Abstract in English:Abstract % We show that codimension one distributions with at most isolated singularities on certain smooth projective threefolds with Picard rank one have stable tangent sheaves. The ideas in the proof of this fact are then applied to the characterization of certain irreducible components of the moduli space of stable rank 2 reflexive sheaves on $\p3$, and to the construction of stable rank 2 reflexive sheaves with prescribed Chern classes on general threefolds. We also prove that if $\sG$ is a subfoliation of a codimension one distribution $\sF$ with isolated singularities, then $\sing(\sG)$ is a curve. As a consequence, we give a criterion to decide whether $\sG$ is globally given as the intersection of $\sF$ with another codimension one distribution. Turning our attention to codimension one distributions with non isolated singularities, we determine the number of connected components of the pure 1-dimensional component of the singular scheme.
Abstract in English:Abstract We consider a singular holomorphic vector field in a neighborhood of 0∈ C3and suppose that there is a singular holomorphic foliation of codimension one (outside its singular set, given by a holomorphic decomposition of this neighborhood into complex surfaces, called leaves) to which it is tangent. This means that, when both objects are non-singular, the orbits of the vector field are contained in the leaves of the foliation. First we consider the desingularizations of both objects, trying to relate their final models. Then we analyse the situation where the vector field is tangent to three independent foliations.
Abstract in English:Abstract We obtain height estimates and half-space theorems concerning a wide class of hypersurfaces immersed into a product space ℝ×Mn, the so-called generalized linear Weingarten hypersurfaces, which extends that one having some constant higher order mean curvature.
Abstract in English:Abstract The gamma distribution has been extensively used in many areas of applications. In this paper, considering a Bayesian analysis we provide necessary and sufficient conditions to check whether or not improper priors lead to proper posterior distributions. Further, we also discuss sufficient conditions to verify if the obtained posterior moments are finite. An interesting aspect of our findings are that one can check if the posterior is proper or improper and also if its posterior moments are finite by looking directly in the behavior of the proposed improper prior. To illustrate our proposed methodology these results are applied in different objective priors.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this paper, we present a new mathematical approach or solving procedure for analysis of the Sundman’s inequality (for estimating the moment of inertia of the Solar system’s configuration) with the help of Lagrange-Jacobi relation, under additional assumption of decreasing of the total angular momentum close to the zero absolute magnitude in the final state of Solar system in a future. By assuming such the final state for Solar system, we have estimated the mean-size of Solar system R via analysis of the Sundman’s inequality. So, to answer the question “Does the ninth planet exist in Solar system?”, one should meet the two mandatory criteria for such the ninth planet, first is that it should have the negligible magnitude of inclination of its orbit with respect to the invariable plane. The second condition is that the orbit of the ninth planet should be located within the estimation for the mean-size of Solar system R.
Abstract in English:Abstract Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes mellitus development and is characterized by an abnormal expansion of adipose tissue and low-grade chronic inflammation that contribute to insulin resistance. Although there are multiple treatments, most therapies can produce undesirable side effects and therefore, new and effective treatments with fewer side effects are necessary. Previously, we demonstrated that a natural extract from the leaves of Eucalyptus tereticornis (OBE100) has anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. The major compounds identified in OBE100 were three pentacyclic triterpenoids, ursolic acid, oleanolic acid, and ursolic acid lactone. Triterpenoids have shown multiples biological activities. This current study compared the biological effect produced by OBE100 with five different reconstituted mixtures of these triterpenoids. Different cell lines were used to evaluate cytotoxicity, reactive oxygen species production, inflammatory cytokine expression, glucose uptake induction, leptin and adiponectin expression, and lipid accumulation. OBE100 treatment was the most efficacious and none of the formulated triterpenoid mixtures significantly improved on this. Moreover, OBE100 was less toxic and reduced reactive oxygen species production. Our study showed that the proven beneficial properties of triterpenoids may be enhanced due to the interaction with minor secondary metabolites present in the natural extract improving their anti-inflammatory properties.
Abstract in English:Abstract Exogenous SO2 is toxic especially to the pulmonary and cardiovascular system, similar to nitric-oxide, carbon-monoxide, and hydrogen-sulfide. Endogenous SO2 is produced in many cell types. The SO2 content of the rat heart has been observed to substantially decrease during isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy. This study sought to determine whether an SO2 derivative could inhibit the prolongation of action potentials during the isoproterenol-induced hypertrophy of rat cardiomyocytes and explore the ionic currents. Alongside electrocardiogram recordings, the voltage and current-clamped measurements were conducted in the enzymatically isolated left ventricular cardiomyocytes of Wistar rats. The consistency of the results was evaluated by the novel mathematical electrophysiology model. Our results show that SO2 significantly blocked the prolongation of QT-interval and action potential duration. Furthermore, SO2 did not substantially affect the Na+ currents and did not improve the decreased steady-state and transient outward K+ currents, but it reverted the reduced L-type Ca2+ currents (I CaL) to the physiological levels. Altered inactivation of I CaL was remarkably recovered by SO2. Interestingly, SO2 significantly increased the Ca2+ transients in hypertrophic rat hearts. Our mathematical model also confirmed the mechanism of the SO2 effect. Our findings suggest that the shortening mechanism of SO2 is related to the Ca2+ dependent inactivation kinetics of the Ca2+ current.
Abstract in English:Abstract A second deadlier wave of COVID-19 and the causes of the recent public health collapse of Manaus are compared with the Spanish flu events in that city, and Brazil. Historic sanitarian problems, and its hub position in the Brazilian airway network are combined drivers of deadly events related to COVID-19. These drivers were amplified by misleading governance, highly transmissible variants, and relaxation of social distancing. Several of these same factors may also have contributed to the dramatically severe outbreak of H1N1 in 1918, which caused the death of 10% of the population in seven months. We modelled Manaus parameters for the present pandemic and confirmed that lack of a proper social distancing might select the most transmissible variants. We succeeded to reproduce a first severe wave followed by a second stronger wave. The model also predicted that outbreaks may last for up to five and half years, slowing down gradually before the disease disappear. We validated the model by adjusting it to the Spanish Flu data for the city, and confirmed the pattern experienced by that time, of a first stronger wave in October-November 1918, followed by a second less intense wave in February-March 1919.
Abstract in English:Abstract The current study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the high physical capacity of rowing athletes may not reverse the influence of age on cardiac autonomic control decline estimated by heart rate variability (HRV). Forty-four male subjects divided in four groups: 11 young athletes (YA; 18 ±1 year), 11 young non-athletes (YNA; 20 ±1 year), 11 middle age athletes (MAA; 43 ±6 years) and 11 middle age non-athletes (MNA; 44 ±8 years) participated in the study. Heart rate (HR) was recorded beat-by-beat for 10 minutes in supine (SUP) and 10 min in orthostatic (ORT) positions. HRV was analyzed in the frequency domain to obtain the spectral power in the high (HF) and low frequency (LF) bands, and the changes to ORT (%∆HRV) were calculated (ORT – SUP / SUP). During SUP, HF was lower in MNA and MA compared to YA and YNA, while LF was lower in MNA than YA. For %ΔHRV, %ΔHF was higher in YA than YNA, MA and MNA. The %ΔLF was not different among groups. In conclusion, aging seems to overcome the influence of physical fitness on neural regulation of the heart, as highlighted by the HRV response to active standing.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Cactaceae family is native to the American continent with several centers of diversity. In South America, one of these centers is the Central Andes and many species are considered to be threatened or vulnerable according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Stetsonia coryne is an emblematic giant columnar cacti of the Chaco phytogeographic province. It has an extensive geographical distribution in many countries of the continent. However, to date there are no specific molecular markers for this species, neither reports of population genetic variability studies, such as for many cactus species. The lack of information is fundamentally due to the lack of molecular markers that allow these studies. In this work, by applying a Genotyping by Sequencing (GBS) technique, we developed polymorphic SSR markers for the Stetsonia coryne and evaluated their transferability to phylogenetically close species, in order to account for a robust panel of molecular markers for multispecies-studies within Cactaceae.
Abstract in English:Abstract Studies concerning the cytogenetics of Gleicheniaceae have been scarce, especially those employing evolutionary approaches. Two chromosome number evolutionary models have been hypothesized for Gleicheniaceae. One proposes that ancestral haploid numbers were small and that the chromosome numbers of extant species evolved through polyploidy. The other model proposes that, at the genus level, fern chromosome evolution occurred from ancestors with essentially the same high chromosome numbers seen in living lineages. Neither of those hypotheses has been tested based on phylogenetic frameworks. We sought to (i) present the state of the art of Gleicheniaceae chromosome numbers; (ii) test the two evolutionary models of chromosome numbers within a phylogenetic framework; (iii) test correlations between DNA contents and chromosome numbers in the family. We report here DNA C-values for five species, which increases the number of investigated taxa nearly twofold and report two new genera records. Ancestral state chromosome reconstruction corroborates the hypothesis that ancestral chromosome numbers in Gleicheniaceae were as high as those of extant lineages. Our results demonstrate the possible role of dysploidy in the evolutionary chromosome history of Gleicheniaceae at the genus level and suggest that the relationship between chromosome number and DNA content does not appear to be linear.
Abstract in English:Abstract Triclosan (TCS) is an antimicrobial and antimycotic agent widely used in personal care products. In aquatic environments, both TCS and its biomethylated more persistent form, methyl-triclosan (MeTCS), are usually detected in wastewater effluents and rivers, where are commonly adsorbed to suspended solids and sediments. The aim of this study was to evaluate biochemical and physiological effects in Danio rerio after a short term (2 days) and prolonged (21 days) exposures to sediment spiked with TCS acting as the source of the pollutant in the assay. The activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione-s transferase (GST) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxidation levels (LPO), total capacity against peroxyl radicals (ACAP), and acetylcholinesterase enzymatic activity (AChE) were measured in liver, gills, and brain. Most of TCS on the spiked sediment was biotransformed to MeTCS and promoted different adverse effects on D. rerio. Gills were the most sensitive organ after 2 day-exposure, showing lipid damage and increased SOD activity. After 21 days of exposure, liver was the most sensitive organ, showing lower ACAP, increased LPO levels, and SOD and CAT activities. This is the first study reporting the effects on biochemical markers in D. rerio from a MeTCS sink resulting from sediment spiked with TCS.
Abstract in English:Abstract Piperine and capsaicin are important molecules with biological and pharmacological activities. This study aimed to evaluate the cytogenotoxic and protective effect of piperine and capsaicin on Allium cepa cells. A. cepa roots were exposed to negative (2% Dimethylsulfoxide) and positive (Methylmethanesulfonate, MMS, 10 µg/mL) controls, and four concentrations (25-200 µM) of piperine or capsaicin (alone) or associated before, simultaneously or after with the MMS. Only the lowest concentration of piperine (25 µM) showed a protective effect because it was not genotoxic. Piperine and capsaicin were cytotoxic (50, 100 and 200 µM). Piperine (50 to 200 µM) caused a significant increase in the total average of chromosomal alterations of in A. cepa cells. For capsaicin, the genotoxic effect was dose-dependent with a significant increase for all concentrations, highlighting the significant presence of micronuclei and nuclear buds for the two isolates. In general, bioactive compounds reduced the total average of chromosomal alterations against damage caused by MMS, mainly micronuclei and/or nuclear buds. Therefore, the two molecules were cytotoxic and genotoxic at the highest concentrations, and did not have cytoprotective action, and the lowest concentration of piperine demonstrated important chemopreventive activity.
Abstract in English:Abstract This work describes a pharmacological screening of Brazilian medicinal plants through their anti-inflammatory and cytotoxicity activities. Cytotoxicity activity of Mouriri elliptica and Alchornea glandulosa as well as the drugs celecoxib and doxorubicin were evaluated in cultures of peritoneal macrophages. The immune system influence of these samples was analyzed by determining production/inhibition of NO, production of tumor necrosis factor-α and production of interleukin-10. Regarding the production/inhibition of NO, there was NO production by M. elliptica and NO inhibition when the cells were exposed to A. glandulosa; Macrophages generally produce more NO, plus TNF-α and less IL-10, when associated to the tumor phenomenon, characterizing the inflammation involved in cancer. A. glandulosa showed anti-inflammatory effect, inhibited NO production and it was associated with low TNF-α production, although not as low as the macrophages associated with celecoxib and doxorubicin. These cytokines were not different in animals with tumor. Celecoxib confirms its anti-inflammatory action by markedly inhibiting NO and TNF-α, but also inhibiting IL-10 which is an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Doxorubicin inhibited NO in a higher percentage in the group of animals with tumor, although the literature reports that this drug stimulates the production of NO and this collaborates with its cytotoxic effect.
Abstract in English:Abstract The roadside hawk (Rupornis magnirostris) is a free-living bird that commonly has wing injuries caused by man-made obstacles when flying. Studies that describe the topographic anatomy of the wings of this species are necessary to assist in the treatment of possible wing lesions. For this reason, the present work aimed to describe the origin and insertion of the nerves that constitute the brachial plexus in roadside hawks. Five roadside hawk carcasses donated to the Animal Anatomy Laboratory of the São Judas University Center, UNIMONTE campus, by CEPTAS (Center for Research and Screening of Wild Animals) were used for the study. The brachial plexus of the roadside hawk was formed by the union of the ventral branches of the spinal nerves located between C9-C10-T1-T2-T3. The ventral branches joined together and formed four short trunks which later united again by exchanging nerve fibers and constituting a big caliber branch. This is divided into two nerve cords (dorsal and ventral) which are destined to specific muscular groupings. The dorsal cord originates the axillary, anconeal and radial nerves, and is responsible for innervating the extensor muscles. The ventral cord originates the pectoral, bicipital, median-ulnar, median and ulnar nerves, and is responsible for innervating the flexor muscles.
Abstract in English:Abstract Until now, custom-made or commercial polyclonal antibody against only one kind of fish IgM limited application of the antibody. During our research on development of vaccine against infection of Clonorchis sinensis (C. sinensis) in several kinds of fish, we were conscious of the urgency of secondary antibody to evaluate immune effect and screen C. sinensis infection with immunological technology instead of labor-intensive and time-consuming squash or artificial digestion of fish flesh. So that, we purified IgM of grass carp, bighead carp, crucian carp, common carp and tilapia which were widely cultured freshwater fishes in most areas of China. On this basis, we generated HRP-conjunct rabbit IgG anti-fish IgMs with high titers. IgM of other freshwater fishes including oshima, yellow catfish, bream, silver carp and so on could be recognized by the IgG sensitively. Additionally, The ELISA detection displayed that the IgG could be more specific and sensitive than custom-made rabbit IgG anti-grass carp IgM. The acquirement of HRP-conjunct rabbit IgG anti-fish IgMs was the cornerstone for studying the immune system of teleost fish, developing immunoassay methods and evaluation of fish vaccine with more convenience.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cyanolicimex (Haematosiphoninae) includes a single species, C. patagonicus, which is found in the largest known colony of its avian host Cyanoliseus patagonus (Psittacidae) located in Patagonia (Argentina). Relationships between Cyanolicimex and other genera of Haematosiphoninae are still unclear because this genus shares some characters with other South American genera and possesses some similarities with Hesperocimex from the Neoarctic region. The aim of the present study was to provide additional data of C. patagonicus so as to better understand its relationships with other South American species. We examined some biological features of C. patagonicus in the field and we performed a cytogenetic analysis. We observed in the field that C. patagonicus does not live inside the hollow nests of Cyanoliseus patagonus. The cytogenetic analysis showed that the male karyotype is 2n= 31= 28A+X1X2Y and revealed an achiasmate male meiosis and of the collochore type. Our results together with available cytogenetic data in other cimicids, allow proposing the possible chromosomal rearrangements involved in the chromosomal evolution of C. patagonicus and also contribute to better understand the evolutionary divergence at the chromosomal level within Haematosiphoninae. Based on the whole evidence, we propose to place in four groups the species of Haematosiphoninae cytogenetically hitherto studied.
Abstract in English:Abstract Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Mart.) O. Berg is a South American fruit tree species with important ecological and medicinal properties, which remnants are currently found mainly in isolated forest fragments. In this study, SSR markers from three different genomic origins (gene-linked, nuclear neutral, and organellar) were used to evaluate the patterns of genetic diversity, fine-scale spatial genetic structure and historical gene flow in fragmented forest formations of C. xanthocarpa from the Atlantic Forest in southern Brazil. Our results show that the forest fragments present moderate to high levels of genetic diversity in comparison to species presenting similar life traits, although a trend opposite to expected was observed concerning gene-linked and neutral SSR markers. The fine-scale spatial genetic structure revealed different patterns in short and large distance classes, with a distinct influence of gene-linked and neutral markers in driving the genetic structure in each distance class. The presence of an isolation-by-adaptation pattern implies the need for maintenance of the current remnants to assure the conservation of the private alleles. Finally, as the genetic diversity is found predominantly within forest fragments, programs of seed collection and/or genetic rescue should prioritize a larger number of individuals within each fragment, to increase the sampled diversity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) is a technique successfully used to generate characteristic fingerprints of different bacteria. Bacillus is a genus that includes heterogeneous species, thus a combination of different techniques is essential for their identification. Here we used RAPD-PCR methodology to distinguish among genetically similar strains and to evaluate the genetic diversity of Bacillus species from the Salar del Hombre Muerto, in the Northwest of Argentina. The RAPD-PCR used allowed obtaining different amplification profiles for each Bacillus species and strains. By comparing the fingerprint profiles, we could observe that some of the salt flat isolates showed similar profiles than identified strains. As expected, the bacilli group isolated revealed a wide heterogeneity. RAPD-PCR was found to be a quick and reliable technique to evaluate the diversity of Bacillus strain and was successfully applied to characterize the genetic diversity present in the Salar del Hombre Muerto.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, we aimed to exploit natural extracts from the spicy vegetables, which are rich in phenolic compounds as an initial treatment step in the cold storage process for shrimp. Firstly, 40 extracts from 10 types of spicy vegetables in Vietnam were prepared and tested for their bioactivities. Among samples, the extract from Persicaria Odorata leaves (E-4) exhibited the highest potential of scavenging DPPH free radical (IC50 of 7.54 µg.mL-1) and decreasing tyrosinase activity with the inhibition percentage of 54.2 % at the concentration of 100 mg/mL. Twenty-two out of a total of 36 chemical compounds in the E-4 extract identified using HPLC-MS technique were phenolic compounds, in which four compounds (morin, quercetin, fisetin, astragalin) are flavonoids. Shrimp (Litopenaus vannamei) samples were treated with the E-4 extract having lower gray values, lipid peroxidation values, and microbiological counts than those of the control samples after 7 days of storage at 2 oC. These results show the potential of using the natural extract as a safe and effective alternative for commercial chemical-derived preservatives in the shrimp storage process.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, it was determinated the essential oil of cultivated apple mint, Mentha suaveolens Ehrh. composition and in vitro antibacterial activity of against 11 fish pathogen bacteria including Gram-positive (Staphylococcus warneri, Staphylococcus sp., Lactococcus garvieae, Vagococus salmoninarum) and Gram-negative (Aeromonas hydrophila, Aeromonas sobria Aeromonas cavieae, Vibrio anguillarum, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella tarda) by using agar diffusion assay. The main component of M. suaveolence oil was obtained as piperitenone oxide. The essential oil exhibited strong inhibitory activity such as inhibition zone sizes: 30-50mm at 250-1000 µL mL-1 concentrations against V. anguillarum; 16-20mm at 31.25-125 µL mL-1 concentrations against P. aeroginosa; 15-18mm at 500-1000 µL mL-1 concentrations against A. sobria. However, it was found to be moderately effective against E. tarda (8-15 mm), Y. ruckeri (9-12mm), S. warneri (9-10mm), V. salmoninarum (9mm) and Staphylococcus sp. (8-9mm). The essential oil showed weak inhibitory activity against A. cavieae (5-8), A. hydrophila (6-7mm), L. garvieae (5-7mm). Thus, effect of essential oil of M. suaveolens on immune response and disease resistance against Vibrio anguillarum, A. sobria and P. aeroginosa should be investigated in vivo in cultured fish species in future studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study analysed the mycobiota on exoskeleton debris of the crab Neohelice granulata collected from an alkaline salt marsh and assessed the in vitro enzyme ability of selected isolates at different temperatures and pH. Exoskeleton fragments were incubated in moist chambers on paper and on agar medium. Growth and enzyme ability of selected fungi were also evaluated in agar media with 0.5 % casein, 1% Tween®20, and Chitin-Azure® by the production of a halo/growth ratio. We identified 22 fungal species using both methods. Since the two isolation methods added information to one another, both ones are necessary to recover the cultivable mycobiota associated with the exoskeleton debris. All fungi showed greater levels of enzyme activity in alkaline than acid medium with Tween®20. The halo diameter on casein and chitin varied according to the fungal isolate and pH. Most fungi had a larger halo at 4°C than at the other temperatures tested. Clonostachys rosea showed the greatest activity in all media at 4ºC. We conclude that exoskeletons of the N. granulata are a source of fungi able to produce enzyme activities that show differences upon incubation conditions to which they are cultivated such as ones including specific temperatures and pH values.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aspergillus genus causes many diseases, and the species Aspergillus flavus is highly virulent. Treatment of aspergillosis involves azole derivatives such as voriconazole and polyenes such as amphotericin B. Due to an increase in fungal resistance, treatments are now less effective; the search for new compounds with promising antifungal activity has gained importance. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of the synthetic amide 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide (A1Cl) against strains of Aspergillus flavus and to elucidate its mechanism of action. Thus, the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum fungicidal concentration, conidial germination, associations with antifungal agents, cell wall activities, membrane activities and molecular docking were evaluated. A1Cl presented antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus strains with a minimum inhibitory concentration of between 16 and 256 μg/mL and a minimum fungicidal concentration between 32 and 512 μg/mL. The minimum inhibitory concentration of A1Cl also inhibited conidial germination, but when associated with amphotericin B and voriconazole, it promoted antagonistic effects. Binding to ergosterol on the fungal plasma membrane is the likely mechanism of action, along with possible inhibition of DNA synthesis through the inhibition of thymidylate synthase. It is concluded that the amide 2-chloro-N-phenylacetamide has promising antifungal potential.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenotypic and molecular patterns of biofilm formation in infection and colonization isolates of Acinetobacter spp. from patients who were admitted in a public hospital of Recife-PE-Brazil in 2018-2019. For the biofilm phenotypic analysis, Acinetobacter spp. isolates were evaluated by the crystal violet staining method; the search of virulence genes (bap, ompA, epsA, csuE and bfmS) was performed by PCR; and the ERIC-PCR was performed for molecular typing. Amongst the 38 Acinetobacter spp. isolates, 20 were isolated from infections and 18 from colonization. The resistance profile pointed that 86.85% (33/38) of the isolates were multidrug-resistant, being three infection isolates, and two colonization isolates resistant to polymyxin B. All the isolates were able to produce biofilm and they had at least one of the investigated virulence genes on their molecular profile, but the bap gene was found in 100% of them. No clones were detected by ERIC-PCR. There was no correlation between biofilm formation and the resistance profile of the bacteria, neither to the molecular profile of the virulence genes. Thus, the ability of Acinetobacter spp. to form biofilm is probably related to the high frequency of virulence genes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Solid state fermentation is a promising technology largely used in biotechnology process and is a suitable strategy for producing low-cost enzymatic products. At the present study, a novel enzyme obtained through solid state fermentation using Aspergillus sydowii was herein purified and characterized. The fermentations used coffee ground residue as substrate and the crude enzyme was submitted through further purification steps of: acetonic precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex and Superdex G-75 column. Both crude and purified enzymes were submitted to biochemical characterization of their thermostability, optimal temperature and pH, effects of inhibitors and metal ions. A purified protease was obtained with yield of 5.9-fold and 53% recovery, with maximal proteolytic activity of 352.0 U/mL. SDS-PAGE revealed a band of protein at 47.0 kDa. The enzyme activity was abolished in the presence of phenyl-methyl sulfonyl fluoride and partially inhibited against Triton X-100 (78.0%). The optimal activity was found in pH 8.0 at 45°C of temperature. Besides, the enzyme showed stability between 35°C and 50°C. It was possible to determine appropriate conditions to the obtainment of thermostable proteases with biotechnological interest associated with a method that concomitantly shows excellent production levels and recovery waste raw material in a very profitable process.
Abstract in English:Abstract Guava (Psidium guajava L.), is adapted to tropical and subtropical climates, and, in addition to its nutritional value, has great medicinal potential. One of the medicinal effects is antibacterial, and this can be identified from the phytochemicals present in its various parts, especially the leaf, which contains flavonoids, phenols, and tannins, as well as phytocomposites with antibacterial action. Therefore, the interaction of this plant with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Meloidogyne enterolobii is a biotechnological resource that can increase the production of secondary metabolites so that the guava ethanolic extract is effective against multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. Therefore, the objective of this study was to test the inhibitory action of mycorrhizal guava leaf extract and Meloidogyne enterolobii on strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase. Guava seedlings from cuttings were inoculated with Acaulospora longula, and later with Meloidogyne enterolobii; the leaves were harvested at two maturation times of the plant and placed in an oven. Next, a leaf extract was prepared using ethanol as a solvent. The extract was tested in multidrug-resistant strains of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase from operative wounds using disc diffusion methodology. The plant-AMF-phytonematode interaction positively potentialize the inhibitory action of guava leaf ethanolic extract on multidrug-resistant bacterial strains.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sugars released by thermochemical pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass are possible substrate for hydrogen production. However, the major drawback for bacterial fermentation is the toxicity of weak acids and furan derivatives normally present in such substrate. This study aimed to investigate the metabolism involved in hydrogen production by the isolate Enterobacter LBTM2 using 10, 20 and 30-fold diluted synthetic (SH) and sugarcane bagasse hemicellulose (SBH) hydrolysates. In addition, the effects of acetic acid, formic acid and furfural on the bacterial metabolism, as well as detoxification of SBH with activated carbon and molecularly imprinted polymers on the hydrogen production were assessed. The results showed the best hydrogen yield was 0.46 mmol H2/mmol sugar for 20-times diluted SH, which was 2.3-times higher than obtained in SBH experiments. Bacterial growth and hydrogen production were negatively affected by 0.8 g/L of acetic acid when added alone, but were totally inhibited when formic acid (0.4 g/L) and furfural (0.3 g/L) were also supplied. However the maximum hydrogen production of SBH20 has duplicated when 3% of powdered activated carbon was added to the SBH experiment. The results presented herein can be helpful in understanding the bottlenecks in biohydrogen production and could contribute towards development of lignocellulosic biorefinery.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fungi are excellent producers of extracellular enzymes. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the screening of marine fungi, which are laccase and manganese peroxidase potential producers, in solid fermentation for future applications in bioremediation processes of contaminated sites. For this purpose, two-level factorial planning was adopted, using time (6 and 15 days) and the absence or presence of oil (0 and 1%) as factors. The semi-quantitative evaluation was carried out by calculating radial growth, enzyme activity and enzyme index by measuring phenol red or syringaldazine oxidation halo. The results showed that all the studied strains showed a positive result for manganese peroxidase production, with an enzymatic activity in solid medium less than 0.61, indicating a strongly positive activity. Through the enzyme index, the study also showed prominence for Penicillium sp. strains, with values > 2. The enzyme index increase in oil presence and the inexpressive use of the genera studied for ligninolytic enzymes production from crude oil demonstrated these data importance for fermentative processes optimization. Considering the ability of these strains to develop into recalcitrant compounds and the potential for manganese peroxidase production, they are indicated for exploitation in various bioremediation technologies, as well as other biotechnological applications.
Abstract in English:Abstract Free radicals are highly reactive unstable molecules, which can be synthesized in different ways, considered harmful and threatening to humans; these chemical species have free traffic throughout the human body, interacting with biological molecules and human body organ tissues. The interaction between free radicals and biological molecules is the main factor for disease development or pre-existing disease symptoms aggravation. Antioxidants are chemical compounds able to donate electric charge to stabilize molecules such as free radicals. Recent studies have proved the benefits of antioxidants intake in health improvement. In this way, the search for natural sources of antioxidants has become an ascending trend. In this field, the microbial sources are considered poorly explored compared to the numerous amount of other compounds obtained from them, especially from Actinobacteria. The searched literature about Actinobacteria highlights an important capacity of producing natural antioxidants; however, there is a lack of in vivo studies of these isolated compounds. In this review, we gathered information that supports our point of view that Actinobacteria is a truly renewable and superficially explored source of natural antioxidants. Furthermore, our purpose is also to point this limitation and stimulate more researches in this area.
Abstract in English:Abstract Simazine was one of the most commonly used herbicides and was widely used to control broadleaf weeds in agriculture and forestry. Its widespread use had caused wide public concern for its high ecological toxicity. In order to remove simazine residues, 2 strains capable of effectively degrading simazine were isolated from the soil and named SIMA-N5 and SIMA-N9. SIMA-N5 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16SrRNA sequence analysis, and SIMA-N9 was Bacillus altitudinis. According to the degradation ratio of simazine in a certain period of time, the degradation ability of different strains was evaluated. The degradation efficiency of simazine (5 mg/L) by SIMA-N9 could reach about 98% in 5d, and the strain SIMA-N5 could reach 94% under the same conditions. In addition, the addition of Pennisetum rhizosphere soil during the process of degrading simazine by strain SIMA-N9 could effectively improve the degradation efficiency. The strain SIMA-N9 has been developed as a microbial agent for the bioremediation of simazine contamination in soil. The new microbial agent developed by using SIMA-N9 has achieved satisfactory application effects. Based on the research results already obtained in this study, it was considered that strain SIMA-N9 and its live bacterial agent could play an important role in bioremediation of simazine pollution. This study could not only provide a set of solutions to the simazine pollution, but also provide a reference for the treatment of other pesticide pollution.
Abstract in English:Abstract Ovalipes trimaculatus is a highly valued fisheries resource with high potential for aquaculture production. Still, there is need for experimental information to sustain efficient husbandry practices. In this work we analyze the combined effects of different thermo-haline conditions on the length of development and survival of embryos (6, 10, 13, 15, 18, 22, 24 ⁰C x 30, 33 ‰; 13 ⁰C x 26, 30, 33, 37 ‰) and zoeae I (13, 18, 22 ⁰C x 30, 33 ‰; 13 ⁰C x 26, 30, 33, 37 ‰) from individuals sampled in the Atlantic coast of Patagonian. Among the most relevant results, it was found that the mean length of embryogenesis decreased from 63 to 19 days with increasing temperatures, but was not affected by seawater salinity. Mean embryonic survival was significantly lower at the combination of the highest temperature and salinity tested. Also, it differed between salinity conditions. Both at 30 and 33‰, the length of the Zoea I stage significantly varied between thermal treatments, being significantly longer at 13⁰C. No zoeae I reared at 13 ⁰C survived at 37‰ and mean survival at 26‰ halved that of 30-33‰. Results obtained reduce aquaculture production costs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Biosynthesis of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2NPs) by Sphingomonas paucimobilis B34 bacteria was successfully achieved and followed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The biosynthesized TiO2NPs were spherical in shape with an average particle size of 15.6 nm. These TiO2NPs were used as nono-catalyst for removing of malachite green (MG) dye (at 103 mol/L) from wastewater solution. As indicated by the results, the biosynthesized TiO2NPs represented a capable approach for MG removal with up to 83 % efficiency. The removal process was found to follow a pseudo-first-order kinetics. Furthermore, the developed TiO2NPs-MG hybrid nanocomposite was efficiently removed from the medium by using Spirulina platensis cyanobacterial biomass after wastewater treatment. S. platensis biomass was able to remove up to 89.43 % of the hybrid nanocomposite by a biosorption process. The resultant water effluent, after TiO2NPs-MG removal, showed no toxicity towards Vigna radiate L. seedlings implying its safety for agriculture purposes. According to the obtained results, S. platensis living biomass could play a dual re-cycling role, as natural biosorbent for removing both nanoparticles and dye (TiO2NPs-MG hybrid nano-composite) from solution after wastewater treatment for healthier environmental management.
Abstract in English:Abstract The emergence of begomoviruses has led to significant losses in vegetable production in the recent years. Squash leaf curl disease (SqLCD) is caused by begomoviruses, and the infected plants show leaf curl symptoms on zucchini squash. In this study, we characterized the begomoviruses responsible for SqLCD symptoms and economic losses in zucchini major growing area near Baghdad and Babylon provinces. PCR amplification was performed to screen for begomovirus infection using Deng (a begomovirus specific) primer set. Sequence comparison confirmed the detection of two begomoviruses; Tomato leaf curl Palampur virus (ToLCPMV) and Squash leaf curl virus (SLCuV), in symptomatic zucchini samples when shared 99.14 and 99.50% maximum nucleotide (nt) identities with coat protein CP gene, respectively. All samples collected from Baghdad/Al-Jadriya were ToLCPMV infected while those collected from Babylon/Jibela were SLCuV infected. Moreover, mixed infection of the two viruses was detected in all zucchini squash samples collected from Baghdad/Yusufiyah. Evidence is provided here of the relevance of the wild species Malva neglecta and Datura stramonium as reservoir of begomoviruses that cause epedemics of leaf curl disease in zucchini squash in Iraq. Neighbor joining (NJ) Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the relatedness when diverged virus sequences in separated groups based on CP gene. The high nt identity suggests the two begomoviruses may recently be introduced to Iraq and could be a serious threatening to squash cultivation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Candida spp. is one of the main pathogens associated with nosocomial infection in Brazil and worldwide. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of Candida yeasts in the ICU and their susceptibility to the antifungal agents terbinafine and fluconazole. The samples were collected by swabbing nine surfaces in the ICU of a hospital located in Pelotas, RS. These isolates were genetically characterized by sequencing the internal transcript spacer (ITS) using the primers ITS1 and ITS4. The test against antifungals was performed by Microdilution in Broth (CLSI-M27-A4). 64 yeasts identified as Candida parapsilosis (45.31%; n = 29), Meyerozyma (Pichia) guilliermondii (28.12%; n = 18), Claviceps lusitaneae (25%; n = 16) and Candida tropicalis (1, 56%; n = 1) mostly at the counter used for handling medicines and food distribution (68.75%; n = 44). Susceptibility to antifungals varied between species. These results describe potentially pathogenic Candida species as contaminants in the ICU environment. The study environment is a potential source of exogenous infection for hospitalized patients.
Abstract in English:Abstract The kinetic profiles of Candida tropicalis TISTR 5306 cultivation based on modified yeast-malt (MYM), assorted grade fresh longan juice (AsgLG) and longan solid waste extract (LSWE) medium were evaluated in 1 l batch mode. The highest ethanol concentration level (25.5 ± 0.8 g/l) and ethanol yield - Yp/s of 0.491 ± 0.017 g ethanol/g consumed substrate, dried biomass concentration level (9.44 ± 0.05 g/l) and dried biomass yield - Yp/s of 0.533 ± 0.170 g dried biomass/g consumed substrate, specific pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity (0.037 ± 0.003 U/mg protein) were achieved (p ≤ 0.05) in AsgLG medium. Scores ranking strategy were employed and AsgLG medium was subsequently selected with in the highest total score (p ≤ 0.05) of 698 ± 7 at 48 h. The cultivation in fed-batch mode with three rounds of pulse feeding (PF) in 1 l AsgLG medium was carried out. The apparent highest ethanol and dried biomass concentration levels with corresponding yields relative to time zero were (28.3 ± 0.5 g/l, 0.482 ± 0.012 g/g) at 120 h of PF2 and (9.39 ± 0.04 g/l, 0.110 ± 0.001 g/g) at 192 h of PF3. The maximum specific PDC activity was 0.057 ± 0.006 U/mg protein during PF1 feeding.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Neotropics are one of the richest regions in biodiversity globally. Still, much remains unknown about the mechanisms and processes responsible for the accumulation of species in this region. Among the many limitations on our current knowledge on the region’s biodiversity, understanding of community composition and species distributions is limited and greatly biased in many Brazilian regions. We present information on species composition, habitat use, geographic distribution, taxonomic accounts, and conservation of snakes from Rio Grande do Norte state, Northeastern Brazil. We compiled, from primary and literature data, 851 snake records from seven families and 47 species, with five new records for the state. Species are mainly terrestrial and semi-arboreal and associated with at least six vegetation types from Caatinga and Atlantic Forest domains. None of the species is listed in threatened categories of IUCN, while two species are listed in the Brazilian Threatened Fauna list. Our data covers 32.34% of the state’s area, a consequence of locally limited inventories and lack of long-term studies on snakes’ fauna. The richest areas within the state are near large cities, which lack protected areas for the species they harbor, and highlights the necessity of protective policies and conservation actions.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of the present study was to conduct a survey of mites of the family Phytoseiidae associated with plants of the natural vegetation and cultivated forests in sites of three biomes (Amazon Forest, Cerrado and Pantanal) in the Mato Grosso State. Twenty-one species of 11 genera, of the three phytoseiid subfamilies were registered. Amblyseius Berlese was the most diverse genus, with five species. Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma was the most common species, collected from 12 plant species in five collection sites. Eleven phytoseiid species were reported for the first time in the Mato Grosso State.
Abstract in English:Abstract Studies considering the functional traits of organisms, populations, and communities functional indices increase the understanding of many factors on ecosystem functioning. Here, we analyze the predation effect (by fish) on zooplankton functional diversity and the effects of biomass and density of periphytic algae on zooplankton feeding type trait and body size. We expect that intense predation by fish on zooplankton leads to higher values of zooplankton functional diversity and that food resource will be positively related to the abundance of zooplankton trait and body size. For that, microcosms were established (T1- fish-absence, and T2- fish-presence, both with periphytic algae as food). We observed that fish presence decreased zooplankton functional diversity through modifications in the availability of nutrients and algae, through the middle-out effect. We also observed that body size had a negative relationship with the food resource, reaffirming that high food availability in subtropical lakes is linked to small-bodied zooplankton. The raptorial copepods covariate positively with the periphytic algae, which was an alternative food resource and, in this case, the main form of carbon input into the system. In this study, omnivorous fish reduced zooplankton functional traits, which can alter the energy stock and energy flow in aquatic ecosystems.
Abstract in English:Abstract The lowlands of mid-latitude South America comprise complex temperate ecoregions characterized by a unique biodiversity. However, the processes responsible for shaping its species diversity are still largely unknown. Turnera sidoides subsp. carnea is a variable subspecies occurring in the lowlands of northeastern Argentina and Uruguay, extending to southern Paraguay and Brazil. It constitutes a good model to perform evolutionary studies. Here we used an integrative approach to understand the process of diversification within this subspecies and to increase the knowledge concerning patterns and processes responsible for shaping the species diversity in the temperate lowlands of South America. The results provided strong evidences that this subspecies is an autopolyploid complex per se, being in an active process of intrasubspecific diversification. Morphological and genetic data show that the diversity of T. sidoides subsp. carnea is in congruence with the great past and present abiotic and biotic variability of the mid-latitude South American lowlands. The evolutionary history of this subspecies is consistent with past fragmentation and allopatric differentiation at diploid level. Geographic isolation and local adaptation would have promoted strong morphological, ecological, and genetic differentiation, resulting in two morphotypes and different genetic groups indicative of incipient speciation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Astragalus argaeus is an endemic plant species that is under critical risk of extinction. Here we investigated its population census, breeding system and reproductive success to determine the main factors affecting restricted distribution of this species. According to the results from pollination experiments, A. argaeus was autogamous but benefit from the cross pollination (xenogamous) and the presence of pollinators increases fruit set. The pollen/ovule ratio of A. argaeus was calculated as 3119,which correspond to facultative xenogamy. Reproduction biology data obtained by both methods are quite compatible with each other. Pollen viability and stigma receptivity data showed that both stigma receptivity and pollen viability were high and was no temporal isolation throughout the anthesis. Seed viability of A. argaues was determined as 52%. The low reproductive success of the species could be attributed to low seed viability and germination rates, small population size and variations in season and climate.
Abstract in English:Abstract The safest and most efficient method of avoiding costs and impacts associated with biological invasions is to prevent the introduction and establishment of non-native species. In Brazil, two invasive coral species have been causing ecological, economic and social impacts: Tubastraea coccinea and Tubastraea tagusensis. This work presents a protocol to analyze the risk of invasion in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) in the State of Rio de Janeiro considering the main vector of these species on the Brazilian coast. This protocol takes five risk factors into account: environmental similarity between the donor area and the possible receiving area; available substrate for colonization; proximity to the donor region; proximity and quantity of oil platforms and drill ships that passed by the analyzed MPAs and proximity and quantity of oil platforms and drill ships that anchored near the MPAs. Results must be used by decision-makers for a better management of Marine Protected Areas. The protocol we present can be applied to analyze the relative risk of invasion throughout the Brazilian coast, in order to prioritize areas for early detection and monitoring of the presence of sun corals.
Abstract in English:Abstract The use of agrochemicals in agriculture may impact aquatic ecosystems, particularly influencing the stream insect communities. Among aquatic insects, the family Chironomidae is the most abundant and species-diverse insect group found in freshwater ecosystems. However, in the southern hemisphere, studies with Chironomidae are still sparse, compared to Europe and North America. The present study evaluates the responses of Chironomidae species (Insecta: Diptera) to pyrimethanil fungicide in a mesocosm experiment. Water contamination and chironomid community were monitored over 10 months. After five months of monitoring, the pyrimethanil fungicide was completely degraded and there was a statistically significant increase in the Margalef Richness and Shannon-Wiener Index (H’) in the control units when compared with the contaminated mesocosms (p = 0.003). Our results point out that the utilization of agrochemicals can be a harmful factor influencing negatively the Chironomidae populations. This finding has key implications for insect conservation strategies and ecological management environments.
Abstract in English:Abstract Tawny-bellied Seedeater (Sporophila hypoxantha) is an endangered (in Brazil) grassland dependent species, whose breeding success remains poorly known hampering conservation measures on its breeding grounds. Here we analyze the nest survival of the species in relation to temporal and environmental variables over three breeding seasons in hilly dry grasslands in southern Brazil. The apparent nest success was 40%, and MARK survival 20%. Predation was the main cause of failure, affecting 55% of the unsuccessful nests, followed by desertion, infestation by Philornis fly larvae, cattle trampling and burning. The productivity was 1.77 young per pair. Best models include time-specific factors (nest age and time of breeding season), reflected by a gradual reduction in nest survival over the nesting cycle, accompanied by an increase in temperature, subcutaneous larvae infestation, and predation. Nest site characteristics did not influence nest survival. Predation is more prevalent in the nestling rearing period than during incubation. This tendency may be caused by an increase in the activity in the nests, as is predicted by the Skutch hypothesis. The conclusion that time-specific factors influence nest survival more than ecological variables is important to plan on seasonally dependent conservation and management measures.
Abstract in English:Abstract Worldwide, land use changes and urbanization affect habitat and biota in streams, drastically disrupting environmental conditions and biotic interactions. We evaluated the trophic ecology of the tolerant fish Corydoras paleatus in a prairie stream with contrasting environmental conditions intimately aligned with different nearby land uses. Gut analyses was conducted at three stream reaches with contrasting ecological attributes regarding water quality, habitat structure and riparian condition. A total of 231 guts were analyzed and 15 prey items identified. A significant variation in composition and structure of the dietary assemblage, niche breadth and feeding patterns of C. paleatus under different environmental conditions was observed. Psychodidae prevailed in most deteriorated environmental conditions and Chironomidae, followed by nematodes, in stream reaches where environmental conditions improved. Maximum niche breadth and a larger proportion of generalist individuals were found at the most deteriorated site. Conversely, the proportions of specialized individuals were slightly higher at sites with better ecological conditions. Psychodidae and mineral fragments were positively correlated with the most detrimental conditions, while filamentous algae prevailed where these conditions improved. Overall, good evidence suggesting that trophic ecology of a tolerant species is affected by local environmental conditions in water quality, habitat structure and riparian corridor was observed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Astrocaryum vulgare Mart. is a palm tree that tolerates multiple environmental conditions, with complex development characteristics. The objective is to understand the population structure, the spatial distribution of this species in different environments and the effect of environmental gradients on its occurrence on Marajó Island, Pará. The hypothesis is that the population density of the species, as well as the spatial distribution, depends on the environment in which it is inserted. The study was carried out in 11 communities of residents of five different physiognomies, in which all individuals belonging to 42 sample units were mapped, measured and were categorized in height classes for further analysis. The results showed an abundance of juvenile individuals and a spatial distribution grouped across all physiognomies. The evidence points to a growing population, probably influenced by anthropic actions. Variables such as vegetation index of normalized difference, slope and distance from rivers were shown to be linked to the development of morphological characteristics. Finally, the occurrence of this species in physiognomies may be linked to the land use system, as it contributes to the creation of favorable environments for its development and, although differently, it has shown a high degree of adaptation to atypicals.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study inventoried and characterized the richness of galling insects based on gall morphotypes and their host plants in two Cerrado sensu stricto areas of Caetité municipality in Bahia State, Brazil, to aid the identification of galling insects and their host plants, as well as to contribute to the knowledge and conservation of local biodiversity. The survey was conducted in the Moita dos Porcos archaeological site and João Barroca Farm site, adopting the random walking methodology for sampling, during 12 months. We recorded 98 gall morphotypes on 42 plant species belonging to 36 genera and 22 families. Leguminosae, Malpighiaceae and Myrtaceae demonstrated the greatest richness of galls, and the Copaifera langsdorffii was the super-host species, with 16 gall morphotypes. Most galls occur on leaves, and may be globoid, glabrous, grouped, and are usually unilocular, and brown. The galling insects identified belonged to Coleoptera, Diptera, Lepidoptera, and Thysanoptera. Eight plant host species and eight gall morphotypes were recorded for the first time in Cerrado areas in Brazil. The areas surveyed demonstrated high richness of gall morphotypes and host plants, evidencing the importance of studying and preserving different areas of the same biome.
Abstract in English:Abstract Stream biofilms are among the first to react to environmental degradation, since their structural and functional characteristics are tightly linked to the physicochemical variables in the water and sediment. The objectives of this research were to study the differences in chlorophyll-a, bacterial density and metabolism endpoints of epipelic biofilms in nutrient-rich streams under different physical-chemical conditions in the stream water in relation to changes in urbanization, and to measure the short-term responses (up to 72 h) in the biofilm when translocated to more urbanized sites. For these purposes, chlorophyll-a, bacterial density, biofilm respiration (electron transfer activity) and O2 consumption were measured in epipelic biofilms in nutrient-rich streams exposed to different levels of urbanization after a 30 day colonization. Afterward, biofilms were translocated downstream to more polluted sites, and sampled to identify any fast occurring changes to be considered as potential indicators of environmental degradation. Results show that in the nutrient-rich streams studied, the structural characteristics of the biofilm were linked to urbanization, and even after a short time following the translocation, chlorophyll-a and bacterial density varied, reflecting the environmental degradation. On the other hand, metabolic variables were highly variable and produced inconsistent results when representing an increase in urbanization.
Abstract in English:Abstract
Abstract in English:Abstract We evaluated species richness, abundance, alpha diversity, and true diversity of Phlebotominae sand flies temporal changes in domiciles within the northern Argentina city of Corrientes. A total of 16 sampling nights were conducted seasonally throughout the years 2012-2014 through light traps supplemented with CO2. Meteorological and remote sensing environmental factors were used to assessed for vectors implications in disease transmission through Generalized Mixt Models. Lutzomyia longipalpis was the most abundant and common species, followed by Nyssomyia neivai and Migonemyia migonei. Lutzomyia longipalpis was more abundant in urban areas, Ny. neivai was associated with vegetation in periurban areas, both were found all sampling years with higher abundance during the rainy season. Positive association of Lu. longipalpis with precipitation and relative humidity and negative association with temperature were observed. Models showed humidity and vegetation as making effects on Lu. longipalpis abundance. Precipitation was significant for Mg. migonei models, with higher abundance in periurban and periurban-rural environments. For Ny. neivai models, relative humidity was the most important variable, followed by precipitation frequency. Our findings led to identify high risk areas and develop predictive models. These are useful for public health stakeholders giving tolls to optimized resources aim to prevent leshmaniasis transmission on the area.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study is the first report of Spiroxys larvae parasitizing stomach and intestine of three fish species in stream of Caatinga domain, Northeast, Brazil. A total of 120 fish specimens, 40 of Astyanax bimaculatus, 40 of Hoplias malabaricus, and 40 of Hoplosternum littorale were examined for nematodes. A total of 633 specimens of Spiroxys larvae were recovered for the three fish species: 227 in A. bimaculatus (prevalence (%) = 48; mean abundance = 5.78 ± 1.78 (range = 0–70); and mean intensity = 11.95 ± 2.7 (range = 2–70)), 176 in H. malabaricus (prevalence (%) = 42.5; mean abundance = 4.40 ± 1.55 (range = 0–53); and mean intensity = 10.35 ± 2.38 (range = 2–53)) and 230 in H. littorale (prevalence (%) = 42.5; mean abundance = 5.75 ± 1.98 (range = 0–52); and mean intensity = 13.53 ± 3.04 (range = 1–52)). This study expands the range of the geographic distribution of nematodes of the genus Spiroxys and increase the list of hosts, as well as contributing to the knowledge of fish parasites biodiversity in Caatinga domain.
Abstract in English:Abstract It is well known that several of the swainsonine-containing plant species found widespread around the world have a negative economic impact in each country. In Argentina, most of the information on the poisonous plant species that produce α-mannosidosis is published in Spanish and thus not available to most English-speaking researchers interested in toxic plants. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize the information about swainsonine-containing plants in Argentina, which are extensively distributed throughout different ecoregions of the country. To date, five species from three genera have been shown to induce α-mannosidosis in livestock in Argentina: Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Ipomoea hieronymi subsp. calchaquina (Convolvulaceae), Astragalus garbancillo, Astragalus pehuenches (Fabaceae), and Sida rodrigoi (Malvaceae). These species contain the indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, which inhibits the lysosomal enzyme α-mannosidase and consequently affects glycoprotein metabolism, resulting in partially metabolized sugars. The prolonged consumption of these poisonous plants produces progressive weight loss and clinical signs related to a nervous disorder, characterized by tremors of head and neck, abnormalities of gait, difficulty in standing, ataxia and wide-based stance. Histological lesions are mainly characterized by vacuolation of different cells, especially neurons of the central nervous system. The main animal model used to study α-mannosidosis is the guinea pig because, when experimentally poisoned, it exhibits many of the characteristics of naturally intoxicated livestock.
Abstract in English:Abstract The horizontal distribution of plankton communities in a subtropical mixed estuarine system over one tidal cycle was investigated. Hydrological and planktonic samples were obtained twice on 17 July 2007 in a transect with ten stations in the Babitonga Bay estuary, south Brazil (~26°S). Hydrological variables did not vary spatially or tidally during samplings. However, in the cluster analyses both phyto and zooplankton were structured according to their estuarine position and in the inner stations also by the tidal condition. Phytoplankton abundances were higher during flood tide in the inner estuary (max. 122,583 ind.L-1), where diatoms dominated, particularly Diploneis bombus. However, the density at ebb tide increased towards outer estuary (max. >100,000 ind.L-1) and flagellates, mostly Gymnodinium spp., became abundant. Zooplankton abundances were higher at intermediate stations during both tides (max. 13,691 ind.m-3). The innermost stations were dominated by the copepod Acartia tonsa, while in the outermost stations Temora turbinata and the polychaete larvae Loimia sp. dominated. The results demonstrate how variable the estuarine plankton horizontal structure can be over short time-scales even in mixed estuarine systems under relatively homogeneous conditions, highlighting the importance to consider such temporal scales for a more accurate understanding of the dynamics of these communities.
Abstract in English:Abstract The combination of ethnobotanical and ecological knowledge is an important tool in indicating priority species for conservation. We sought to gather ethnobotanical knowledge on the diversity and use of woody medicinal plants in the Chapada Araripe region, assessing the real availability of woody medicinal resources in the Araripe Forests in the cerrado and carrasco areas, and indicate priority species for conservation. A total of 107 species were recorded in the ethnobotanical surveys, classified into 39 families and 83 genera, of which 92 species, 36 families and 70 genera for the cerrado areas, and 47 species, 25 families and 39 genera, for the carrasco areas. 59% were present in the phytosociological surveys for cerrado and 38% for carrascos. Species with high versatility of medicinal use did not necessarily have high local availability, and some were not recorded in the sampling. Thirteen species in cerrados and four in carrascos were indicated as conservation priorities. Use not aligned of species with the reality of the present time can indeed affect the vegetation landscape, and in a future scenario, not taking local measures to conserve protected forest resources, besides increasing the lists of local conservation priorities, can affect economic practices, increasing social and environmental conflicts.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of the present work was the molecular characterization of 11 parents and 101 hybrid progenies of conilon coffee, obtained through diallel crosses from the breeding program of the Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural (Incaper, ES, Brazil). The analyses were performed with 18 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) molecular markers, obtaining a total of 32 alleles. SSR markers were classified as moderately informative (PIC = 0.37), being efficient in characterizing individuals. High genetic diversity was verified in the 112 genotypes, based on the greater values of observed heterozygosity about to the expected heterozygosity (0.55 and 0.44, respectively), negative values for the fixation index (F) (-0.14), and the formation of distinct groups by UPGMA. These results indicate high genetic variability among the conilon coffee genitors, which remained similar and persisting in the progenies. The average dissimilarity between parents was 0.29 and between progenies 0.34. The progenies 38 and 40 and the parent P11 were considered the most divergent in the study. The genetic variability found can be explored in the genetic breeding of the conilon coffee and guide crossings between diversified and compatible genetic materials, for the composition of novel cultivars for the state of Espírito Santo.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids in circulating blood and in the ovarian follicular fluid of mares, after supplementation of the diet with linseed oil. Six Mangalarga Marchador mares, weighing 397.00±31.89 kg, were kept on native pasture, and assigned to the current study. In a switch over design, mares were randomly allocated to receive 150 ml of vegetable oil daily, containing polyunsaturated fatty acids n3 (62.23 g ALA, 20.34 g LA, 2.27 g EPA, 2.32 g DHA), (n=3) or no supplementation (n=3) in two replicates. Blood and follicular fluid samples were taken on the first day (D0) and every 30 days until the end of the supplementation period (D60). After 60 days of supplementation, mares were switched across the treatments. Plasma concentrations of linolenic acid in total fatty acids were higher (P=0.006) in the supplemented compared to the control group (1.89±0.13 vs. 1.49±0.13%). There were positive correlations between plasma linoleic acid and follicular fluid arachidonic acid (P=0.0106; r2=0.13) and between plasma alpha linolenic acid and follicular fluid EPA (P=0.0004; r2=0.2544). Data indicated a low to moderate relationship between the dietary linseed-based oil supplementation studied and circulating and follicular fluid polyunsaturated fatty acids contents in mares.
Abstract in English:Abstract The characterization and conservation of castor accessions in germplasm bank are essential in order to breeding programs achieve its goals. Despite Brazil having the 4th largest castor germplasm bank in the world, castor diversity in Brazil remains little explored. Thus, this study aimed at characterize castor accessions collected in different Brazilian regions by means of 31 morphoagronomic traits and gray mold reaction. Forty accessions of the Universidade do Estado de São Paulo (UNESP), Botucatu, SP, Brazil, germplasm bank were evaluated. Genetic parameters were estimated for the quantitative traits, and the accessions were grouped by Ward method using the standardized Euclidean distance and the simple coincidence index for quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative traits were important to understand and differentiate castor accessions. The accessions showed a high variation regarding the castor gray mold reaction. The accessions assessed in this study have been preserved and can be used as a source for genetic variability in the development of new castor varieties in breeding programs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Land use systems have a great impact on soil function and microbial diversity in tropical soils. Our study aimed to evaluate soil biochemical indicators and community composition and to assess the relationship between soil biochemical and microbial indicators and bacterial diversity of three agroecosystems (pine forest, soya and sugarcane) and native Cerrado forest in the Brazilian savanna. Soil biochemical indicators (soil organic matter and enzymes) and high-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA were performed in two topsoil depths (0-5 cm and 5-10 cm). Soil microbial and enzyme activity showed that agricultural soil usage has a negative impact on soil function compared to native and pine forests. Results also revealed higher enzyme activities in 0-5 cm depth compared to 5-10 cm depth, but enzymatic activities depend on land use systems. Soil bacterial community was affected by land use systems and depth, revealing changes in structure and abundance of bacterial composition. Alpha-diversity indexes were higher in the agricultural systems than in the forests, however they showed a significant negative correlation with most of the studied soil microbial and biochemical indicators. Our research had brought new relevant information about the relationship between the soil biochemical indicators and the bacterial diversity in the Brazilian Cerrado.
Abstract in English:Abstract Fire risk mapping is a basic planning and protection element. This study presents the application of fuzzy logic in a geographic information system (GIS) as an alternative multi-criteria analysis for determining the areas of highest risk of forest fire in natural forest remnants in the Brazil. In the decision-making process, a set of factors that are relevant to fire safety were identified in the study area. For each input variable chosen for the model, a pertinence function was defined that best described its influence on fire risk. Subsequently, the variables were combined for the presentation of the final fire risk map. Concluded in the study that an increased risk of fire occurs at the wildland - urban interface. A strong relationship was observed between the fire ignition points and proximity to roads and urban areas. The proposed model was efficient to integrate the variables and determine areas of greatest risk.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pinus greggii has potential for inclusion in temperate zone breeding programs around the world as it is frost resistant and produces high yields for pulp production. This study estimates the genetic parameters for two P. greggii progeny tests established in Telêmaco Borba, Paraná, Brazil. We evaluated diameter at breast height (DBH) and total height (H) at seven and nine years of age. The narrow-sense heritability (hi2) ranged from 0.225 (H, 7 years) to 0.515 (H, 9 years). The genetic correlation was high for all traits, reaching up to 0.91 between traits and 0.94 between ages. In addition, the results show the presence of Genotype x Environment interaction, and as such, the most productive and stable progeny were identified based on the Harmonic Mean of the Relative Performance of Genetic Values (MHPRVG) values. These population has genetic materials that are superior in terms of both DBH and H compared to the control and to P. greggii materials analyzed internationally. Our results contribute to the literature by providing further genetic information on this species, while also demonstrating the implications of thinning for genetic gains and effective population size.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this research, the effects of different homogenization pressure levels (15, 40, 15/3 and 40/8 MPa) and heat treatments (95°C for 90 s and 300 s) of milk containing 1.5 and 2.5% of fat on some physical properties of ayran were investigated during storage at 4°C for 30 days. The individual effects of fat content of milk, homogenization, heat treatment, and storage period on the syneresis, apparent viscosity, consistency constant and thixotropy values of the ayran samples were statistically significant. Based on the results of rheological analysis, the power law model was more appropriate for all ayran samples.
Abstract in English:Abstract Soy sauce wastewater has been produced in soy sauce production and consumption. To reuse this kind of water resource, the chemical oxygen demand (COD), colority should be removed or lowered. Biomimetic dynamic membrane (BDM), GO&Laccase@UF membrane, was prepared by filtering mixture of graphene oxide (GO) and laccase through ultrafiltration (UF) membrane. Compared to UF membrane, the prepared BDM showed great performance in removal of COD and colority, due to the higher laccase activity with existence of GO. The removal rate of colority reached ~80% by one step filtration operation. Moreover, the multiple cycle test evidenced that the value of COD and colority in the permeate after 5 consecutive cycles with the same GO&Laccase@UF membrane still meet the standard for reuse water. This work indicates the promising of BDM for wastewater from food industry.
Abstract in English:Abstract In order to contribute to the management of small-scale trawling fishing of the Xiphopenaeus kroyeri shrimp, the aim of this study was to evaluate the local ecological knowledge (LEK) and the conservationist attitudes of artisanal fishers in four fishing communities along the central Brazilian coast. This study was based on 80 ethnographic interviews conducted in two communities are in the state of Bahia (Santa Cruz Cabrália and Barra de Caravelas) and two communities in the state of Espírito Santo (Barra Nova and Anchieta). The fishers present knowledge compliance with literature, except in aspects reproductive of the shrimp and are willing to exchange knowledge with researchers. The mean attitude index of the fishers was 0.65. Education activities should focus on the reproductive biology of shrimp to include fishing communities in the drafting of legislation about closed season period, as this issue is directly related to possible divergences between fishers do not adhere to them. The results suggest that, dialogue and knowledge exchange is necessary among the stakeholders, including the fishers, scientists and managers, who are responsible for the elaboration of management measures.
Abstract in English:Abstract The issue of publication of articles by researchers in the universe of scientific publications, has become over the last decades, increasingly asymmetrical among the parties involved (author, Author’s institution, Development agencies, Magazine / Publisher, and referees). Here, I analyzed to what extent are all the parts involved in the process of scientific publication equally balanced, and the gains and losses among parts involved during the process. The analysis points that the gains and losses among parts involved are quite asymmetric. I conclude that there are advantages, disadvantages and costs that should be addressed at a global level to better balance the process of publication and that should have some adjustments to better balance of the parts involved in the process. All parts involved should search for a more equilibrated system of publishing, since, now, the system is strongly asymmetric among the parts involved in scientific publication. It is clear is that this is not a simple subject, but possible changes are quite simple and desirable.
Abstract in English:Abstract The transformation of women’s role in society has been systematically studied. Numerous authors point out that among the factors of extreme relevance to this fact, the main is the increased presence of women in the formal job market. Researches also reveal that the increase in quantity is not reflected equally in all productive sectors nor the egalitarian occupation of high hierarchical positions. The present study aimed to analyze how the presence of women, especially in leadership positions, has evolved at the Brazilian Federal Agency for the Support and Evaluation of Postgraduate Education (CAPES) and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) over the last 20 years. For these analyzes, surveys were conducted in the people management systems of the Brazilian Federal Public Administration. The initial hypothesis was that female attendance had increased in both the total number of female servants and in management and auxiliary positions, known as DAS in Brazil; however, evidence shows that women reduced overall agency presence, especially in the number of female Analysts occupying DAS positions. These results indicate that the misogyny observed in the academic sphere of the Brazilian National Postgraduate and Science, Technology, and Innovation systems are replicated in the politic-bureaucratic sphere that manages and sponsors these systems.
Abstract in English:Abstract Despite the progress observed in recent years, women are still underrepresented in science worldwide, especially at top positions. Many factors contribute to women progressively leaving academia at different stages of their career, including motherhood, harassment and conscious and unconscious discrimination. Implicit bias plays a major negative role in recognition, promotions and career advancement of female scientists. Recently, a rank of the most influential scientists in the world was created based on several metrics, including the number of published papers and citations. Here, we analyzed the representation of Brazilian scientists in this rank, focusing on gender. Female Brazilian scientists are greatly underrepresented in the rank (11% in the Top 100,000; 18% in the Top 2%). Possible reasons for this observed scenario are related to the metrics used to rank scientists, which reproduce and amplify the well-known implicit bias in peer-review and citations. Male scientists have more self-citation than female scientists and positions in the rank varied when self-citations were included, suggesting that self-citation by male scientists increases their visibility. Discussions on the repercussions of such ranks are pivotal to avoid deepening the gender gap in science.