aquaculture. London: CABI Publishing, p. 273-292.
  • SMITH AK, JOHNSON VL AND BECKEL AC. 1946. Linseed proteins alkali dispersion and acid precipitation. J Ind Eng Chem 38: 353-356.
  • SPIES JR. 1957. Colorimetric procedures for amino acids. Methods in Enzymology 3: 467-477.
  • TACON AGJ AND METIAN M. 2008. Global overview on the use of fish meal and fish oil in industrially compounded aquafeeds: trends and future prospects. Aquaculture 285: 146-158.
  • TACON AGJ AND METIAN M. 2015. Feed Matters: Satisfying the Feed Demand of Aquaculture. Rev Fish Sci 23(1): 1-10.
  • VAN SOEST PJ, ROBERTSON JB AND LEWIS BA. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 74: 3583-3597.
  • VERDOUW H, VANECHTELD CJA AND DECKKERS EMJ. 1978. Ammonia determinations based on indophenol formation with sodium salicylate. Water Res 12: 399-402.
  • VIEIRA VP, INOUEB LAK AND MORAES G. 2005. Metabolic responses of matrinxã (Brycon cephalus) to dietary protein level. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 140(3): 337-342.
  • YAMAMOTO T, UNUMA T AND AKIYAMA T. 2000. The influence of dietary protein and fat levels on tissue free amino acid levels of fingerling rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture 180: 353-372.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Oct-Dec 2018

History

  • Received
    7 Dec 2017
  • Accepted
    18 June 2018
Academia Brasileira de Ciências Rua Anfilófio de Carvalho, 29, 3º andar, 20030-060 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brasil, Tel: +55 21 3907-8100, CLOCKSS system has permission to ingest, preserve, and serve this Archival Unit - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: aabc@abc.org.br